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Penaeid shrimp production is under continuous threat from bacterial and particularly viral infections which have caused disastrous collapses of the industry in all major shrimp producing countries. Disease problems in shrimp production are complex and often still poorly understood. Regulations, consumer demands and sustainable management strategies restrict the number of drugs available to treat pathogens. Vaccines are likely to be ineffective in crustaceans, which lack a specific immune system similar to that of vertebrates. Therefore, shrimp producers must consider the seed stock quality, husbandry procedures and healthy nutrition as the major tools to control disease. The current article reports on recent progress in the development of feed additives capable of reducing the impact of diseases on productivity and profitability in shrimp farming.