May | June 2013Niacin: one of the key B vitamins forsustaining healthy fish growth andproductionThe International magazine...
Providing proficient tools to achieve cost-effective and sustainable aquaculture practicesCentral Office and OrdersJesús A...
In	 1951	 Dr	 John	 E	 Halver	 of	 the	School	 of	 Fisheries	 Science,	 University	of	 Washington,	 USA	 presented	 the	‘m...
REALBREWERS’YEAST“Made inGermany”For Leiber`s specialty yeast products,“Made in Germany”is a seal of quality.Multibiotic e...
otide	(NAD),	and	niacinamide	adenine	dinu-cleotide	phosphate	(NADP)	that	are	involved	in	 numerous	 enzymatic	 pathways	 e...
carbohydrate.	 In	 general,	 certain	 warm	water	fish,	namely	carnivorous	species,	uti-lise	 dietary	 carbohydrate	 poorly...
It	is	evident	that	the	vitamin	requirements	of	 fish	 are	 subject	 to	 numerous	 factors.	Recent	 advances	 in	 our	 unde...
www.aquafeed.co.ukLINKS•	 See the full issue•	 Visit the International Aquafeed website•	 Contact the International Aquafe...
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Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

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In 1951 Dr John E Halver of the School of Fisheries Science, University of Washington, USA presented the ‘model semi-purified fish diet’ to the aquatic nutrition research community. This innovation allowed for the proliferation of deficiency studies with mainly salmonid fish such as rainbow trout and Pacific salmon to evaluate the significance of vitamins in complete diets for cultured fish.

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Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

  1. 1. May | June 2013Niacin: one of the key B vitamins forsustaining healthy fish growth andproductionThe International magazine for the aquaculture feed industryInternational Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058INCORPORATINGf ish farming technolog y
  2. 2. Providing proficient tools to achieve cost-effective and sustainable aquaculture practicesCentral Office and OrdersJesús Aprendiz, 19. 1º A-B28007 MadridT. +34 915 014 041norel@norel.es www.norel.esAqua RangeFUNGINAT AQUAECOBIOL AQUAAQUABONDGLYMET MIX AQUA AQUANOXGUSTOR AQUAQUABONDGUSTOR AQUAAQUANOX
  3. 3. In 1951 Dr John E Halver of the School of Fisheries Science, University of Washington, USA presented the ‘model semi-purified fish diet’ to the aquatic nutrition research community. This innovation allowed for the proliferation of deficiency studies with mainly salmonid fish such as rainbow trout and Pacific salmon to evaluate the significance of vitamins in complete diets for cultured fish. With such an ‘ideal’ diet, vitamins could easily be assayed by using this vitamin test diet, consisting of ‘vitamin free’ carbohydrate and protein sources i.e. casein, purified gelatin, potato starch, hydrogenated cotton seed oil, alpha-cellulose flour, minerals, cod liver oil, combined with crystalline vitamins. Each vita-min could then be systematically assessed by selective exclusion from this advanced basal diet formulation. The water soluble vitamins such as the B-complex and especially vitamin C (ascorbate) were all found to be essential in fish as in other terrestrial animals of com-mercial importance and indeed having the same basic functions as in humans. The role of niacin (vitamin B3) is no less important within aquatic species; as fish farming became more prevalent, the health status of stocks fluctu-ated due to the wide spectrum of feed for-mulations at that time. A number of nega-tive symptoms were attributed to niacin deficiency and steps were taken to protect against them based on early evidence. In the 1940s and 1950s fish were found to have a loss of appetite and poor food conversion (food intake to body weight ratio) that progressed into a darker skin colour, anorexia, posterior gut lesions, oedema of the stomach and intestine, erratic motion and at-rest muscle spasms. In the late 1950s and 1960s, a predilection to sunburn in fish was discovered and, in carp, subcutaneous haem-orrhages developed under chronic and acute niacin deficiency.In the 1970s, eels were found to develop skin lesions and display erratic swimming, while lesions, deformed jaws, and anaemia were discovered in catfish, Ictalarus punctatus. The period from 1980 to date encompassed a series of investigations that augments earlier knowledge, but there have been relatively few studies in the early 21st century except for the work of Shaik Mohammed et al. (2001) where pathological effects of niacin deficiency similar to this described above were reported from studies with Indian catfish (Heteropneustesfossilis). Metabolic considerationsExogenous proteins within the diet supply the metabolic pool with essential and non-essential amino acids. Among these is tryp-tophan which has considerable importance in fish nutrition. In mammals, there is a recog-nised and documented conversion pathway from tryptophan to niacin, thus allowing tryp-tophan, and proteins rich in tryptophan, to be an important reservoir for niacin biosynthesis. Although the essential amino acid tryp-tophan is a precursor of niacin, this endog-enous synthesis, comprising 13 steps in a metabolic sequence is not deemed efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60 mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1 mg of niacin and this ratio varies consider-ably within different vertebrate groups.Fish, however, may even lack this conver-sion capacity or have very a poor efficacy for this metabolic pathway. By supplementing both a niacin deficient and niacin complete diet with varying amounts of tryptophan, it was previously determined that tryptophan levels have no effect on niacin accumulation. Serrano and Nagayama (1991) found that the 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) to picolinic acid carbolase (PC) activity ratio in rainbow trout suggested an ineffective conversion from tryptophan to niacin. This finding will help explain higher niacin requirements for some fish, as others do carry the capacity in some degree but this cannot be an insurance against providing a separate dietary supply. Niacin and niacinamide are required by all living cells and their chemi-cal structure is depicted in Figure 1. They are essential com-ponents of two coenzymes, niacinamide adenine dinucle-Niacin: one of the key Bvitamins for sustaining healthyfish growth and production by Simon J Davies and Mark Rawling, Aquaculture Nutrition & Health Group, PlymouthUniversity, United KingdomNicotinic Acid NicotinamideFigure 1: Niacin in its two biologically active forms as presented to fish for assimilation20 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013FEATURE
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  5. 5. otide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinu-cleotide phosphate (NADP) that are involved in numerous enzymatic pathways especially those involving energy mediation and protein synthesis and degradation. More than 40 biochemical reactions have been identified as being dependent on these coenzymes as co-factors. Their major function is the removal of hydrogen from specific substrates and the transfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. Reactions in which NAD and NADP are involved include the metabolism of carbohy-drates, lipids and proteins at the cross roads of metabolism and vital for energy production from these nutrients and protein turnover. With respect to genomic stability, the need for niacin seems most imminent when the organism is under genotoxic or oxida-tive stress, with particular reference to UV exposure of the animal (Hageman & Stierum, 2001). A deficiency of niacin will result in an increase or disrepair of DNA nicks within chromosomes, and consequent increase in chromosomal breakage, and a heightened sensitivity to mutagens (Fenech, 2002). In general, fish with niacin deficiencies displayed an increased risk of sunburn when under even natural UV radiation. In the expanding aquaculture industry, feed conversion ratios must be optimised in order for production costs to be min-imised. Greater efficiency present throughout cultur-ing conditions will lead to shorter growing time and a greater demand for micro-nutrients such as vitamins. Surplus nutrients, such as vitamins supplied above lev-els useful to the species, can be removed from the diet if exact requirements are met. In the past, many vitamins have been included in excess of recommended levels to be certain that the requirements were fully complied (NRC 2011). However, studies have reported excess niacin can inhibit growth (Poston & Lorenzo, 1973; Poston & Combs, 1980); conversely, sub-optimal absorption of nutrients can be avoided if requirements are correctly defined and adequately presented in feed. For maximal efficiency of production, target provisions of all essential nutrients, as specified through research, must be provided through additional mineral and vitamin sup-plementation. If levels are unknown, further research is needed to clarify the degree of vitamin fortification necessary to maintain health and production for all phases of rearing and conditions.In relation to the other water-soluble vitamins, niacin requirements in fish procure a ranking amongst the highest needs, with the exception of choline (NRC, 2011). While many other vitamins are synthesised from precursor compounds obtained through feed ingredients, in aquatic animals, niacin is usually obtained solely through niacin presented in the diet.Niacin requirementsCaution must be expressed due to the variety of methodological approaches used in ascertaining vitamin requirement levels. In many cases, age and genetic strain of the spe-cies varies together with the pre-nutritional history of the aquatic animal under investiga-tion. In particular, the nature of the carbohy-drate component employed in experimental diets is not fully reported in the scientific literature. For example, it is well known that the carbohydrate level and complexity may influence the requirement of niacin in terms of processing of dietary energy (Shiau & Suen, 1992). This may be evident when raw materi-als are subjected to extrusion processing in which carbohydrates such as starch in cereals may undergo gelatinisation yielding dextrin and thereby increasing the digestible energy value of the carbohydrate fraction. It was found that for hybrid tilapia that the niacin requirements for fish fed glucose or dextrin as the carbohydrate energy source was 26 and 125 mg/Kg diet respectively. Previous formulations of fish diets often failed to address the true bioavailability of micronutrients present in fish feed ingredients pursuant to a limited common database describing this knowledge. The general niacin requirements for different species are shown in Figure 2 and these vary considerably depending on many factors. Dietary require-ments have been reported to range from just 1-5 mg per kg of feed for rainbow trout to 150-200 mg for pacific salmon and 14 mg per kg for channel catfish. Clearly much will depend on the carnivo-rous, omnivorous or herbivorous nature of the fish species in question and rearing condi-tions. Investigations on Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by Morris and Davies (1995) and by Morris et al. (1995), where the quali-tative and quantitative requirements for this important marine fish were first established using semi-purified diet ingredients similar to the Halver concept. The minimum nicotinic acid requirement for sea bream was determined to be 52 mg/Kg to achieve optimum growth performance and 25 mg/kg for normal haematological bal-ance and liver to body weight ratio. In 1997, Shiau reported parallelism between the niacin requirement of warm water fish and a varying source of dietary Figure 2: Niacin requirements for selected aquaticanimal species (from compiled literature sources)May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 21FEATUREHatchery Feeds Factory direct and distributor sales.Experts in international logistics.| The easiest to use,cleanest and most effective feeds on the marketProviding SuperiorFeedsforSuperior Results®Reed Mariculture IncInstant Algae®single species, blends and custom feedsRotiGrow®grow-out, enrichment and greenwater feedsShellfish Diet® for all stages from D-Larvae tobroodstockInstant Zooplankton® clean Mini-L160 rotifers andParvocalanus copepod culturesOtohime®premium Japanese larval andweaning feeds;17sizes from 75µm to10mmTDO™ top-dressed with Haematococcus, naturalstimulants, and more!ClorAm-X®detoxifies and removes ammonia,chlorine and chloramines in fresh and salt water10 Liter Cubitainer 1 kg BagTOLL-FREE: 1-877-732-3276 | VOICE: 408-377-1065 | FAX: 408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.comMICROALGAL, LARVAL & WEANING FEEDS AND PRODUCTION PRODUCTS©2012-2013ReedMariculture,Inc.AllRightsreserved.InstantAlgae,InstantZooplankton,RotiGrow,ShellfishDiet,and“ProvidingSuperiorFeedsforSuperiorResults”aretrademarksorregisteredtrademarksofReedMaricultureInc.Allothertrademarksarethepropertyoftheirrespectiveowners.Hatchery Feeds
  6. 6. carbohydrate. In general, certain warm water fish, namely carnivorous species, uti-lise dietary carbohydrate poorly and it is recognised that carbohydrate obtained from different sources may not be equally available to all fish of the same species. There is merit for consideration of the changes in protein level, quality, and protein to energy ratio for optimum vitamin levels to be recommended. Modern fish diets are much higher in energy, presented as oil for carnivorous fish, whilst carbohydrate in the form of starch is quite acceptable for omni-vores such as tilapia and carp. Niacin is given special importance in this area due to its relevancy in the metabolism of protein and the release of energy from these nutrients as stated previously. However implications towards dietary requirement and variability, warrants a need to establish additional scientific information regarding the digestibility of niacin and sub-sequent availability coefficients within varying diets formulations based on practical ingre-dients. From the data of Ng et al. (1998), it was suggested that niacin supplementation can be reduced to a more efficient level due to the relatively high amount of biologically available niacin found in typical feed ingredients used in modern fish feed formulations. However, the provisions may not be adequate to meet current safety margins to guarantee production and health criteria for all spe-cies. Also, the inability to utilise particular fish feeds due to varying dietary constraints would justify continued supplementation and refinement. In addition, it was found that the bioavailability of niacin increased by some 57 percent when corn meal was extrusion cooked rather than administered in the diet in its native form. This suggests that processing technology is an important area for further investigation for determining the optimum inclusion levels of niacin for a range of aquatic species. Stability and processing lossesNiacin is regarded as a highly stable vitamin in animal nutrition and is usually added to feed as nicotinic acid or nicotinamide within the vitamin premix formulations within a dry mixture with a carrier material along with other vitamins and possibly mineral supple-ments as well.The advent of high energy and nutrient dense feeds in many countries engaged in intensive fish farming operations has also placed a higher burden on maintaining the health of fish, whilst promoting faster growth rates and efficient feed utilisation. The use of expanded and extruded feeds offer more scope in feeding management but may greatly influence the levels of vitamins available to fish under various conditions. Extrusion of diets has the tendency to reduce the activity of vitamins especially those within the water soluble class and the processing of raw materi-als may lead to serious losses. Generally this is in the order of 10-20 percent for most vita-mins reported (Tacon, 1985, Gabaudan and Hardy, 2000). Further reductions are caused by storage of pelleted feed and this may result in impairment to fish health and production efficiency over extended time. Future perspectiveIndeed, the movement towards new fish species in aquaculture such as flounders; turbot, sole and halibut as well as sea bass and sea bream in Europe, cobia in the USA and Brazil have generated considerable interest in producing specific diets that can meet their individual requirements for growth, development and health. Much is known about the gross nutritional requirements of these emerging species but little on vitamins, especially niacin. Intensive rearing conditions (i.e. UV light exposure to outdoor pens) and husbandry related factors may adversely affect the physiological status of fish and induce metabolic stress causing tissue dam-age and impaired performance. The potential of niacin supplementation in reducing such effects could prove a valuable area for future investigation. 22 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013FEATURE
  7. 7. It is evident that the vitamin requirements of fish are subject to numerous factors. Recent advances in our understanding of aquatic animal biochemistry and physiology together with aquafeed technology increase the advantageous value of a thorough re-examination of the vitamin requirements of fish. This is particularly pertinent for niacin given its role in aquatic animal nutrition. There is a paucity of information in the literature for niacin in fish compared to other vitamins, and this matter needs to be addressed in the light of new candidate species for aquaculture and changing feed formulations where plant by products are increasingly being incorporated.Selected ReferencesFenech, M. (2002). “Genomic Stability: a new paradigm for recommended dietary allowances (RDA’s).” Food and Chemical Toxicology. vol. 40. pp 1113-1117. Gaubadan, J and Hardy R. W. (2000). Vitamin sources for fish feeds pp, 961-965 In Encyclopaedia for Aquaculture, R. R. Stickney, Editor, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Hageman, G.J. and Stierum, R.H. (2001). “Niacin, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability.” Mutation Research. – Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutation. vol 475. nos 1-2. pp 45-56. Halver, J.E. (1957). “Nutrition of salmonid fishes: 3. Water-soluble vitamin requirements of Chinook salmon.” Journal of Nutrition. vol. 62. pp. 225-43. Halver, J.E., (Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. (Editors). Fish Nutrition. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Academic Press, 2002. Morris, P.C. and Davies, S.J. (1995) The requirement of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L). for nicotinic acid. Animal Science, 61: 437-443Morris, P.C. Davies, S.J. and Lowe, D.M. (1995) Qualitative requirements for B vitamin in diets for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) Animal Science, 61; 419-426.Ng, W.K, Serrini, G., Zhang, Z and Wilson, R.P. (1997) “Niacin requirement and inability of tryptophan to act as a precursor of NAD+ in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus” Aquaculture. vol. 154. nos. 1-4. pp 273-285. NRC (2011) “Nutrient Requirements of Fish,” NAS/NRC, Academic Press, Washington D.C.Poston, H.A. (1969) “The effect of excess levels of niacin on the lipid metabolism of fingerling brook trout.” In: Fisheries Research Bulletin, Albany, N.Y.: State of New York Conservation Department. no. 32. pp. 9-12. Poston, H.A. and DiLorenzo, R.N. (1973) “Tryptophan conversion to niacin in the brook trout (Salvelinus pontinalis).” Proceedings. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 140. pp. 110-12. Poston, H.A. and Combs, G.F. (1980) “Nutritional implications of tryptophan catabolising enzymes in several species of trout of salmon,” Proceedings. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 163. pp. 452-454.Poston, H.A., and Wolfe, M.J. (1985). “Niacin requirement for optimum growth, feed conversion and protection of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri from ultraviolet-B irradiation” Journal of Fish Diseases. vol 8. no. 5. pp. 451-460.Serrano, A.E. and Nagayama, F. (1991). “Liver 3-hyroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase activity in rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss).” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. vol. 99. no. 2. pp. 275-280. Shaik Mohammed, and Ibrahim, A. (2001) Quantifying the niacin requirement of the Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) (Bloch), fingerlings, Aquaculture Research, 32: 157-162.Shiau, S.Y., and Suen, G.S. (1992) “Estimation of the niacin requirements for tilapia fed diets containing glucose or dextrin.” Journal of Nutrition. vol .122. no. 10. pp. 2030-6.Tacon, A.G.J. (1985) Nutritional fish pathology: morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish.” Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme. ADCP/REP/85/22. More InforMatIon:Email: simond@aquafeed.co.ukWebsite: http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pages/view.asp?page=32557May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 23FEATUREWE’RE ON OUR WAY TO YOU!Check out our website forevents happening near you!www.tour2013.orgCALLING ALL PRODUCERS!Apply now for the G.A.P. Awards 2013Deadline: 31 July 2013Visit our website for more details: www.globalgap.orgNEXT STOP: VIETVISH 201325-27 Jun 2013 | Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamTOUR2013May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 41FEATURECLOSER LOOKtake aat Novus Aquaculture® is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITYis a trademark of Novus International, Inc. ©2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978www.novusint.com/aquaFEED COST REDUCTION | HEALTH THROUGH NUTRITION | OPTIMIZED RAW MATERIALS | FUNCTIONAL FEEDS | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICESOur success in developing sustainablesolutions evolves from a hands-on knowledgeand understanding of the global aquaindustry. By focusing on the needs of theanimals, our team of experts will design asolution for your operation.International Aquafeed has teamed up with www.lurestore.com to offer our readers a 15% discountThe world’s finest brass-based fishing luresmanufactured by hand in New ZealandYour order will be processed and dispatched from our production unit within 24 hoursEven fi sh farmers like fi shing!www.lurestore.comA & AJ Gilbert Fishing Tackle, New ZealandREF: IAF303-PPLPlace your order today atSPANISHLANGUAGEEDITIONwww.aquafeed.coEDICIONESPANOLA
  8. 8. www.aquafeed.co.ukLINKS• See the full issue• Visit the International Aquafeed website• Contact the International Aquafeed Team• Subscribe to International AquafeedThey are what they eatEnhancing the nutritional value of live feedswith microalgaeControlling mycotoxins withbindersUltravioletwater disinfection for fishfarms and hatcheriesNiacin– one of the key B vitamins for sustaininghealthy fish growth and productionVolume 16 Issue 3 2013 - mAY | Ju NeINCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGyThis digital re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of InternationalAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com.To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE

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