New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease


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In our previous article in International Aquafeed (vol. 16, issue 2, March/April 2013, 22-24), the concept of sustainable production of functional fish feeds and hence fish was introduced. Our work focuses on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and how we can produce sustainably functional fish feeds and hence fish with enhanced cardioprotective activities. Even today, it is still not entirely clear why some cohorts in the seven countries study had coronary heart disease (CHD) at low frequencies but high levels of serum cholesterol (Keys et al., 1984). In our everyday practice as nutritionists and aquaculturists, this question needs to be addressed: do we really need to lower our serum cholesterol in order to protect ourselves from CHD and CVDs?

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New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y November | December 2013 New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
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  3. 3. FEATURE New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease by Constantina Nasopoulou, post-doctoral researcher, and Ioannis Zabetakis, assistant professor, University of Athens, Greece I n our previous article in International Aquafeed (vol. 16, issue 2, March/April 2013, 22-24), the concept of sustainable production of functional fish feeds and hence fish was introduced. Our work focuses on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and how we can produce sustainable, functional fish feeds and hence fish with enhanced cardioprotective activities. Even today, it is still not entirely clear why some cohorts in the seven countries study had coronary heart disease (CHD) at low frequencies but high levels of serum cholesterol (Keys et al., 1984). In our everyday practice as nutritionists and aquaculturists, this question needs to be addressed: do we really need to lower our serum cholesterol in order to protect ourselves from CHD and CVDs? Fish instead of statins? In a related recent study assessing the association of various statins to diabetes, it was found that higher potency statins, especially atorvastatin and simvastatin, might be associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (Carter et al., 2013). Given this recent evidence on the side effects of statins, we might need to wonder: do we really need statins or would we be better protected by food polar lipids? And if so, how can we use different raw ingredients and feed formulations in order to produce novel functional fish feeds and fish against CVDs? In this way, a double gain is sought: creating novel functional feeds and food by simultaneously lowering our dependency on medicines. CVDs are now preventable but they are still the top global cause of death and stroke affecting millions of people around the globe. Given their link to diet and nutritional patterns, CVDs are on the focal point for many pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food companies. On the other hand, food availability and food sustainability are top priorities worldwide. Let us remind ourselves that the term ‘food security’ has two dimensions: first, it implies that food is available, accessible, and affordable in sufficient quantity and quality. Second, it implies an assurance that this state of affairs can reasonably be expected to continue; or in other words, that it can be sustained. It is, thus, rather urgent to focus research in Life Sciences on food functionality against CVDs and how we can achieve such functionality in a sustainable way. An interdisciplinary approach is urgently needed: we need indeed to address the issues of food security and cardioprotection simultaneously. The reason is simple: sardine oil has some strong cardioprotective properties (Nasopoulou et al., 2013b) but if we keep fishing wild sardines, the sardine stocks will be depleted and soon we will not have enough sardine oil to produce fish oil for aquaculture, or omega-3 pills for the pharmacy shelf! So, we need to re-evaluate our practices. The projected increase in world population and therefore demand for food in the fore- seeable future poses some risks on how secure is the food production system today. Millions of people are threatened by malnutrition, CVDs, diabetes, and obesity. This is a multidimensional challenge: the production of food needs to be increased but also the quality of food needs to be improved so less people suffer from undernourishment and CVDs. This problem needs to be evaluated by critically assessing all recent developments on the role of food components against CVDs, presenting recent insights for assessing the nutritional value of food and suggesting novel approaches toward the sustainable production of food that would, in turn, lead to increased food security. We need to tackle the issue of the sustainability of lipid sources and GM crops from a food security point of view, with ‘sustainability’ and ‘functionality’ as our two main priorities (Zabetakis, 2013). What is olive pomace? Olive pomace (OP) is one of two major byproducts of the olive oil extraction industry when using the three-phase centrifugal technology, the other being the olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Thus OP is a natural agricultural byproduct of olive oil production. The modern two-phase centrifugal extraction technology - a more efficient and environmentally friendly centrifugation process merges OP with OMWW to produce a single byproduct named olive mill waste (OMW), containing higher moisture and lower oil content compared to the traditional three-phase centrifugal technology byproduct. 28 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2013
  4. 4. FEATURE FEATURE table 6: Wheatproduction of olive oil is estiThe annual flour mated to be at leastflour million tonnes with Wheat 2.9 afla Zen some 15 million tonnes of OMW being pronumber tests 172 341 duced annually. InofMediterranean countries, the productionpositive (%) been a major part of olives has 5 Percentage of 31 of the agricultural (µg/kg) of these countries average produce 0 38 for many decades (if not centuries). For every Maximum (µg/kg) 11.1 2,991 100 kg of olives, 35 kg of OP are produced; it could, thus, be suggested that the production table 7: rice bran of OMW and OP are sustainable and the rice use afla availability of OP forbran in any type ofZen feed production and thus aquaculture should be number of tests 22 22 straightforward. OP is not expensive (€0.1Percentage of positive (%) 45 41 0.2/kg), it is thus a price-competitive raw 1.5 ingredientaverage (µg/kg)other vegetable56 compared to oils. Maximum the fact 61 165 This cost linked to(µg/kg) that 4 to 8 percent of OP is needed to be included in the fish indicated that processed products are increasfeed formulation make OP as a promising lipid ing the risk of mycotoxin source for aquaculture. contamination in the feeds. Afla,the problem of presented higher Finally, ZEN and OTA transferring OP contaminations (18 percent, 19 percent, and from Mediterranean countries to northern 26 percent, to other places of the world Europe or respectively) in soybean meal. In be rationalised by extracting the polar could regards to wheat flour, ZEN and DON were of most prevalent mycotoxins with 31 lipids the OP that they are the active feed percent and and therefore reducing the components 70 percent of positive samples and average levels that ppb to 842 ppb, volume of material of 38 needsand be transrespectively. ported (Nasopoulou and Zabetakis, 2013). Finally, rice bran was mostly contaminated with Afla, ZEN fish OTA testing fish OP-enriched and feeds and positive at Thepercent, 41 focus in and 32 percent, 45 research percent our group has respectively. Levels commercial DON have been towards the of 100 ppb ofexploitation been in order cause harmful effects in of OPreported to to produce novel func- tional feeds and hence food. OP table 1: Chemical composition of olive pomace (oP) and is now used in several agricultural Don FUM ota Co-occurance fish oil (Fo) diet (% wet weight) (nasopoulou et al., 2013a) and aquacultural applications with oP diet Fo diet * 434 189 186 promising results. The novelty of Ingredient our approach though 13 that we is 70 10 are not only 33 interested 0 produc- Crude protein in 44.95 ± 1.3 46 ± 4.3 842 ing (novel) fish but also we are Fat 19.4 ± 1.7 21 ± 2.1 12,000 2,273 30 assessing the nutritional value of Moisture 8.6 ± 0.6 9.1 ± 1.3 this (novel) fish in terms of cardio1.8 ± 0.3† Dietary fibre 5.2 ± 0.3† protection, aiming, ultimately, in Don Co-occurance1.4 6.0 ± 0.9 8.3 ± creating andFUM patenting ota func- ash novel 21.8 ± 2.1 23 ± 2.6 tional fish feeds, fish and health energy (MJ/Kg) 22 21 22 supplements. Protein digestibility (%) 89 ± 4.4 90 ± 6.2 18 24 32 In detail, two diets have been † 20 000 ± 410† Vitamin a (IU/Kg) 7 000 ± 210 128.2 181 compared: one being the1.3 commercial Vitamin D (IU/Kg) 3 150 ± 110 3 000 ± 120 648 220 1.7 one for gilthead sea bream (Sparus † 258 ± 19† 180 ±17 aurata) called fish oil diet (FO diet) Vitamin e (mg/Kg) trout and shrimp. Similar or (8 per- Vitamin aquaculture farms must † developed7.3† 10 ± 0.7 be 33 ± to miniand the novel one where OP even higher levelsK3 (mg/Kg) were found in final pellet) has been ppb of mize the cent w/w at the several ingredients. 60Vitamin C (mg/Kg) negative impact of mycotoxins on 200 ± 20 168 ± 14 Afla (OP diet). In species such as trout, pangahealth of exposed fish. used in most fish our first part of the Cu (mg/Kg)the performance and1.1 7.5 ± 7.0 ± 1.1 sius, the total lipids catfish, European seabass Moreover, the risk for consumers needs work,tilapia, shrimp,of sea bream fed * Data of FO diet from previous study represents a contained statistically to be addressed as mycotoxin with OP dietrisk of low to medium. †Statistically significant according to Wilcox residues were on test found in fish muscle beyond acceptable levels. decreased levels of fatty acids, while For that, further research is needed in this Conclusion exhibited the most potent biological activity experiments, the OP diet and FO diet (i.e. The available studies on the effects of topic and of been an effective a number against platelet aggregation induced by platelet pellets) have course, analysed for mycotoxins mycotoxins in (PAF). In other show the risk management must be taken into account. activating factor fish and shrimp words, that of nutritional parameters and the results are performance and health status are nega1 (Nasopoulou et upon request OP-fed sea bream had stronger cardioprotective given in TableReferences available al., 2013a). tively affected. compared to the FO-fed one. Values are means of three individual measproperties whenThe analysed concentrations of mycotoxins in have ingredientsthat OP could urements; results are expressed as mean ± These data feed suggested used in aquafeeds, shows the importance management (95% nforMatIon: be used as a partial substitute of fish oil in fish SD More Iconfidence limits); data of FO diet strategies for the mycotoxins problem. from feed improving its cardio protective proper- are Website:our previous work and are given ties The awareness of mycotoxin problems in here to enable easy comparison; † indicates (Nasopoulou et al., 2011). In further M lling International Die and roll re-working machines Directory SPANISH LANGUAGE EDITION EDICION ESPANOLA 2013/14 twenty two premier resource for international The global milling industry the milling ONLINE | PRINT .com | MOBILE The GLOBALG.A.P. AquAcuLTure STAndArd Food Safety and Sustainability at every Stage of Production Next stop: tHe NetHeRLANDs & BeLGIUM 20 november 2013 in hoogstraten, Belgium. held in collaboration with the national Technical Working Groups of The netherlands and Belgium. Next stop: JApAN 29-30 november 2013 in Miyazaki city, Japan. held in collaboration with the national Technical Working Group of Japan. Phone: +45 75 14 22 check out our website for 55 Fax: +45 82 28 you! events happening near 91 41 mail: November-December 2013 INterNatIoNal AquAFeed 17 November-December 2013 || INterNatIoNal AquAFeed || 29 O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11
  5. 5. FEATURE FO as an alternative dietary lipid source in aquaculture fish feeds has increased both the nutritional and the commercial value of fish feed and of aquacultured fish (Nasopoulou et al., 2013a). Sensory properties of OP-enriched sea bream 刊 专 文 中 Another question that was tackled was: will the new OP-fed fish be acceptable in sensory terms? In order to answer this, the odour, taste and aftertaste of both FO-fed and OP-fed Figure 1: Spider-web plot of the scores of sea breams have been evaluated and taste attributes for conventional (i.e. FO-fed) the results show that the OP-fed fish sea bream and enriched (i.e. OP-fed) sea bream (Sioriki et al, in press) has similar sensory scores to the conventional (i.e. FO-fed) one. The taste scores for FO-fed grilled fish were higher for the attributes of ‘sweet’, ‘fresh fish’, statistical significance within OP and FO diet, ‘marine’, ‘fatty’ and rich’ while OP-fed grilled fish according to Wilcoxon test. The lipids of both fish feeds (FO diet and scored higher for ‘astringent’ and ‘fatty’ (Figure 1, OP diet) have been further fractionated by adapted from Sioriki et al., in press). counter-current distribution and HPLC and the cardioprotective activities of each HPLC Feeds and the inflammation game fraction have been assessed. The enrichment An update on the current on-going trials to of OP in fish feed has resulted in specifically assess the activities of omega-3 supplementation increasing the cardioprotective activities of the has been recently presented. There are three HPLC fractions of both the OP diet and the studies under way: Risk and Prevention Study: OP-fed fish. It could, thus, be suggested that Evaluation of the Efficacy of n-3 PUFA in Subjects the use of OP for the partial replacement of at High Cardiovascular Risk; ASCEND: A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes; Vitamin D and Omega3 Trial (VITAL). The authors conclude, though, that ‘omega-3 fatty acids are not statistically significantly associated with major cardiovascular outcomes across various patient populations. Their role in the prevention of cardio微藻粉在水产饲料中的应用前景 vascular disease 理解水产养殖池塘中的氨 remains elusive. Until the upcom三文鱼 ing randomised evidence provide some clear answers, nondietary omega-3 supplementation should be reserved to specific populations such as statin-intolerant patients’ (Rizos and Elisaf, 2013). I N C O R P O R AT I N G F I S H FA R M I N G T E C H N O L O G Y 专家聚焦 VO L U M E 1 6 I S S U E 5 2 0 1 3 - S E P T E M B E R | O C TO B E R 中文专刊 IAF13.05_chn.indd 1 05/11/2013 09:53 Special Chinese langauge edition Today, there is a global race to identify new compounds or further clinically assess compounds that have been associated with CVDs. This is a race involving mega-players in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries but probably the secret in this race might lie in a phrase of Hippocrates ‘let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food’. The key missing point in our quest for novel functional feeds and fish and later on for the ‘magic’ ‘cardiopill’ (that would be both in vitro and in vivo active against CVDs) could be lying here: how natural raw ingredients can be incorporated in feeds to develop functional food and medicines. This is where our current work is now focusing: the structural elucidation of fish polar lipids that have been aquacultured with OP-diet. References Carter AA, Gomes T, Camacho X, Juurlink DN, Shah BR, Mamdani MM. 2013. Risk of incident diabetes among patients treated with statins: population based study. BMJ 2013;346:f2610 Keys A., Menotti A., Aravanis C., et al. 1984. The Seven Countries Study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. Prev. Med. 13:141-154. Nasopoulou C, Gogaki V, Stamatakis G, Papaharisis L, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2013a. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-atherogenic properties of lipid fractions of olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed with olive pomace enriched fish feed. Marine Drugs, 11(10), 3676-3688 Nasopoulou C, Psani E, Sioriki E, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2013b. Evaluation of Sensory and In Vitro Cardio Protective Properties of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus): The Effect of Grilling and Brining. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4:940-949. Nasopoulou C, Stamatakis G, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. 2011. Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective properties of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chem. 129:1108-1113. Nasopoulou C, Zabetakis I. 2013. Agricultural and aquacultural potential of olive pomace. A review. J.Agric Sci. 5:116-127. Rizos EC, Elisaf MS. 2013. Current evidence and future perspectives of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Pharmacology, 706:1-3. Sioriki E, Nasopoulou C, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I. (in press). Comparison of OP enriched and conventional gilthead sea bream. J. Aquat. Food Prod.T. (in press). Zabetakis I. 2013. Food Security and Cardioprotection: The Polar Lipid Link. J. Food Sci. 78:R1101–R1104. 30 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2013 More InforMatIon: Email: Website:
  6. 6. FEATURE AMINOCarp® – Improve your feed formulation. | AnimalFeedConfAd2013_landscp_Layout 1 30/10/2013 16:01 Page 1 Campden BRI Safety and quality of livestock feed seminar food and drink innovation Organised by Campden BRI in collaboration with AG Industries, Grain & Feed Milling Technology and International Aquafeed Full programme and book at Thursday 6 March 2014 Venue: Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, GL55 6LD, UK The seminar will focus on: • Understanding the current issues facing the animal feed industry. • The latest R&D in the animal feed sector. • Future issues facing the animal feed sector. • Solutions for a sustainable animal feed chain. November-December 2013 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 31 #LivestockFeedSeminar E:
  7. 7. LINKS This digital re-print is part of the November | December 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on • See the full issue I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y Animal co-product hydrolysates: • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed – a source of key molecules in aquaculture feeds Prevalence of mycotoxins in aquafeed ingredients: – an update Pellet distribution modelling: – a tool for improved feed delivery in sea cages New functional fish feeds to reduce cardiovascular disease Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 6 2 0 1 3 - N oV e m B e R | D e C e m B e R To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE