May | June 2013Natural sources of cholesterol,phospholipids and proteinsThe International magazine for the aquaculture fee...
Innovations for a better world.Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 ...
Aquaculture	 is	 one	 of	 the	 fastest	growing	 industries	 in	 food	 pro-duction.	 However,	 the	 future	 of	this	growth	...
ConclusionPhosterol	is	a	valuable	alternative	source	of	cholesterol	and	gives	similar	results	in	growth	and	lower	FCR	than...
www.aquafeed.co.ukLINKS•	 See the full issue•	 Visit the International Aquafeed website•	 Contact the International Aquafe...
Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins
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Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins

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Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in food production. However, the future of this growth will depend largely on availability of raw materials and development of new nutrient sources from vegetable or animal origin.

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Transcript of "Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins"

  1. 1. May | June 2013Natural sources of cholesterol,phospholipids and proteinsThe International magazine for the aquaculture feed industryInternational Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058INCORPORATINGf ish farming technolog y
  2. 2. Innovations for a better world.Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.comFatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com
  3. 3. Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in food pro-duction. However, the future of this growth will depend largely on availability of raw materials and development of new nutrient sources from vegetable or animal origin.One of the essential nutrients for shrimp is cholesterol. Driven by the increasing scarcity of conventional sources of cholesterol, Sonac recently developed Phosterol. This hydro-lyzed protein of animal origin is produced in accordance with all relevant EU regulations and is readily available from renewable natural sources. The uniqueness of Phosterol lies in the natural combination of cholesterol and phospholipids. Trials on shrimp have shown a strong synergy between cholesterol and phospholipids, the two main components of Phosterol.Phosterol is a unique protein hydrolysate with high content of cholesterol and phosphol-ipids like phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol. Cholesterol and phospholipids are essential building blocks in cellular membranes and are part of several biological processes. Together with the high amount of fat, Phosterol is a good ingredient in aquafeeds, especially shrimp feeds. Shrimps rely upon a dietary source of cholesterol for optimal molting.The origin of Phosterol is porcine tis-sue which has been collected in dedicated European slaughterhouses and after enzy-matic hydrolysis further processed to a beige brownish and heat stable powder.Gelko Powder is a new hydrolysed animal-based product that contains highly digestible proteins for fish and shrimp. It hosts a combination of important amino acids, making aqua feed attractive and palatable. Naturally present nucleotides, phospholipids and minerals increase its nutritional value. EU Feed lawAccording to EU Feed law, Phosterol and Gelko are permitted for use for all animal spe-cies. No limitations are imposed on produc-tion facilities, transport systems or use at farm level. No additional labeling texts are required.Growth trial withPhosterol and GelkoThree diets were formulated to contain equal amounts of cholesterol. The refer-ence diet contained crystalline cholesterol. One diet contained 0.9% Phosterol and the third diet contained 2% Gelko, a protein soluble (see Table 2). Feeds were produced with a pellet mill on a 2 mm die, using preconditioning with steam (>90°C) and post-conditioning (>90°C) for 20 minutes.Shrimp trialThe trial was performed at the AFT-CreveTec research centre. Forty shrimp of 1-1.4 g were put in 12 nets of 150 litres. All nets were placed in a bigger tank, so all nets had the same water quality. Water quality in the big tanks was maintained with bioflocs.Each net was equipped with a feeder. The feed gift was adjusted daily according to an expected growth curve and average weight from initial and last measurement.ResultsGrowth (average weight)We can not observe a statistical difference in growth between the different feeds. Gelko seemed to be doing a little better in the mid-dle of the experiment, but towards the end the Reference diet was the best. table 1: Composition of Phosterol and GelkoComposition Phosterol GelkoMoisture 4% 4%Crude Protein 48% 68%Crude fat 34% 18%Crude ash 9% 11%Cholesterol 10% 0.10%total phospholipids 24% 9%Phosphatidyl choline 7.80% -Phosphatidyl inositol 0.90% -DHa 2.30% -table 2: experimental diets - Diets wereformulated to contain 38 % proteins and 8 %lipids.reF Gelko PhosterolCorn gluten 5 5 5Fish meal 26 24 26Squid meal 2 2 2Wheat 16.9 16.9 16.9Wheat flour 25 25 25Soybean meal 15 15 14.2Soyalecithin 2 2 2Fish oil 2 2 2Wheat Gluten 4 4 4Premix 2 2 2Cholesterol 0.1 0.1Phosterol 0.9Gelko 2total 100 100 100Natural sources of cholesterol,phospholipids and proteinsby Geert van der Velden, Carine van Vuure and Anke van Doremalen, Sonac BV, The Netherlands28 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013FEATURE
  4. 4. ConclusionPhosterol is a valuable alternative source of cholesterol and gives similar results in growth and lower FCR than the pure source. It also shows lower mortality.Gelko can replace high quality fish meal with a minimum of 2% with no growth loss, and results in a lower mortality.Due to the composition, Phosterol has many benefits in aquafeeds:• Fat and protein mixture• Rich in cholesterol (10%)• Rich in phospholipids (24%)• Good suspension• Good emulsifier• Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets• Improved growth rates, molting fre-quency and survival in farmed shrimp• Cholesterol is heat stable (3 hours 133°C)The advantages of Gelko:• Fat and protein mixture• Rich in phospholipids (9%)• Good suspension• Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets• Soluble proteins with extreme high digestibilitytable 3: Growth of shrimp (g/week) on diets containing Phosterol and GelkoWeek 1 2 3 4 5 6 averagereference 0.89 0.41 1.16 2.00 2.65 2.39 1.58Phosterol 0.83 0.43 1.41 1.63 2.62 2.15 1.51Gelko 0.82 0.52 1.55 1.75 2.22 2.44 1.55overall, the observed growth was good, given the fact that shrimp were relatively small at thestart of the experiment. once they reached 3-4 g, they grow above 2g/week.table 4: FCr of shrimp on diets containing Phosterol and GelkoWeek 1 2 3 4 5 6 totalreF 0.81 2.02 1.18 1.39 0.99 1.36 1.18 bPhosterol 1.09 1.81 0.69 0.87 0.86 1.41 0.99 aGelko 0.70 1.71 0.76 0.98 1.61 1.17 1.07 bThe feed with Phosterol showed the best FCR, and was statistically better than the other dietstable 5: Summary of resultsInitialweightFinalweightGrowth(g/week)% Growth Mortality FCrreference 1.31 10.81 a 1.58 826 % 9.53 % 1.18 bPhosterol 1.17 10.25 a 1.51 872 % 5.94 % 0.99 aGelko 1.26 10.56 a 1.55 838 % 6.41 % 1.07 bMore InforMatIon:Website: www.sonac.bizMay-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29FEATUREAre you a decision-maker looking for business opportunities inone of the many biomarine industries? Are you a biomarinecompany looking for a research partner or financing?Join us at BioMarine 2013 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada onSeptember 9-12, 2013. Meet CEOs, R&D partners and discuss thelatest advances in: Aquaculture and Aquafeed Marine BioTechs for Health & Environment Algae and Seaweeds Marine Ingredients & Nutraceuticals Bioprocessing Biorefinery & Biofuels4thBioMarine Business ConventionHalifax World Trade and Convention CentreHalifax, Nova Scotia, CanadaThe fourth edition of the BioMarine International Business Convention is co-organizedwith the National Research Council of Canada.For more information about the program and to register:Visit www.biomarine.orgor contact us at Biomarine2013@nrc-cnrc.gc.caLimitations of formulated feedsfor live feed productionFormulated feeds offer low cost and con-venience, but they have fundamental short-comings. Zooplankton, including rotifers and Artemia, can feed only on micro particles of appropriate size (from bacteria to 10 µm for Brachionus [Baer et al. 2008, Vadstein et al. 1993], and from bacteria to 28 µm, with the optimum about 8-16 µm for Artemia [Makridis and Vadstein 1999, Fernández 2001]). It is difficult to produce dry feeds that provide uniform particle sizes, and even when uniform dry particles can be produced they can be subject to clumping when dispersed into water for feeding. But probably the most criti-cal shortcoming of dry feeds is rapid leaching of water-soluble nutrients; the smaller the par-ticle, the faster nutrients are leached out. Not only are leached nutrients unavailable to the live feeds, they can cause fouling of the water.Rotifer BrachionusplicatilisAlgae concentrate (ReedMariculture Tetraselmis 3600)May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13
  5. 5. www.aquafeed.co.ukLINKS• See the full issue• Visit the International Aquafeed website• Contact the International Aquafeed Team• Subscribe to International AquafeedThey are what they eatEnhancing the nutritional value of live feedswith microalgaeControlling mycotoxins withbindersUltravioletwater disinfection for fishfarms and hatcheriesNiacin– one of the key B vitamins for sustaininghealthy fish growth and productionVolume 16 Issue 3 2013 - mAY | Ju NeINCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGyThis digital re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of InternationalAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com.To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE

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