Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems


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With demand for world food supply intensifying year on year, forecasters predict that in the not-too-distant future, the average family is likely to find fish on the dinner plate far more frequently than protein from land reared animals. The world population needs large supplies of protein and it costs significantly less to cultivate fish, than to raise land animals such as cows, pigs and poultry for slaughter.

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Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y March | April 2013Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.comBühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28, www.buhlergroup.comInnovations for a better world.
  3. 3. FEATURETransforming aquaculture productionusing oxygenation systemsby Linde Gases Division, GermanyW ith demand for world food Linde Gases, a division of The Linde Group fish grow to weigh about 100 grams, as is supply intensifying year on and a global leader in aquaculture technology, the case with the salmon industry, which is year, forecasters predict has been closely tracking these trends and the most dynamic area of the industry at the that in the not-too-distant continues to invest heavily in developing the moment. Once the fish reach 100 grams, they future, the average family is likely to find fish kind of technology required both now and in are transferred to sea cages where they can on the dinner plate far more frequently than the future to support the expected expansion be grown to approximately 4-5 kilograms dur-protein from land reared animals. The world in world aquaculture. Linde anticipates growth ing a period of 14-24 months.population needs large supplies of protein in the world aquaculture industry between six The latest advance is a move to growing and it costs significantly less to cultivate fish, to eight percent in 2013 alone. This means the young salmon up to 200 grams on land than to raise land animals such as cows, pigs fish farms will need to gear up their operations and the larger fish farming companies agree and poultry for slaughter. to be equal to the challenges of maintaining that this practice is likely to progress to a optimal fish production conditions, such as point where the fish are eventually grown to This scenario is expected to drive the appropriate nutrition, disease prevention and full slaughter size on land. Before this hap-world food business into the direction of most importantly, maintaining a healthy water pens, however, the most likely development aquaculture with increasing momentum in environment. is expected to be an intermediate stage the years to come. Contemporary trends Controlling the concentration of oxygen between cultivating the fish on land and trans-support this prediction. In the past 50 years, dissolved in water is crucial to the success of ferring them to sea cages, that involves closed global demand for fish systems which float products has doubled in the sea.and today nearly half For technol-of the world’s sea- ogy partners like food comes not from Linde, regardless wild catches, but from of whether the fish land-based and off- are being reared shore fish farms. in closed systems Aquaculture is on land or in the poised to intensify sea, their task is across the world, not to ensure that the only in established fish-producing countries aquaculture. Generally speaking, the closer the oxygenation systems they supply keep pace like Norway and Scotland, but also in China, oxygen concentration is to air saturation, the with the dynamics of the changes the industry Vietnam, India, Brazil and countries around the better will be the environment for healthy and is experiencing. Mediterranean Sea. Chile’s aquaculture sector, reliable fish growth. Maintaining the right levels This trend towards thinking beyond the which was greatly impacted a few years ago of oxygen improves feed utilisation, shortens traditional 16 to 20 metre diameter fresh and by infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), a viral the growth period, reduces fish mortality salt water tanks is taking hold in the leading disease affecting Atlantic salmon, is also mak- and mitigates the need for vaccination and aquaculture regions and it is likely that tanks ing a robust comeback. antibiotics. as big as 40 metres in diameter and bigger will According to projections offered by the become a reality. To support this trend, Linde Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) From land to sea is focusing on developing technology that will of the United Nations, it is estimated that to Depending on the fish species, the most get the hydrodynamics right and ensure oxygen maintain the current level of per capita fish common approach in today’s aquaculture is fully distributed throughout these large tanks.consumption, global aquaculture production sector is to grow these fish on land in a An interesting potential benefit of increas-will need to reach 80 million tonnes by 2050. controlled freshwater environment until the ing land-based aquaculture is that when intro- 10 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
  4. 4. FEATUREduced on a large scale it could bring fish uniqueness of the technology is based on its carbon dioxide. In particular, oversaturation production to the place where the fish is ability to perform three critical functions in of nitrogen, even in relatively small quantities, actually consumed. one system - dissolving oxygen in the water, can endanger the wellbeing of fish stock, slow- The Marine Harvest Group, the worlds producing the correct marine hydrodynamics ing growth and increasing the possibility of largest private fish producer, is building ever- and stripping out potentially harmful nitrogen disease, and ultimately, even mortality. With larger tanks. At Kårstø, Norway, the company - and all this via a very low energy require- the installation of OxyStream, external degas-has plans to produce 6,000 tons of salmon ment. The system is easily installed, as a new sing units to prevent inert gas build-up will, in per year, onshore, to an average size of 1 set-up or as a retrofit to existing fish farm many cases, become obsolete.kilogram, in fish tanks 40 metres in diameter tanks, and is maintenance-free because it is Depending on the application, pumping and 10 metres high, with volumes of water as not associated with any ancillary equipment pressures as low as 0.05 to 0.2 bar are nor-high as 12,000 cubic metres. Marine Harvest to manage water pressure. mally sufficient to oxygenate the incoming also intends to explore the possibility of SOLVOX ® OxyStream significantly water, strip nitrogen and create optimal tank building a land based fish farm in a quarry at increases fish production volume, optimises hydrodynamics. This low operating pressure Mjølkevikvarden, in Askøy, Norway, where fish meat quality and considerably improves makes the system very energy efficient. the company believes there is potential to operations from an environmental standpoint. The capabilities of this technology were build a plant big enough to produce 50,000 It is a combined oxygenation and flow system proved during trials conducted at a Marine tons per year of 1 kilogram salmon. that not only dissolves the optimal amount Harvest facility in 2011. Results showed that This is equal to 5 percent of the total of oxygen in the inlet water flow, but also OxyStream was the only oxygenation source biomass production of salmon and trout distributes it evenly at an adjustable flow pat- suitable for rearing young salmon hatched in in Norway today — currently about 1 mil- tern throughout the tank, ensuring that the tanks running on fresh water, before gradually lion tons per year. Theoretically, if 20 of fish stock benefit from the physical exercise transitioning them to seawater. This creates these plants where in operation today, all of involved in swimming against the flow. The an optimum environment in which to rear Norway’s salmon production to full slaughter flow regime can be fully tailored according salmon, ensuring the correct oxygen levels size could be accomplished on land. Key to fish size, stock density and fish species, throughout the entire production period and parameters associated with this installation such as salmon or cod. The system comprises keeping fish stress levels to an absolute are 20,000 cubic metre fish tanks, 35 metres a standalone unit, allowing water flow and minimum. in diameter. oxygen dosing to be individually controlled Importantly, the technology makes it pos- for each tank. sible to precisely predict flow velocity and Pioneering technology The micro-bubbles created by SOLVOX® to adjust this velocity in the circular on-land One of the most pioneering technologies OxyStream create the additional benefit of tanks, Depending on their state of matu-to be introduced to the industry has been helping to reduce the concentration of dis- rity, fish need a certain water velocity to Linde’s SOLVOX® OxyStream system. The solved inert gases such as nitrogen, argon and remain healthy. If the velocity is not correct, Extruder OEE for the Production of Fish Feed AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG, Dieselstrasse 5-9, D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg, Phone: +49 40 727 71 0, Fax: +49 40 727 71 100, March-April 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 11
  5. 5. FEATUREfish behaviour and swimming patterns can tries planning to expand their aquaculture and even oxygen distribution throughout the become erratic, utilising more energy and industries. water volume. This makes the fish spread therefore requiring more food. Linde is also doing research into the out throughout the entire water volume. The global aquaculture industry has species of fish most likely to be produced Comprising of a slot tube with water flow responded to the introduction of this system in higher volumes in future years. While the indicator, SOLVOX® Stream ensures that with immense interest and the Linde team existing salmon industry will continue to oxygenated water is homogenously distrib-currently has many units piloting at customer grow, indications are that other types of fish, uted over the complete depth of the tank. It sites and has fielded enquiries from North particularly those capable of being harvested is also designed to achieve an optimal circula-America, the UK, Norway, France, Chile, in warmer water temperatures of about 25 tion speed in the fish tank, appropriate to the Australia and even from Saudi Arabia and to 30 degrees Celsius, will come to the fore. fish species and size. SOLVOX®Stream is Israel. In fact, a research team at the new used in combination with oxygenation equip- Linde Innovation Centre for Aquaculture is ment such as SOLVOX®A, guaranteeing that Future developments simulating conditions in tropical areas, both the required environmental conditions, in As larger tanks are being contemplated, for fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. This terms of hydraulics and oxygen concentra-Linde is already investing in future develop- is expected to pave the way for Linde to tion, can be set individually for each tank. ments and, to this end, in 2012 opened develop technology surpassing current state- SOLVOX®Stream can be customised for a state-of-the-art Innovation Centre for of-the-art systems in this arena. flow rates ranging from 50 litres per minute Aquaculture - a pioneering R&D and testing to 20,000 litres per minute and an important unit located at Ålesund, Norway. This location Broader technologies feature is the water flow indicator that helps was specifically chosen for its proximity to the Linde’s existing aquaculture offering, fea- control water flow into each tank and opti-heart of the worlds most industrialised fish turing broader technologies and products, mises water usage.farming community. will continue to play a role in the foreseeable SOLVOX®C, a pressure dissolver for In addition to highly equipped laboratories, future. Each facility, type of water and fish seawater and fresh water, comprises cones the centre features a number of test and crop has different requirements which can be designed to increase the concentration of gases in water to a high level. In standard operation, gas transfer efficiency is close to 100 percent. Since the cones can be operated at elevated pressure, the dissolved oxygen concentration can be increased sig- nificantly above saturation. SOLVOX®CV is an additional option to boost the oxygena- tion capacity of the cones, allowing up to 50 percent higher oxygen dosing without increasing the water flow rate or energy consumption. SOLVOX®B is widely used as an emergency oxygenation system because it requires no auxiliary energy and supports the life of the fish in the event of a system failure. Operational energy is provided solely by the oxygen tank pressure. Linde’s SOLVOX®CD ceramic diffuser is a high-performance, aluminium-housed oxy- gen dissolving system that ensures uniform demonstration aquaculture tanks, the largest met, in combination, by elements drawn from bubbles across the entire surface and mini-of which is 55 cubic metres and has been an entire product family. Some of this equip- mises bubble coalescence. It is also suitable built to a highly innovative specification. The ment is dedicated to salt water and some is for dissolving oxygen into shallow tanks with tank allows both aquaculture technologists optimal for fresh water fish farming. water depths of less than 1 metre. Its main and customers alike to observe how the latest With 50 years of experience in aquacul- field of application is to provide additional oxygenation technologies impact fish devel- ture, Linde has accumulated the expertise to oxygen to individual tanks and raceways, but opment within an optimal on-land farming identify the right type of equipment for each it is also frequently installed for emergency enclosure. In addition to an overhead walkway customer’s unique requirements via the most oxygen supply.extending the full diameter length of the tank, cost effective solution — minimum use of Fish grow best at a constant oxygen Linde has maximised observational opportu- oxygen and energy. level in the water, but the oxygen con-nities via eye-level inspection windows and In addition to SOLVOX® OxyStream, sumption of fish varies with stocking den-underwater lighting. Linde’s SOLVOX® technology line offers a sity, feeding regime, activity status, tem- Outside of Norway, development in wide range of oxygenation systems for the perature etc. In order to keep the oxygen aquaculture is going on in many other aquaculture industry, comprising equipment level as constant as possible, different countries. After being hit by the ISA for optimised dissolution of oxygen in water, amounts of oxygen have to be provided virus, the aquaculture industry in Chile perfect distribution of oxygenated water to at different times. The SOLVOX ® F oxygen is ramping up again with a robust focus the fish and a regulation concept for smooth dosing cabinet is designed to achieve this on oxygenation technology to support and reliable operation. safely and reliably. ■disease control. Technology capable of SOLVOX®Stream creates a better tank making more oxygen available at low environment and improves the wellbeing of More InforMatIon:energy is also attracting attention in coun- farmed fish. It provides good tank hydraulics Website: 12 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2013
  6. 6. FEATURE take a CLOSER LOOK at Novus Aquaculture Our success in developing sustainable solutions evolves from a hands-on knowledge and understanding of the global aqua industry. By focusing on the needs of the animals, our team of experts will design a solution for your operation. FEED COST REDUCTION | HEALTH THROUGH NUTRITION | OPTIMIZED RAW MATERIALS | FUNCTIONAL FEEDS | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES® is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITYis a trademark of Novus International, Inc. ©2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978 AquaStar ® Fast growth in improved environment! Probiotic strains support gut health. Biodegrading strains and enzymes stabilize water quality and pond bottom. • Im pr an oved gu d pe • Im rform t health prov ance • Co ed w n ater qual ba trol of pa ity cteri thog a enic Naturally ahead March-April 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 13
  7. 7. This digital re-print is part of the March | April 2013 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y • See the full issue Transforming aquaculture production using • Visit the International Aquafeed website oxygenation systems • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Nutritional benefits of processed animal proteins – in European aquafeeds Bioenergetics – application in aquaculture nutrition Towards aquafeeds with increased food security • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 2 2 0 1 3 - mARCH | APRIlTo purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE