Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in aquaculture ponds
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In aquaculture, environmental impacts such as deteriorated water quality and poor pond bottoms are becoming challenging and omnipresent problems. This article highlights measures which can be taken to ...

In aquaculture, environmental impacts such as deteriorated water quality and poor pond bottoms are becoming challenging and omnipresent problems. This article highlights measures which can be taken to improve the quality of water and soil in aquaculture ponds, and therefore the immediate environment of fish and shrimp. Better rearing conditions will improve the overall performance of your fish and shrimp.

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Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in aquaculture ponds Document Transcript

  • 1. July | August 2012Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in aquaculture ponds International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  • 2. FEATUREEnzymes to improvewater and soil quality inaquaculture pondsby Elisabeth Mayer MSc, BIOMIN, AustriaI n aquaculture, environmental Some specific enzymes can be active impacts such as deteriorated in a very wide range of environmental water quality and poor pond conditions. While some micro-organ- bottoms are becoming challeng- isms have a narrow range of environ-ing and omnipresent problems. This mental conditions where they are able article highlights measures which can Picture 1: Samples of the pond bottom to proliferate (pH, oxygen, availability, be taken to improve the quality of soil of the AquaStar® groups etc.), certain enzymes are able to act water and soil in aquaculture ponds, in multiple environments. They remain and therefore the immediate envi- active even when environmental condi-ronment of fish and shrimp. Better tions change drastically, especially if rearing conditions will improve the they are immobilised on a carrier. For overall performance of your fish and example, protease is able to work shrimp. effectively in pHs between four and 11 Picture 2: Samples of the pond bottom and with temperatures less than 20 °C As the aquaculture industry soil of the control groups and greater than 70 °C (Whiteley et expands and develops, several chal- al., 2002). lenges have arisen. A key problem caused by When added to the culture water or spread Furthermore, another advantage of this aquaculture operations is its environmental on top of the pond bottom soil, enzymes are immobilisation is that the enzyme activity is impact. Intensive aquaculture pond systems able to degrade the major organic constitu- preserved and can thus be reused (Karam and result in high organic loadings that cause dete- ents normally found in shrimp and fish ponds. Nicell, 1997). riorated water quality and pond bottom and Each enzyme has its mode of action and is There is currently a lot of interest in the accumulation of toxic compounds such very specific in the chemical reaction it cataly- manufacturing such enzyme preparations as ammonia, nitrites and hydrogen sulfides. ses. For example, protease hydrolyzes insolu- despite the high costs of isolation, purification This changes the bacterial composition in the ble proteins and amylase polysaccharides such and production. Nevertheless, some of these water and soil of ponds by increasing the pres- as starch; cellulase catalyses the breakdown products are already being used as bioreme-ence of pathogenic bacteria, thus contributing of cellulose (the major cell wall material in diation agents in aquaculture. plants); ß-Glucosidase is involved in catalysing greatly to the occurrence of diseases in fish and shrimp farming. the hydrolysis and biodegradation of various Proven benefits of bioremediation ß-glucosides present in plant debris; and lipase Enzymes have the capacity to stabilize the Direct enzyme application works on lipids or fats (Table 1). soil organic matter and can be used effectively One way of improving water and soil Enzymes are also naturally produced to manage soil quality and rearing conditions quality in aquaculture and excreted by some for aquatic species. There is not one specific is the direct application table 1: a diverse range of microbes. These extra- enzyme that works best in all cases (Ruggaber of enzymes and ben- enzymes used as bioremediation cellular enzymes, such as and Talley, 2006). A blend containing a variety eficial micro-organisms agents in aquaculture cellulase, protease and of enzymes may be the most effective means to ponds. This type of enzyme Substrate amylase, are produced for bioremediation in aquaculture. The effi-biotechnology applica- during the aerobic fer- cacy and mode of action of enzymes require tion is often referred to amylase Starch mentation of organic mat- that they:as ‘bioremediation’, an ter by micro-organisms, • Catalyse the degradation of organic ß-Glucosidase ß-Glucosideenvironmentally friendly for example by some matter (such as feces, undigested feed approach which involves Cellulase Cellulose Bacillus species. Bacilli are and dead algae)the manipulation of lipase lipids and fat commonly found in pond • Break apart large sludge particles micro-organisms in ponds Protease Protein sediments and can also be (deflocculation) and reduce sludge to reduce pathogenic Xylan, added to the pond water accumulationbacteria, enhancing the Xylanase Hemicellulose for bioremediation pur- • Reduce solids contentmineralization of organic Pectinase Pectin poses. Some Bacillus sp. • Decompose plant debrismatter and removing are also able to degrade • Reduce anaerobic conditions in the undesirable waste com- nitrogenous compounds pond bottompounds through specific enzymes. and their large variety of excreted (extracel- • Promote the degradation of certain In the bioremediation process, enzymes lular) enzymes additionally helps to speed up complex nutrientsplay the role of catalysts that accelerate the degradation of organic matter and toxic • Facilitate the release of highly digestible biochemical reactions in pond soil and water. compounds such as ammonia. nutrients 36 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2012
  • 3. Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.comBühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.comInnovations for a better world.
  • 4. FEATURE quality of the pond, and the performance of the cultured fish and shrimp. Studies have confirmed that ponds using bac- terial strains and enzymes showed better soil condi- tions (yellow soil) Figure 1: Avergae growth rate of shrimp during Figure 2: Feed conversion ratio of control and enhanced the production period and probiotic test groups shrimp perform- ance, while the soil Enzymes strongly reduce sludge accu- (FCR) was improved by nine percent in of ponds without the treatment showed an mulation and anaerobic conditions in pond the treatment compared with the control. accumulation of dead organic matter (black soil).bottoms. They promote a faster degrada- The soil of the treatment ponds in The addition of specific enzymes (pro-tion of the organic matter that accumu- Picture 1 was yellow, which is regarded as teases, amylases, cellulases, xylanases) and/lates in ponds, especially under intensive the best bottom type, while the soil of the or enzyme-producing bacteria, such as production conditions. This organic matter control ponds in Picture 2 exhibited a dark Bacillus sp., promotes the pre-digestion of comprises uneaten feed, dead plankton, black color, an indication of the accumula- cer tain complex nutrients and facilitates mineral soils, feces and pathogenic micro- tion of dead organic matter. the release of highly digestible nutrients. organisms in the soil where the conditions Results suggested that with the com- This helps to reduce sludge and organ-are often anaerobic. However, for all bined use of beneficial bacteria and ic matter accumulation, as well as the these bioremediation processes catalysed enzymes, pond soils containing black and anaerobic conditions in pond bottoms, by enzymes, the presence of beneficial glutinous organic sludge turned into a thus improving the rearing conditions for bacteria is important as well (Boyd and more yellow soil. For the animals, enzymes shrimp and fish. ■Gross, 1998). Enzymes accelerate microbi- improve the growth and performance of al processes by breaking apart large sludge shrimp by balancing their ambient environ- More InforMatIon:particles, thus creating more surface areas ment. BIOMINwhich can then be attacked and fermented The improvements of enzyme appli- www.biomin.netby microbes. This reduction of sludge and cation may be dead organic matter can be seen visually greater in ponds not only through better water quality, but with even higher also through better soil quality. stocking densities and feeding rates Combining bacteria where the water and enzymes and soil quality To test the effects of a combination deteriorate greatly of beneficial microbes and enzymes on during the pro-soil quality under practical pond condi- duction period.tions, a field study was conducted using a commercial probiotic product (2 x 10 9 PromisingCFU/g, AquaStar ® PondZyme, BIOMIN resultsGmbH, Austria) containing an enzyme For the amel-blend (amylases, xylanases, cellulases, pro- ioration of aquatic teases) under intensive farming conditions environmental for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in conditions under Zhuhai, China. intensive farming Four earth shrimp ponds (0.7 – 0.8 ha/ operations, the pond) with a depth of 1 – 1.2 m were combined applica-stocked with juvenile shrimp (approxi- tion of enzymes mately 1.4 g/shrimp) with a density of 50 and beneficial shrimp/m². The trial was carried out for a bacteria as an period of 57 days with a dosage of 500 g/ effective manage-ha of product applied once a month to the ment tool seems treatment group (two ponds). The control very promising. ponds consisted of two ponds with normal Enzymes play production operations. The shrimp in both important roles as treatments received the same diets. biological control Figure 1 shows that the average daily agents in pond growth of shrimp in the treatment group culture, particu-increased by 36 percent. It can be seen larly with respect from Figure 2 that feed conversion ratio to water and soil July-August 2012 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 37
  • 5. Aqua NewsIFFO Backs Marine Mammal and Turtle Conservation in South AmericaI FFO (the International Fishmeal and Fish IFFO, said, “IFFO is delighted to see this Oil Organisation) is backing an initiative excellent initiative from Camanchaca in by one of its members, the Compañía Chile and indeed other recent develop-Pesquera Camanchaca (Camanchaca), ments in South America regarding the which aims to teach fishermen the art of quantification and avoidance of the inci-environmental stewardship, better pro- dental catches of marine mammals and tecting marine animals including dolphins, sea tur tles. In creating the IFFO RS sea turtles and sharks. standard we were hopeful that this type The initiative provides training for the of conser vation programme would be senior crew who work aboard Camanchaca’s developed by our members and we look vessels that land in the northern Chilean forward to hearing more good news in port of Iquique. The scheme will contribute the future.”towards the gathering of vital research The Chile based project follows one information that will be used to help in the taken last year in Peru, in which a number conservation of protected marine species. of fishing companies working with envi-The first seminar took place during April ronmental NGOs such as the Marine 2012. Conser vation Society (MCS) and IFFO has developed a Global Standard ProDelphinus distributed a series of turtle for Responsible Supply (IFFO RS) for identification and resuscitation guides and Fishmeal and Fish Oil. Its overarching pro- held a series of training courses.gramme includes the goal to reduce any Dawn Purchase, Senior Aquaculture potential environmental impact arising from Officer at MCS, said, “I am delighted with fishing catches made within its responsibly the success of this project and the spin-off managed fisheries. conservation courses being run for fish- Camanchaca was one of the first com- ermen. The IFFO RS standard provides a panies in Chile to have its factories cer- real opportunity to promote change on tified under the IFFO RS standard earlier the water, which is what MCS strives to this year. It has now formed a partnership achieve. Increasing the identification skills with the Department of Marine Sciences of and conservation knowledge of these fish-the Arturo Prat University and its Technical ermen in both Peru and Chile is a great Training Centre, to offer specialised training way of achieving environmental steward-seminars to the fishermen. ship”. Large marine animals are sometimes captured in the fishing nets designed to catch small oily fish such as anchovy and sardine, ingredients used in the pro-duction of fishmeal for animal feed and fish oil for human consumption. IFFO is keen to ensure that its members More InforMatIon:are aware of the importance of conserving Website: www.iffo.netmarine creatures as part of the marine eco-system. Topics covered at the seminars include IFFOthe ability to identify and correctly record The International data on protected marine mammals found Fishmeal and Fish Oil off the coast of northern Chile, as well as Organisation represents learning how to safely return these crea- the fishmeal and fish oil industry tures to the sea with the minimum risk of worldwide. IFFO’s members reside damage. Mr Adolfo Carvajal, Camanchaca’s in more than 30 countries, account Manager for the Northern Fishing Area, said, for two-thirds of world production “Sustainable development requires us to and 80 percent of fishmeal and fish take action in order to control the impact oil traded worldwide. Approximately of our activities on the marine environment 5 million tonnes of fishmeal are and without a doubt we have now under- produced each year globally, together taken actions in this respect. These training with 1 million tonnes of fish oil. seminars for our senior crew members will IFFO’s headquarters are located in St allow them to demonstrate Camanchaca’s Albans in the United Kingdom and it commitment to the responsible sourcing also has offices in Lima, Peru, and in of fish”. Beijing, China. Andrew Jackson, Technical Director at July-August 2012 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 7
  • 6. This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 4 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue Tough environment produces world’s best Barramundi EXPERT TOPIC - Tilapia • Visit the International Aquafeed website – a collection of articles creating a worldwide perspective Noise – a source of stress for farmed fish • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Enzymes – Unlocking the hidden potential of plant proteins using solid state fermentation technology Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in • Subscribe to International Aquafeed aquaculture ponds THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.04.indd 1 19/07/2012 17:15To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk