• Like
  • Save
FOCUS | Probiotics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

FOCUS | Probiotics

on

  • 8,077 views

In this edition of IAF we focus on probiotics

In this edition of IAF we focus on probiotics

Statistics

Views

Total Views
8,077
Views on SlideShare
8,077
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
689
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    FOCUS | Probiotics FOCUS | Probiotics Document Transcript

    • July | August 2013 FOCUS | Probiotics The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING f ish farming technolog y
    • Innovations for a better world. Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating costs and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com
    • H ormones, antibiotics, ionophers and some salts compounds have been used as growth promoters and to some extent to prevent diseases. However, their inad- equate applications show a negative effect on aquaculture production and environment (Góngora, 1998). Functional additives, like probiotics, are a new concept in aquaculture (Li and Gatlin III, 2004) where the additions of microorganisms in diets show a positive effect on growth caused by the best use of carbohydrates, protein, and energy (Irianto and Austin, 2002). It further diminishes mor- tality by disease, antagonism to pathogens, and better microbial intestinal balance in the environment (Holmström et al., 2003). The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. The most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal micro- bial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) were reported in the recent scientific literature (Chaucheyras-Durand and Durand, 2010). Nowadays, a number of preparations of probiotics are commercially available and have been introduced to fish, shrimp and molluscan farming as feed additives, or are incorporated in pond water (Wang et al., 2005). Why tilapia? Tilapias are the most successfully cul- tured fish in the world because of their fast growing and high efficiency to utilize the natural and artificial supplemented feeds (Ishak, 1980). Tilapias have become increas- ingly popular for farming as they are able to reproduce rapidly, easily bred in captivity, tolerate a wide range of environmental con- ditions, are highly resistant to diseases, and most important of all, have good flavour. Though the fish originated in Africa, Asian countries have become the leading produc- ers of these fish (Rana, 1997). Tilapias are second only to carps as the most widely farmed freshwater fish in the world (FAO, 2010). table 1: Details of the experimental treatments Details t1 Basal ration (Br)+ 0 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet (as a control) t2 Basal ration (Br)+ 5 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet t3 Basal ration (Br)+ 10 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet t4 Basal ration (Br)+ 15 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet t5 Basal ration (Br)+ 0 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet (as a control) t6 Basal ration (Br)+ 0 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet (as a control) t7 Basal ration (Br)+ 5 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet t8 Basal ration (Br)+ 10 g Hydroyeast aquaculture®/Kg diet table 2: Formula of the tested probiotic, Hydroyeast aquaculture® Ingredients Units/kg min. Yeats probiotics CFU/kg min. oligosaccharides 50,000 ppm active live yeast 5,000,000,000,000 enzymes Probiotics amylase 3,750,000 lactobacillius acidophlus 22,500,000,000 Protease 500,000 Bifedobacterium longhum 22,500,000,000 Cellulase 200,000 Bifedobactrium thermophylum 22,500,000,000 Pectinase 100,000 Streptococcus faecium 22,500,000,000 Xylanse 10,000 Phytase 3,000 table 3: Ingredients and proximate chemical analysis (% on dry matter basis) of the experimental basal diet Ingedients % Yellow corn 22.50 rice bran 23.00 Soybean meal (44%) 37.50 Fish meal (65%) 6.00 Salts 0.50 Calcium carbonate 4.67 Vegetable oil 3.00 Premix 0.30 Di-nitro bio (anti oxident) 0.025 Bintonite (as banding agent) 2.50 nutrient composition Dry matter (DM) 88.18 Crude protein (CP) 25.10 ether extract (ee) 7.90 ash 7.30 Crude fibre 6.00 nitrogen free extract (nFe) 54.60 Gross energy (Kcal/100g DM(Ge)* 440.94 Protein energy (P/e) ratio (mg CP/ Kcal Ge) 56.92 Effect of probiotic, Hydroyeast Aquaculture as growth promoter for adult Nile tilapia by FF Khalil, Ahmed ismail Mehrim and Montaha E M Hassan, Al-Mansoura University, Egypt 26 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS
    • Food availability and quality are known to influence both fecundity and egg size in tilapia (Coward and Bromage, 2000). So, brood stock nutrition is recognised as a major fac- tor that can influence fish reproduction and subse- quent larval quality of many fish spe- cies (Izquierdo et al., 2001). The develop- ment of cost effective and nutrient opti- mized brood stock feeds for tilapia is both pertinent and crucial. Yet, many studies have revealed the positive effects of probiotics on growth per- formance in different O. niloticus stages such fry (Abdel-Tawwab et al., 2008; Lara-Flores et al., 2010; Abdelhamid et al., 2012; Abdel-Tawwab, 2012) and finger- lings (Mehrim, 2009; Ghazalah et al., 2010; Khalafalla, 2010). However, no attempts were designed concerning the effects of probiotics on growth performance of adult fish. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to evalu- ate the effects of graded levels of a new die- tary probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture® on both sexes of adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, concerning their growth perform- ance, feed and nutrients utilization and carcass composition for eight weeks. Experiment setup This study was conducted in Fish Research Unit, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Al-Dakahlia, Egypt. Both sexes of healthy adult Nile tilapia O. niloticus, with an average initial body weight (83.4 ± 0.001 g) for adult males and (80.1 ± 0.002 g) for adult females were purchased from Integrated Fish Farm at Al-Manzala, Al-Dakhalia, Egypt. Fish were stocked into rearing tanks for two weeks as an adaptation period, and fed on a basal diet during this period. Fish in both sexes (males and females), were distributed separately into eight experimental treatments (as three replicates per treatment) (Table 1). Fish in each treatment were stoked at 10 fish/ m3 per tank. Each tank (1 m3 in volume) was constructed with an upper irrigation open, an under drainage, and an air stone connected table 5: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on growth performance of adult female O. niloticus Initial weight Final weight aWG rGr aDG (mg/ fish/day) SGr (%/d) Sr (%) t5 75.4 105.3b 29.8b 39.6b 0.52b 0.57b 100.0 t6 81.1 122.4a 41.3a 50.9a 0.71a 0.71a 100.0 t7 83.0 126.1a 43.1a 51.9a 0.74a 0.72a 100.0 t8 81.0 102.4b 21.4c 26.4c 0.37c 0.41c 100.0 ± Se 0.002 1.43 1.42 1.73 0.02 0.02 0.000 P-value 0.128 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.466 table 4: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on growth performance of adult male O. niloticus Initial weight Final weight aWG rGr aDG (mg/ fish/day) SGr (%/d) Sr (%) t1 81.0 117.6b 36.5c 45.1c 0.63c 0.64c 100.0 t2 82.4 137.2a 54.8ab 66.5a 0.94ab 0.88a 100.0 t3 83.0 136.2a 48.9b 56.1b 0.84b 0.77b 100.0 t4 87.3 142.0a 58.9a 71.07a 1.01a 0.92a 100.0 ± Se 0.001 2.36 2.35 2.83 0.04 0.03 0.000 P-value 0.253 0.0004 0.0008 0.0008 0.0008 0.0008 0.526 July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 27 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS www.evonik.com/feed-additives|feed-additives@evonik.com AMINOCarp® – Improve your feed formulation.
    • REAL BREWERS’YEAST “Made inGermany” For Leiber`s specialty yeast products, “Made in Germany”is a seal of quality. Multibiotic effect of Leiber yeast - vitality, health and performance for fish. Leiber GmbH · Hafenstraße 24, 49565 Bramsche, Germany · Tel +49 (0) 5461 9303-0 · Fax +49 (0) 5461 9303-28 · www.leibergmbh.de · info@leibergmbh.de THE SPECIAL WORLD OF LEIBER YEAST... www.leibergmbh.de
    • to an electric compressor. Fresh underground water was used to change one third of the water in each tank every day. Diet The tested probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture® formula shown in Table 2, was produced by Agranco Corp, USA. The commercial diet, as basal ration (BR), used in the present study contains 25 percent crude protein, it was purchased from Al-Manzala manufacture for fish feed, Integrated Fish Farm at Al-Manzala, Dakhalia, Egypt. The ingredients and proximate chemi- cal analysis of this commercial diet according to the manufacture's formula, is shown in Table 3. The diet was ground to add the tested probiotic (Hydroyeast Aquaculture®) at lev- els of 0, 5, 10 and 15 g/Kg diet, referred to treatments No. T1, T2, T3 and T4, respec- tively, for males and T5, T6, T7 and T8 treatments for females (Table 1) and then all diets were repelleted. The experimental diets were introduced by hand twice daily at 9 a.m and 15 p.m at 3% of the fish biomass at each tank. The feed quantity was adjusted bi-weekly according to the actual body weight changes. Fish sampling and performance parameters At the start and at the end of the experi- ment, fish samples were collected and kept frozen till the proximate analysis of the whole fish body according to AOAC (2000). Energy content in experimental fish was calculated according to NRC (1993), being 5.64 and 9.44 kcal/g for CP and EE, respectively. Growth performance parameters of both sexes of adult O. niloticus such as average total weight gain (AWG), average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate % (RGR), specific growth rate %/day (SGR) and survival rate % (SR) were calculated. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency % (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value % (PPV) and energy utilization % (EU) were calculated according to the following equations: AWG (g/fish) = [Average final weight (g) - Average initial weight (g)]. ADG (g/fish/day) = [AWG (g) / experi- mental period in days (d)]. RGR = 100 [AWG (g)/Average initial weight (g)]. SGR (%/day) = 100 [In final body weight - In initial body weight] / experimental period in days (d). FCR = Feed Intake, (g)/Live weight gain (g). FE = 100 [Live weight gain (g)/Feed Intake, (g)]. PER = Live weight gain (g)/protein intake (g). PPV (%) = 100 [Final fish body protein content (g) - Initial fish body protein content (g)]/crude protein intake (g). EU (%) = Retained energy x 100/con- sumed feed energy SR = 100 [Total number of fish at the end of the experimental/Total number of fish at the start of the experiment]. * GE (Kcal/100 g DM) = CP x 5.64 + EE x 9.44 + NFE x 4.11 calculated according to NRC (1993). Statistical analysis The obtained data for males or for females were statistically analysed using general liner models (GLM) procedure according to SAS (2001) for users guide. The differences between means of treatments were com- pared for the significance (P ≤ 0.05) using Duncan's multiple rang test (Duncan, 1955), as described by Bailey (1995). Results Growth performance parameters Male Growth performance parameters of adult males O. niloticus illustrated in Table 4 revealed that T4 (15 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet) was the best treatment followed by T2 (5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet) and table 6: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on feed and nutrients utilization of adult male O. niloticus Protein utilization treat. Fl (g/fish) FCr Fe (%) PPV (%) Per eU (%) t1 123.1 3.4a 29.6c 30.9a 1.2c 15.7a t2 117.7 2.1b 46.9a 29.0a 1.8a 13.6b t3 129.3 2.7b 37.8b 15.8b 1.5b 6.6b t4 129.9 2.2b 45.4a 18.8b 1.8a 8.9c ± Se 5.22 0.16 1.97 1.22 0.07 0.64 P-value 0.364 0.002 0.0009 0.0001 0.0008 0.0001 Means in the same column having different small letters are significantly differ (P ≤ 0.05); SE = Standard Error table 7: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on feed and nutrients utilization of adult female O. niloticus Protein utilization treat. Fl (g/fish) FCr Fe (%) PPV (%) Per eU (%) t5 113.0c 3.7b 26.4b 13.6b 1.1b 11.2b t6 120.5b 2.9c 34.3a 25.6a 1.3a 15.4a t7 122.6a 2.8c 35.1a 15.0b 1.4a 11.1b t8 113.2c 5.3a 18.8c 5.2c 0.8c 4.9c ± Se 0.62 0.12 1.17 0.67 0.04 0.41 P-value 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 Means in the same column having different small letters are significantly differ (P ≤ 0.05); SE = Standard Error 28 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS
    • T3 (10 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet), which were gave significantly (P ≤ 0.05) final body weight, AWG, RGR, ADG and SGR than the control (T1). But, no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences between T2 and T3 for final weight, AWG and ADG, as well as in SR among all treatments. Female Data of growth performance parameters of adult females O. niloticus revealed that T7 (10 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet) was the best treatment followed by T6 (5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet), which were gave significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased final body weight, AWG, RGR, ADG and SGR than T8 (15 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/ Kg diet) and the control (T5). However, no significant (P ≥ 0.05) effects in SR among all treatments (Table 5). Feed and nutrients utilization Male Results of feed nutrients utilization param- eters of adult males O. niloticus were shown in Table 6, whereas T4 gave the highest significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FE, PER and the best FCR followed by T2 compared with the control (T1) and T3. In contrast, PPV or EU increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in T1 followed by T2 compared with T3 and T4. However, no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differ- ences in FI among all treatments. Female Adult females' O. niloticus fed 10 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T7) showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in FI, FE, PER and the best FCR followed by fish fed 5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T6) compared with the control (T1). However, treatment 6 gave significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increase of PPV and EU among all treatments (Table 7). Generally, the differences between males and females within all treatments concerning, feed and nutrients utilization parameters may be due to the differences in sexes, metabolism, physiological responses and sexual behaviours of fish during this stage of life. Fish carcass composition Male Proximate chemical analysis of the whole adult male O. niloticus body at the start and at the end of the experiment is summarized in Table 8. These data indicated that there were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases of DM and EC content in the control group (T1) compared with the dietary inclusion of Hydroyeast Aquaculture® (T2, T3 and T4), but CP content was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in T1 or T2 than the T3 and T4. However, an unclear trend was observed in EE, where the increasing in EE content was not significant in T1 compared with T3 and T4 and significant as compared with T2. In contrast, of these results ash content increased significantly in T3 and T4 compared with T2 and the control T1. Generally, proximate chemical analysis of the whole fish body at the start, revealed higher DM, EE and EC than in the end of the experiment, but CP and ash were lower at the start than at the end of the experiment. Female Adult female O. niloticus fed the 5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T6) table 9: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on carcass composition of adult female O. niloticus % on dry matter basis treat. DM CP ee ash eC at the start of the experiment 24.3 59.2 23.6 17.1 557.5 at the start of the experiment t5 20.9b 53.9c 26.8a 19.1a 557.7b t6 22.4a 60.2a 24.1b 15.7b 566.9a t7 17.1d 55.7b 25.7a 18.5a 557.6b t8 18.4c 55.6bc 25.7a 18.6a 559.9b ± Se 0.09 0.50 0.44 0.29 2.54 P- value 0.0001 0.0001 0.015 0.0001 0.070 Means in the same column having different small letters are significantly differ (P ≤ 0.05). DM: Dry matter (%); CP: Crude protein (%); EE: Ether extract (%); EC: Energy content (Kcal/100 g), calculated according to NRC (1993); SE: Standard Error table 8: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on carcass composition of adult male O. niloticus % on dry matter basis treat. DM CP ee ash eC at the start of the experiment 25.3 52.2 30.7 16.9 585.1 at the end of the experiment t1 24.8a 58.9a 25.2a 15.9c 570.4a t2 20.6b 58.1a 23.8b 18.1b 552.9b t3 18.2c 55.4b 24.3ab 20.3a 541.8c t4 17.9c 55.5b 24.8ab 19.7a 547.5bc ± Se 0.19 0.55 0.37 0.35 2.21 P- value 0.0001 0.003 0.123 0.0001 0.0001 Means in the same column having different small letters are significantly differ (P ≤ 0.05). DM: Dry matter (%); CP: Crude protein (%); EE: Ether extract (%); EC: Energy content (Kcal/100 g), calculated according to NRC (1993); SE: Standard Error July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 29 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS www.biomar.com gets fish into shape Reduces deformities in larvae and fry LARVIVA ProStart™ is the first early weaning diet with a unique probiotic approved by the European Food Safety Authorities for its documented effect in reducing the occurrence of vertebral deformities in fish larvae and fry.
    • showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in DM, CP and EC con- tents among all treat- ments. However, both the EE and ash contents recorded the same trend, whereas increased insignificantly in the control group (T5) compared with T7 and T8 and sig- nificantly increased compared with T6. In general, unclear trend was recorded in proximate chemi- cal analysis of the whole adult female' O. niloticus body at the start and at the end of the experi- mental period, which there were higher DM and CP than in the end of the exper- iment, but EE and ash were lower at start than at the end of the experiment. Meanwhile, no any remarkable changes were observed in EC content at the start and the end of the experimental period (Table 9). Discussion The positive effects in the present study of Hydroyeast Aquaculture® pro- biotic on adult males and females O niloticus growth performance and feed utilization, was found by Eid and Mohamed (2008), where they proved that Biogen® and Prmifer® improved the growth perform- ance, feed conver- sion, protein efficien- cy ratio and apparent protein digestibility for monosex tilapia fingerlings compared to fish fed the con- trol diet. Moreover, El-Ashram et al. (2008) concluded that, super Biobuds® can improve body gain, survival and enhance resistance to challenge infection. Yet, Abdelhamid and Elkatan (2006) found that dietary supplementation of Biobuds® slightly improved body weight gain but reduced the survival rate of tilapia fingerlings. El-Haroun et al. (2006) and El-Haroun (2007) reported that Biogen® dietary supplementa- tion improved growth performance and feed utilization, carcass protein and fat percentages as well as economical profit in Nile tilapia and catfish culture, respectively. In this respect, Mehrim (2009) reported that dietary probiotic (Biogen®) had significant- ly (P ≤ 0.05) increased all growth performance parameters of O. niloticus compared with the control group. Yet, Marzouk et al. (2008) found that probiotics (B. subtillis and Saccharomyces cerevisae) revealed significant improvement in growth parameters of O. niloticus. However, Shelby et al. (2006) noted that the probiotic used with juvenile channel catfish diet had lack effect on specific growth promot- ing. Also, He et al. (2009) found that supple- mentation of dietary DVAQUA® showed no effects on growth performance, feed conver- sion and survival rate of the hybrid tilapia. The reasons for the differences between fish species have not been elucidated, but might be due to the differences in aquaculture and physiological conditions, composition of the probiotic and the type of basal ingredients in diets. In this context, many studies concluded a positive effect of using viable microorgan- isms in probiotic mixtures into diets of fish (Pangrahi et al., 2005; Barnes et al., 2006; Abo- State et al., 2009). According to the results of the present study and those obtained by others; it seems that probiotics may stimulate appetite and improve nutrition by the produc- tion of vitamins, detoxification of compounds in the diet, and by breakdown of indigestible components (Irianto and Austin, 2002). Also, Varley (2008) cited also that probiotics show real benefits in the synergistic effects with the beneficial bacteria in making inroads into improving gut health. Probiotics and FCR Probiotics improve feed conversion efficiency and live weight gains (Saenz de Rodriguez et al., 2009). So, the supplementa- tion of commercial live yeast, S. cerevisiae, improved growth and feed utilization (Abdel- Tawwab et al., 2008). Yet, similar results were obtained when S. cerevisiae was added to fish diet for Israeli carp (Noh et al., 1994) and Nile tilapia (Lara-Flores et al., 2003). Moreover, Mehrim (2009) found similar positive effects of Biogen® on growth per- formance, feed conversion ratio and carcass composition of O. niloticus. Rawling et al. (2009) reported that daily feed intake was significantly 30 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS For more information: contactlfa@lesaffre.fr - www.yeast-science.com Please check if the products are registered and available in your country Innovative and proven yeast products in aquaculture Wellbeing, the source of performance Live yeast concentrate NSP enzymesYeast cell wall Yeast extracts Organic selenium yeast Premium yeast cell wall B.I. 500 P.S. B.I. 500 P.S. A complete range of natural yeast-based additives: to get the most from feed and promoting optimal performance for aquatic animals. PRODUCED SPECIFICALLY IN LESAFFRE GROUP FACTORIESPRODUCED SPECIFICALLY IN LESAFFRE GROUP FACTORIES AQUA
    • higher in red tilapia (O. niloticus) fed Sangrovit® (Phytobiotics Gmbh, Etville, Germany) sup- plemented diets compared to control and that feed utilization was not significantly affected suggesting that improved growth was likely to be due to improved appetite of fish fed diets containing Sangrovit®. The improved fish growth and feed uti- lization may possibly be due to improved nutrient digestibility. In this regard, Tovar et al. (2002), Lara-Flores et al. (2003), and Waché et al. (2006) found that the addi- tion of live yeast improved diet and protein digestibility, which may explain the better growth and feed efficiency seen with yeast supplements. Also, De Schrijver and Ollevier (2000) reported a positive effect on apparent protein digestion when sup- plementing turbot feeds with the bacteria Vibrio proteolyticus. Effect of yeast on whole- body composition Growth of fish and feed conversion together with carcass composition are gen- erally affected by species, genetic strain, sex, stage of reproductive cycle, etc, leading to different nutritional requirements (Jauncey, 1998). In this respect, yeast supplementa- tion significantly affected the whole-fish body composition (Abdel-Tawwab et al., 2008). These results suggest that yeast supple- mentation plays a role in enhancing feed intake with a subsequent enhancement of fish body composition, as well as yeast supple- ments significantly affected ash content of O. niloticus (Abdel-Tawwab, 2012). On the other hand, changes in protein and lipid content in fish body could be linked with changes in their synthesis, deposition rate in muscle and/ or different growth rate (Abdel-Tawwab et al., 2006). In this topic, Khattab et al. (2004) reported that crude protein, total lipids and ash were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by protein level and increasing stocking density rate of tilapia fish. Yet, Abdelhamid et al. (2007) reported that increasing dietary Betafin® (betaine) level caused a significant improve of O. niloticus body composition. On the other side, the results in the present study are in close agreement with those of EL-Haroun et al. (2006), Mohamed et al. (2007), and Eid and Mohamed (2008) for tilapia and EL-Haroun, (2007) for catfish. In addition, Mehrim (2009) found positive effects of inclusion of Biogen® at a level of 3 g/kg on carcass composition of mono-sex O. niloticus fingerlings. These positive effects in carcass composition of experimental fish may be due to the dietary probiotic Biogen®, which caused the good growth performance of treated fish compared with the control group, as present findings of adult males and females O. niloticus growth performance (Tables 4 and 5), respectively. From the forgoing results, it could be con- cluded that Hydroyeast Aquaculture® probi- otic is useful at levels 15 g/kg diet (T4) and 10 g /kg diet (T7) for enhancing production performance of adult males and females Nile tilapia O. niloticus respectively, so may be using of this probiotic led to economic efficiency especially, for fish farming and hatcheries. This article was originally published on July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 31 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS Need to keep up to date with news about tilapia? Global Aquaculture News scours the web every day to bring you all of the latest information available. Visit: www.aquafeed.co.uk/aquaculturenews Hatchery Feeds Factory direct and distributor sales. Experts in international logistics. | The easiest to use,cleanest and most effective feeds on the market Provid ing Superior Feeds forS uperior Res ults® Reed Mariculture Inc Instant Algae®single species, blends and custom feeds RotiGrow®grow-out, enrichment and greenwater feeds Shellfish Diet® for all stages from D-Larvae to broodstock Instant Zooplankton® clean Mini-L160 rotifers and Parvocalanus copepod cultures Otohime®premium Japanese larval and weaning feeds;17sizes from 75µm to10mm TDO™ top-dressed with Haematococcus, natural stimulants, and more! ClorAm-X®detoxifies and removes ammonia, chlorine and chloramines in fresh and salt water 10 Liter Cubitainer 1 kg Bag TOLL-FREE: 1-877-732-3276 | VOICE: 408-377-1065 | FAX: 408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.com MICROALGAL, LARVAL & WEANING FEEDS AND PRODUCTION PRODUCTS ©2012-2013ReedMariculture,Inc.AllRightsreserved. InstantAlgae,InstantZooplankton,RotiGrow,ShellfishDiet, and“ProvidingSuperiorFeedsforSuperiorResults”are trademarksorregisteredtrademarksofReedMaricultureInc.All othertrademarksarethepropertyoftheirrespectiveowners. Hatchery Feeds
    • T ra catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a dominant cultured species in Vietnam in terms of production. Its aquaculture production in 2011 was approximate 1.2 million metric tons. The main culture system for tra catfish is an intensive model in earthen ponds with a very high density and yield. In this model, feed cost comprises the main part of production cost. The cost feed increased recently, leading to a reduction in profit for farmers. In order to improve the profit of tra catfish farming, feed cost should be reduced. One of the measures to reduce feed cost is through feed additives which improve nutrient absorption and utilization. Sangrovit® is an all-natural feed additive that has been utilized in many animal species. The main active ingredients of Sangrovit® include bitter constituents, which help to enhance the absorption of feed and promote digestion. The special active substances includ- ed in Sangrovit®, belonging to the group of Benzophenanthridine and Protopine Alkaloids, have the additional effects of improving hor- monal and chemostatic regulating mechanisms in feed uptake, nutrient absorption and avail- ability. Therefore, it is feasible to utilize its characteristics in tra catfish intensive culture system in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sangrovit® on the final mean weight, FCR, survival rate and non-specific immunity parameters of Pangasius hypophthal- mus fingerling cultured in hapa installed in an earthen pond. The present study consisted of two experi- ments conducted at Experimental Station, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Effect of Sangrovit® used as feed additives for Pangasius hypophthalmus feed Pangasius hypophthalmus fingerlings (9,8 ± 0,1 g) were randomly stocked into 15 1 m3 cages (1x1x1.3 m) installed in a 600 m2 earthen pond at an initial density of 40 fish per hapa (Figure 1) for four different levels of Sangrovit® supplementation (Table 1) with three replicates per treatment to determine the optimal dose in the feed. The utilized feed was 2 mm extruded floating feed with the following specifications: 30 percent protein, 5 percent fat, ME min 2,800 Kcal and 6 percent maximum fibre. Fish were fed to satiation twice a day. This experiment was conducted for 16 weeks. Fish were weighed every four weeks to monitor growth and survival rates. At the end of the first experi- ment, fish were harvested, counted and group weighed to determine final mean weight, FCR and survival rate. Water quality variables were measured as follow: Dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were measured twice a day (7 am and 4 pm) using YSI-550 digital oxygen/temperature meter table 1: tested Sangrovit® concentration Control 1 2 3 4 0g/ton of feed 25g/ton of feed 50g/ton of feed 75g/ton of feed 100g/ton of feed table 2: Controlled water quality variables temp D.o. pH Maximum 31.2°C 8.2 ppm 6.79 average 29.3°C 4.9 ppm 6.78 Minimum 27.1°C 1.6 ppm 6.71 Figure 1: Experimental hapa Effects of Sangrovit ® on the performances of tra catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) cultured in earthen ponds by Dr Nguyen Nhu Tri and Prof Le Thanh Hung, Nong Lam University, Vietnam 34 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS
    • and Fisher-Scientific portable pH meter. Total ammonia nitrogen and nitrite were measured three times a week by spectrometric method. Water in the pond was exchanged regularly to maintain good quality for the entire experi- mental period. The parameters of the water quality were maintained at the levels shown in the Table 2. Sampling and analysis Initially, fish were weighed and ran- domly distributed into hapa. To mini- mize the fish not being stressed while- being weighed, MS222 was used to anaesthetize the fish. At the end of the trial, fish in each hapa were weighed. Growth performances were monitored using specific growth rates (SGR) as follows: Specific Growth Rate (SGR) In which: - W2 : Mean weight at the end of the experiment - W1 : Mean weight at the beginning of the experiment - T2- T1 : Duration of the experiment 112 days (16 weeks) Feed efficiency In the study, feed efficiency was monitored using the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) as follows FCR = Total feed intake/ Total weight gain (W2 - W1) PER = (W2 - W1) / Protein intake Statistical analyses were performed using Minitab software version 16.0. Data collected from the experiment were ana- lyzed using one-way analysis of variance to determine if significant differences (P<0.05) in final mean weight, FCR, sur- vival rate and non-specific immunity parameters between treatments. Tukey multiple comparison test was utilized to determine differences among treatment means. table 4: lysozyme activity of experimented fish time Control 1 2 3 4 0 hr 128.3 ± 35.3a 126.7 ± 30.6a 145.8 ± 36.4a 135.0 ± 32.5a 147.5 ± 24.6a 24 hrs 146.7 ± 38.8a 154.2 ± 47.9a 157.5 ± 18.0a 185.0 ± 2.50a 175.0 ± 55.2a 72 hrs 161.7 ± 34.0a 217.5 ± 23.8ab 313.3 ± 52.8ab 381.7 ± 25.7b 339.2 ± 121.6b table 3: Final mean weight, SGr (add ‘SGr’), FCr and survival rate of experimented fish Parameter Control 1 2 3 4 Initial Wt (g) 9.77 ± 0.10a 9.78 ± 0.02a 9.72 ± 0.01a 9.74 ± 0.01a 9.82 ± 0.01 a Final Wt (g) 75.86 ± 3.45a 84.25 ± 9.15ab 87.19 ± 3.23ab 92.96 ± 3.97b 89.29 ± 3.45b SGr (%/day) 2.31 ± 0.04a 2.41 ± 0.11ab 2.46 ± 0.04b 2.51 ± 0.04b 2.47 ± 0.11b FCr 1.70 ± 0.02a 1.57 ± 0.08b 1.60 ± 0.01ab 1.51 ± 0.05b 1.49 ± 0.11b Survival rate (%) 93.33 ± 5.20a 92.50 ± 2.50a 90.83 ± 2.88a 94.17 ± 5.20a 90.83 ± 1.44a table 5: White blood cell density (x103 cell/mm3) of experimented fish time Control 1 2 3 4 0 hr 83.83 ± 3.05a 97.02 ± 20.44a 95.78 ± 3.89a 105.58 ±11.88a 98.34 ± 32.44a 24 hrs 93.61 ± 30.18a 102.57 ± 27.39a 118.70 ± 35.35a 125.75 ± 23.06a 116.17 ± 30.99a 72 hrs 9.96 ± 4.77a 15.20 ± 3.56a 12.80 ± 1.92a 13.10 ± 4.35a 14.93 ± 2.29a July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 35 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS Active ingredients for healthy fish BENEO-Animal Nutrition capitalizes on BENEO’s unique expertise in the food world. It offers a broad range of ingredients from a natural source that improve the nutritional and technological value of fish food. It covers specialty products such as vital wheat gluten, rice flour, rice starch, inulin and FOS, prebiotics from chicory. www.BENEO-An.com Connecting nutrition and health 107-006_adv. aquafeed.indd 1 28/06/12 10:11 Need to keep up to date with news about pangasius? Global Aquaculture News scours the web every day to bring you all of the latest information available. Visit: www.aquafeed.co.uk/aquaculturenews
    • Results and discussion Data presented in Table 3 shows that final mean weight of the first three treatments was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, final mean weight of treatments 3 and 4 was significantly higher than that of the control. The survival rate of all treatments was not significantly different. The highest SGR was obtained in treatment 3, followed by treatments 4 and 2 and significantly different from the control. It means that Sangrovit® supplemented to the feed at levels from 50-100 g/ton of feed are able to enhance growth rate of tra catfish (Figure 2). Data are expressed as Mean ± SD. Data with the same superscript in the same row are not significant differences (P>0.05) One of the most important parameters to consider in tra catfish farming is FCR. Data from Table 3 showed that FCR of the control treatment was significantly higher than those belonged to treatments 1, 3 and 4. Sangrovit® supplementation to the feed at lev- els of 75 and 100 g/ ton helps to reduce FCR remarkably (Figure 3). That means the Sangrovit® supplementa- tion in P. hypophthalmus feed has improved the feed utilization by enhancing the secretion of internal enzymes in digestive tract. Effect of Sangrovit® on health improvement After the first experiment was completed, 15 fish from each hapa were randomly assigned to a 100-L fibreglass tank of a wet lab for a challenge test with Edwardsiella ictaluri to evaluate the effects of Sangrovit® on health status of experimented fish. Lysozyme activity When the first experiment was completed, five fish from each hapa were challenged by dipping in a low-density Edwardsiella ictaluri solution (1.28 x 105 CFU/mL) for one hour in order to stimulate the activity of immune system. Blood samples were taken right before challenging, 24 hours and 72 hours after challenging to measure lys- ozyme activity. Lysozyme activity of all five treatments is presented in Table 4 and Figure 4. Data are expressed as Mean ± SD. Data with the same superscript in the same row are not significant differences (P>0.05) Data in Table 4 and Figure show that serum lysozyme activity of all treatments was not significantly different at 0 hours and 24 hours post challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. However, this parameter was sig- nificantly higher in treatments 3 and 4 as compared to the control at 72 hours post challenge. The supplementation of Sangrovit® at levels of 75 and 100 g/ton of feed helped to boost immune system of tra catfish through increasing lysozyme activity table 6: Survival rate of tra catfish at 14 days post challenge treatment Survival rate (%) Control 11.11 ± 3.85a 1 17.78 ± 3.85ab 2 13.33 ± 6.67ab 3 22.22 ± 3.85b 4 20.00 ± 6.67ab Figure 2: impact of Sangrovit® supplementation on the Specific Growth Rate Figure 3: impact of Sangrovit® supplementation on the FCR Figure 4: Lysozyme activity of experimented fish Figure 5: White blood cell density of experimented fish 36 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS
    • to a level that significantly different from the control. White blood cell density White blood cell density was determined at the same time frame as lysozyme activity measurement and presented in Table 5 and Figure 5. Data are expressed as Mean ± SD. Data with the same superscript in the same row are not significant differences (P>0.05) Data in Table 5 shows that white blood cell density was not significantly different among treatments at 0 hours, 24 hours and 72 hours post challenge. However, this parameter tended to be higher in Sangrovit® supplemented treatments as compared to the control at 24 hours and 72 hours post chal- lenge. Sangrovit® might enhance the production of white blood cell to fight against infected bac- teria. Survival Experimented fish were dipped in an Edwardsiella ictaluri solution (3.39 x 105 CFU/ml) for 1 hour and then returned to the tank. Mortalities were monitored for 14 days. During this period, water temperature was maintained at 26 °C, an optimal temperature for bacteria growth. Dead or moribund fish were retrieved from the tanks. They were necropsied, and bacterial laboratory diagnosis was made from the moribund and freshly dead fish. Bacteria from moribund and freshly dead fish were isolated and classified by IDS 14 GNR test kit of Nam Khoa company. The results of the second experiment were presented in Table 6 showed that the mortality of tra catfish started from day four and stopped at day 11-post challenge. The survival rate of tra catfish in treatment 3 was significantly higher than that of the control. Sangrovit® supplementation at a level of 75 g/ton of feed could enhance survival rate of tra catfish when challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri. Conclusions Notably Sangrovit® inclusion to commer- cial feed at levels of 75 g/ton enhanced growth rate, SGR and lysozyme activity of Pangasius hypophthalmus, and it also reduced FCR significantly. Further, a positive effect on the test fish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri was detected. The measured influence can be attributed to the known effect on nutrient absorption and on the anti-inflammatory mode of action of Sangrovit®, which is particularly focused on the intestinal tract. Thus feed conversion and digestibility and the health status of fish was improved. Therefore, Sangrovit® is recommended to be used in the feed at this level to increase return on investment of Pangasius hypophthal- mus farming industry. Figure 6: Survival rate of the tra catfish during 14 days July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 37 FOCUS | PROBIOTICS AQUAFEED 6 iSSUES International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, and more. As well as your personal copy delivered direct to your address, subscribers to International Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website. For a complimentary trial issue, contact Tuti Tan - Email: tutit@aquafeed.co.uk THE AQUAFEED DiRECTORY The International Aquafeed Directory was launched in 1997 as an easy to use publication for manufacturers of fish feed to source suppliers. It evolved to become a practical guide to plant and materials available throughout the world. It is one of the most comprehensive information sources specifically designed to identify all aquafeed ingredients, raw feedstuffs, feed additive micro-ingredients, production machinery and plant and equipment available on the world market. + UK£69 Recieve six issues of International Aquafeed magazine + The International Aquafeed Directory & Buyers’ Guide www.aquafeed.co.uk/subscribe.php VOLUME 15 ISSUE 5 2012 THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: – enhancing digestion in a different manner Fishmeal & fish oil – and its role in sustainable aquaculture Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed EXPERT TOPIC – Shrimp IAF12.05.indd 1 04/10/2012 09:36 VOLUME 15 ISSUE 6 2012 THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY An overview of the UK fish vaccination industry Why check selenomethionine levels in selenium yeast? Extrusion technology for the production of micro-aquatic feeds and shrimp feeds EXPERT TOPIC – Salmon IAF12.06.indd 1 07/11/2012 17:39 Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation Profitable aquafeed moisture control The shrimp feed industry in China – an overview Spray-dried plasma – from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs VOLUME 16 ISSUE 1 2013 - JANUARY | FEBRUARY INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY IAF13.01.indd 1 23/01/2013 10:51 Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems Nutritional benefits of processed animal proteins – in European aquafeeds Towards aquafeeds with increased food security Bioenergetics – application in aquaculture nutrition VOLUME 16 ISSUE 2 2013 - MARCH | APRIL INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY IAF13.02.indd 1 04/04/2013 16:17 They are what they eat Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae Controlling mycotoxins with binders Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries Niacin – one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production VOLUME 16 ISSUE 3 2013 - MAY | JUNE INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY IAF13.03.indd 1 13/05/2013 16:03 VOLUME 15 ISSUE 4 2012 THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY Tough environment produces world’s best Barramundi EXPERT TOPIC - Tilapia – a collection of articles creating a worldwide perspective Noise – a source of stress for farmed fish Enzymes – Unlocking the hidden potential of plant proteins using solid state fermentation technology Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in aquaculture ponds IAF12.04.indd 1 19/07/2012 17:15 FEATURE Naturally ahead MYC OFIX Myco toxin Ri sk M a n a g e M ent Mycofix® More protective. Mycotoxins decrease performance and interfere with the health status of your animals. Mycofix® is the solution for mycotoxin risk management. mycofix.biomin.net
    • www.aquafeed.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Maintaining ingredient quality in extruded feeds Fine particle filtration in aquaculture Effect of probiotic, Hydroyeast Aquaculture – as growth promoter for adult Nile tilapia Volume 16 Issue 4 2013 - JulY | August INCORPORATING fIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy EXPERT TOPIC – channel catfish This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE