November | December 2010
Feature title: Feed management in an intensive shrimp farming system with bioflocs
The Internatio...
eed management in exten-
sive and semi-intensive
shrimp farming systems
differs a lot with the feed
management, which is...
Functional Hydrolysates for Aqua Feed
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•	 See the full issue
•	 Visit the International Aquafeed website
•	 Contact the International Aq...
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Feed management in an intensive shrimp farming system with bioflocs


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Feed management in extensive and semi-intensive shrimp farming systems differs a lot with the feed management, which is practiced for fish farming.

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Feed management in an intensive shrimp farming system with bioflocs

  1. 1. November | December 2010 Feature title: Feed management in an intensive shrimp farming system with bioflocs The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
  2. 2. F eed management in exten- sive and semi-intensive shrimp farming systems differs a lot with the feed management, which is practiced for fish farming. Feeding frequency is limited to four or six times per day. The feed is spread over the whole pond, which is labor-intensive. There are also some indications that lower feeding frequencies are not affecting growth. The reason is most probably the availability of natural feeds in the pond, which comple- ment the shrimp nutrition in the absence of feed (between feedings). The lower the feed quality the better it will be to decrease the feeding frequency, because it forces the shrimp to go for natural feed, which has a better quality than the feed. In the continuous presence of low qual- ity feeds,the shrimp will fill its stomach with this feed with slower growth as a result. Intensive farming with bioflocs However, the feeding affects the water quality parameters in the ponds.An oxygen drop is observed after feeding. A continuous feeding will result in a more continuous water quality and less stress for the shrimp.In intensive farming,the natural produc- tion of the tank is represented by bioflocs. These bioflocs directly interfere with the water quality. Intensive farming also allows the mechanization of feeding without extra labour. Trial The influence of feeding frequency on growth and FCR was observed in the AFT- CreveTec Research station in Venray, Netherlands. Four different diets with crude protein content of 38 percent and lipid content of eight percent were formulated and pro- duced with a pellet press at two mm. Shrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei) were imported from Thailand and raised till six grams. They were divided over 20 nets, which resulted in 23 per net. They were weighed individually at start and finish. Feed management in an intensive shrimp farming system with bioflocs Table 1: Average growth and FCR Feeding regime Growth (g/week) FCr Week 1 continue 1,67 1,46 Week 2 continue 1,74 1,03 Week 3 4 times/day 1,38 2,62 Week 4 4 times/day 1,14 3,75 Week 5 2 times/day 0,83 2,58 Week 6 2 times/day 0,99 4,59 by Eric De Muylder of CreveTec, Belgium and Leon Claessens of Aquaculture Farming Technology, The Netherlands 38 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2010 Feed Management november-December 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 39 Every week, total weight and number was measured to have average weights. During the first two weeks, the shrimp were fed on a continuous basis. During week three and four, they were fed four times per day. During week five and six, they were fed only two times per day. The average growth and FCR can be seen in table 1 It is clear that the reduction in feeding frequency affected the growth negatively. The shrimp were also not able to con- sume all the feeds, which resulted in much higher conversion ratios. More inforMation: Eric De Muylder CreveTec Belgium Email: Leon Claessens Aquaculture Farming Technology The Netherlands Email: 38 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2010 november-December 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 39 Feed Management 9-11 March, BITEC Bangkok, Thailand Find your suppliers of innovative products and services in the Fish, Molluscs, Crustaceans and Algae business Visit our website for more information! adv_aqua2011_210x147_aV2.indd 1 17-09-10 15:49 A fter researching a wide array of cage netting to farm their tilapia in,Trapia Malaysia Sdn Bhd selected the Aquagrid® Containment System because - it met and exceeded their operational objectives for net strength and resistance to bio-fouling. Headquartered in Ipoh in the State of Perak, Malaysia, their eco-friendly farm operates in the pristine rainforest-fed, freshwater lakes of Tasik Temenggor of the Perak River system. Trapia's management sought to protect this unique grow-out environment by searching for a cage system that would keep their tilapia in and the preda- tors out while ensuring profit- ability and minimising environ- mental impacts. Tilapias have the annoying habit of grazing on cage netting, damaging the fibres of tra- ditional netting but the coating on the Aquagrid® containment system prevents this from hap- pening. In addition, to escape- and pred- ator-proof netting, Trapia also required netting that was more resistant to bio-fouling and would last longer than traditional mate- rials used for aquaculture, such as nylon. Aquagrid® netting's semirigid, PVC coated polyester material and special design makes it up to 100 percent stronger than nylon or poly- ester and eliminates the use of anti- fouling products which can leach into the surrounding water. The Aquagrid® contain- ment system's LiftUP® Mortality Retrieval System, designed to fit the special conical bottoms of the Aquagrid® cages, collects mortal- ities, unconverted feed and feces and pumps them to the surface for disposal, ensuring the watersTrapia operates in are kept clean and safe for future generations of fish. Trapia COOAlejandroTola is very impressed with the performance of the Aquagrid® cages since their installation in November 2008. "The nets are very easy to clean by simple brushing and the strength of the material is definitely keeping away and avoiding break- ins from carnivorous species in the lake.The logistics consequences of this are huge," he says. More inforMation: TenCate Industrial Fabrics 365 South Holland Drive Pendergrass, Georgia 30567 USA Tel: +1 706 6932226 Fax: +1 706 6934400 Website: Trapia Malaysia selects TenCate Aquagrid® containment system to ensure profitability while protecting the environment 6 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2010 november-December 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 7 ® Superior finished product with energy consumption reduced up to 20%. Drying Profitability. Industry leading AirFlow II technology literally smashed dryer efficiency standards when introduced.This exclusive technology simply operates at the highest efficiency today. Efficiencies accomplished through the ability to independently manage air flows and temperatures within each dryer zone have taken product quality to levels that benefit customers in every corner of the world. How we manage energy today will determine the kind of world we live in tomorrow. What started as pure innovation at Extru-Tech has grown into dryer/cooler technology that an entire industry now uses to gauge efficiency. Now that’s innovation driven by Extru-Tech. Corporate Office P.O. Box 8 • 100 Airport Road • Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 • Fax: 785-284-3143 •® ET-202B.indd 1 12/18/09 10:26:40 AM Salmon Farmers Association is eager to be part of a larger dis- cussion about what the real issues are. "We have seen large variations in wild salmon populations as our farm operations remain the same," says Mary Ellen Walling, Executive Director of the BC Salmon Farmers Association. “For example - there was no significant difference in opera- tions between the poor Sockeye return of 2009 and the trium- phant return in 2010. "That tells us that more needs to be considered as we talk about standing for the Cohen Commission Inquiry into the decline of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon.Along with groups repre- senting a wide range of interests, they will be participating in the evidentiary hearings beginning October 25, 2010 to share infor- mation about their operations and research, as well as correct erroneous claims. The message from anti- salmon farm activists during a recent campaign oversimplifies a complex situation. It ignores any effects rising water temperatures, failed plankton blooms, extraordi- the life-cycle of BC's salmon. All of these items are on the list of things Justice Bruce Cohen will be investigating. In the meantime, BC's salmon farmers continue to grow a healthy product in a sustain- able way, while leading the way in research and development and working with environmental groups and the community to find answers to industry ques- tions. "Salmon farming is a highly-reg- ulated industry that is continually improving," adds Ms Walling. "We believe that our well- employs roughly 6,000 people directly and indirectly, contrib- uting US$800-million to the pro- vincial economy. Farmed salmon is the province's largest agricul- tural export. More inforMation: Mary Ellen Walling Executive Director British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association #302 - 871 Island Highway Campbell River, BC V9W 2C2, Canada Tel: +1 250 2861636 x223 Fax: +1 250 2861574 Email: Website: 4 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2010 november-December 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 5 ONLINE ARCHIVE Our readers can find an archive of back issue's on the aquafeed website. We also make individual features available to view and download
  3. 3. FOR FISHMEAL REPLACEMENT Functional Hydrolysates for Aqua Feed Contact us at : +33 2 97 93 89 36 FRANCE/0033297404209 AP-TEASING_87x267.indd 1 16/08/10 16:44 r t of o ut ls st ic g, es ts d e o or n e h w al nt s. is rs | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9 larval and juvenile post -larval stages before reaching the mature or adult phase. The length of the culture period varies but for Pacific white shrimp it can take about 20 days for the larvae to metamorphose to post larvae and approximately another three to four months to reach market size in tropical waters at 25-27°C. The rate of growth of the shrimp is a function of the frequency of molting and the increase in size at each molt. However, the frequency of molting decreases as the shrimp increases in weight with the intermolt period increasing in length. In the 20 day larval period, from egg to post-larvae, there can be 16-20 molts, a further 20 molts in the 40 day nursery phase to approximately 2g and an additional eight molts in the final 80 day grow out phase to 20g. The diet quality during the exponential nursery growth period, from approxi- mately 0.5mg to 2.0g, with high molting frequency, is especially critical as it is dur- ing this period that the final yield potential is laid down. Lipids, such as phospholipids, triglycer- ides and cholesterol, are a major source of energy in shrimp diets as well as being involved in several essential processes for their growth, molting and reproduction. Cholesterol is an essential dietary nutri- ent, for members of the crustacean family, as they are incapable of synthesising their own cholesterol from fatty acids unlike other animals. Cholesterol is an essential component of all animal tissues, it plays a major role in cell membrane structure, is a precursor for sex hormones, for bile acids and for vitamin D. In crustaceans cholesterol is a precursor for many hormones, including ecdysteroids, which are critical for the initiation of meta- morphosis and the moulting process (Teshima, 1997). Cholesterol availability In their natural habitat shrimps will obtain naturally occurring sterols from algae and zooplankton, how- ever these sources will not be avail- able to shrimp in semi-intensive or intensive cultiva- tion in the required amount. In commercial diets cholesterol is a natural com- ponent of marine invertebrate meals and oils, for exam- ple from squid, shrimp, clams and crab. However the cholesterol content of these ingredients varies considerably and is present in a less esterified form requiring more energy for its utilisation than it manufactured alternative. The industry requirement for guaranteed quality characteristics with higher bioavail- Figure 1: Effect of 3 cholesterol levels on the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei bred in ponds ( Ir A.H.Mogollon and Ir. V.V. Rubin, University of Tumbes, Peru) november-December 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31 F: Shrimp farming Rising feed cost Escalating fish meal price Opportunistic diseases Environmental impact Low Shrimp & fish prices Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations … and the most difficult one to reduce when ingredient prices are rising … Tired of hearing only bad news? AQUAGEST® maximizes digestibility and feed utilization efficiency AQUABITE® enhances palatability and appetite SANACORE® GM improves growth and productivity by promoting a healthy gut microflora applying nature for a healthy and sustainable future 2 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2010 Only from Tapco, the two most popular bucket designs in the world! 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FLAT COUNTERSUNK HEAD Elevator Bolt I Tough & Flexible Injection molded polyethylene “gives” or “yields” to bypass obstructions in your elevator, allowing the bucket to return to its original shape. I Unequaled Strength Thick walls and prime virgin engineered resins provide exceptional strength. I I Accurate & Reliable Capacity Ratings Equal or greater carrying capacity of equivalent size steel buckets. Rounded front lip aids in filling of bucket. I Cost Efficient Prime virgin resins give unsurpassed bucket life for maximum return on investment. I Perfect Fit Direct replacement of existing steel and plastic buckets. No modifications to your elevator are needed. I Ease of Installation Lighter weight aids in mounting buckets and reduces load on belt and running components. Nonmetallic materials eliminate hazardous sharp edges of steel buckets. I Increased Safety Non-metallic materials eliminate the possibility of explosion-causing sparking from bent and torn steel buckets. I Ordered Today, Shipped Today 900,000 buckets in stock worldwide in more than 64 sizes, 12 styles & 6 materials for fast delivery. How Tapco Buckets Make a World of Difference in Your Elevator Facility The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. Super EuroBucket ™ is a registered trademark of Tapco Inc. © 2010 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved. FANGED HEAD Elevator Bolt STYLE SUPER EUROBUCKET ™ and STYLE CC-HD Polyethylene Elevator Buckets (pictured) Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • +1 800 AT-TAPCO (+1 800 288 2726) • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 • ELEVATOR BUCKETS - ELEVATOR BOLTS St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A. I Profitable, High-Speed Handling Tested and proven designs allow a direct, compact discharge path for improved, high-speed performance. ®
  4. 4. LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Volume 13 Issue 6 2010 the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry Seaweeds as Ingredients in Aquatic Feeds A new and revolutionary type of feather meal for fish feed New dimension in the production of hygienized feed meal Chromium - the forgotten mineral that plays an essential role in the utilization This digital re-print is part of the November | December 2010 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE
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