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  1. 1. July | August 2014 EXPERT TOPIC - SALMON The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. 32 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed. SALMON EXPERT TOPIC
  3. 3. 1 USA Farmed on land salmon L and-based aquaculture is a growing alternative that elimi- nates the risk of spreading waste, diseases or parasites in open waters. Closed containment systems do, however, share a key area of concern with their water-based counterparts, and that’s how many fish it takes to grow the larger ones that humans eat. System owners also have to filter out fish waste or develop markets for products like fish fertilizer. Building an intricate indoor system of tanks and tubes costs far more than growing Atlantic salmon in nets or cages in open waters.The technology, which helps conserve water resources on land, has been evolving for more than a decade, but few businesses have been able to make it financially viable says the report. As a research facility, the Freshwater Institute isn’t aiming to sell salmon year-round. Its fish won’t hit the market again for another eight to 10 months, and previous salmon harvests have been donated to places such as the anti-hunger nonprofit D.C. Central Kitchen. In the meantime, institute director Joseph Hankins has opened the facility’s doors to aquaculture businesses and inves- tors looking to adapt and scale up the recirculating aquaculture, or closed containment, technology. The Freshwater Institute’s first batch of land reared Salmon was delivered to markets in Maryland and Virginia in late March and will be available through mid-May at area Wegmans seafood counters and on more than a dozen restaurant menus.That means Washington consumers can get the first taste of the only Atlantic salmon in the United States grown with this technology. July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 33 EXPERT T●PIC 3 4 2 5 1
  4. 4. A history of aquaculture and salmon in Chile I n the early 1990s, according to FAO, the total harvest from aqua cultivation centres in Chile did not exceed 80,000 tonnes. However, by 2004 they had reached 688,000 tonnes. A massive increase in production which has, despite some difficulties continued. Likewise in exported volumes, from 30,000 to 430,000 tonnes in that same period. In dollar terms this has meant from US$100 million in 1990 to US$1600 million in 2004 and as at 2013 this figure has moved to close toUS$4000 million. Salmonid species have been dominant, both in harvest volume and export values. Other important species include bivalve molluscs (oysters, scallops and mussels) and cultivation of the Gracilaria algae. Turbot cultivation has registered a gradual growth from one tonne (1991) to 249 tonnes (2004). Many exotic aquatic species were intro- duced into Chile back as far as the 1850s but it was not until the early 1900s -1920s that Salmon were imported. According to report by E.A. Tulian, the Argentinian Government employed the services of John W. Titcomb (Bureau of Fisheries in USA) for a number of months, especially to bring a number of salmon/trout species from USA. Titcomb also chose the site for the first hatchery at Lago Nahuel Huapi, situated in the Andes Mountains, within three to five kms of the Chilean boundary. According to the report as of March I, 1905, the fish in the ponds at the Nahuel Huapi hatchery were counted and there were found to be 8500 brook trout, 3800 lake trout, and 1800 landlocked salmon. They measured from six to eight inches in length. A large number were accidentally lost during the latter part of the year, but in May, 1906 they had a considerable number of each of these species in the ponds. The death rate in all three from the time hatched, in March, 1904, until May, 1906 was as low as would have been found at anyone of the more suc- cessful trout hatcheries in the United States. By 1908 a lot of some 25,000 brook trout eggs were shipped from the Nahuel Huapi hatchery to Santiago, Chile on the railroad that crosses from Buenos Aires to Valparaiso, not far from the Argentinian boundary, at the request of the Chilean government, to be hatched in a small hatchery belonging to that government located in the Andes Mountains. Also in 1908 there was an effort to bring in other species from UK and on that trip they were given 20,000 Atlantic salmon eggs that were secured from the Earl of Denbigh's fisheries in North Wales. The story is a little patchy but it seems due to poor packing and timing there was some urgency in getting them to a hatchery and some of those eggs ended up in Chile in possibly the highest hatchery in the world. The hatchery is still operating today, albeit in a minor capacity. Most of the credit is given to The Fisheries Development Institute (IFOP) who were instrumental in importing the first Coho salmon which are recorded as arriving into Chile in 1921 and over the next 50-plus years the Institute looked to cutting-edge technolo- gies from abroad to cultivate various aquatic species and invited foreign experts to share their specialist knowledge here. Foundation Chile In 1976 Foundation Chile was formed, an institution dedicated to scientific research and technology transfer. It was formed as a public-private partner- ship by 50 percent Government of Chile and 50 percent by ITT. Its mission was to introduce high impact innovations to increase Chile's competitiveness in world markets. Aquaculture systems were highlighted as an important prospect. In 1978 the government’s contribution grew with the establishment of the Fisheries Department and the National Fisheries Service, Sernapesca. Between 1978 and 1980 a series of private initiatives, including those by Fundacion Chile, lead to the creation of various companies dedicated exclusively to salmon farming. In the early 1980s a small group of vision- ary entrepreneurs invested in an uncertain and unknown business - one considered a high-risk venture at the time – and began salmon farming in Chile. In 1982 the first company created by Fundacion Chile was formed: Salmon Antarctic Ltda, seven years later this company was sold to a Japanese company for US$22 million. The second Fundacion Chile company, Sea Harvest Tongoy, which manages the develop- ment of the culture of the Japanese oyster was then formed and in 1992 the organisa- tion was credited with developing the Turbot aquaculture industry in Chile. By 1985 36 salmon farms were operating in Chile and total production exceeded 1200 tonnes. A year later, the salmon industry boom began, with production topping 2100 tonnes per annum and feasibility studies churning out impressive return on investment figures. Salmon in Chile today That same year, as evidence of defi- nite consolidation within the salmon farming industry, the Salmon and Trout Producers Association AG was formed, known as Salmon Chile today. From that time on, the association’s main objective has been to secure a seal of quality for the production and promotion of Chilean salmon across global markets. It established minimum requirements at the processing plants of its member companies in order to obtain the best quality product. In 1990 the industry moved into species reproduction and the first Chilean Coho salmon roe were cultivated. This step represented the first scientific advancement in Chile and heralded the real takeoff point for rapid growth of the industry. At the same time, major improvements in salmon feeding were made and the subse- quent increase in volume necessitated a more professional industry. Dry foods with a higher lipid content and a more efficient lipid-protein balance were introduced. In 2003 the industry developed a Code of Good Practice, the first of its kind in Chile. An industry crisis followed With good comes the bad and in July 2007 a farm site in Chiloe officially reported the first case of Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA). The disease is caused by a virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, of the genus Isavirus, which affects Atlantic salmon grown in sea water. The disease created an industry crisis that affected its production processes and regional development in infected areas. While 2 34 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC
  5. 5. it doesn’t affect humans, it does cause fish mortality. It was also diagnosed in the 1980s in Norway and later in Canada, Scotland, the Faroe Islands and the United States. The crisis required the rapid setting up of a public-private partnership to tackle the issue. Measures taken included a governmental body issuing initial resolutions as contingency measures and subsequent resolutions for monitoring and control. During this time, the association worked with member companies to promote self-regulation and fostered rela- tionships with government bodies. As with any crisis, the process generated opportunities that drove the development of a new production model for the industry. This included a series of measures concerning healthy intervals, coordinated treatment and maximum densities. These were underpinned by thematic analyses focused on concessions, production infrastructure and improved health conditions including various action plans aimed at the detection of diseases, vaccinations, the use of drugs and restrictions on roe imports. The association coordinated joint projects with companies in the industry to establish 44 health measures to promote self-regula- tion and a public-private partnership. These included modifying existing legislation, in par- ticular to the General Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture and adopting new regulations. Over time, and through the effort and dedica- tion of all involved, recovery is now evident within the industry. Second largest producer The salmon aquaculture industry is cur- rently the second largest export sector in Chile and after Norway, Chile is the second largest producer of salmon globally. It has gen- erated more than 60,000 direct and indirect jobs and operates in over 70 markets. Markets have been forged in developing areas like Brazil and other Latin American countries and there is also a push into China and Russia. Demand as of now is strong so there is still some depth to the marketability of the product. According to FAO on human resources, there is an adequate availability of research- ers, professionals, technicians and specialised labour force to respond to the increasing demand by industry and public and private research programs. Universities and higher education institu- tions are actively training human resources oriented towards the satisfaction of the industry’s requirements in production (marine biologists, veterinarians, fishing engineers, aquaculture engineers), processing (industrial and food engineers) and marketing (commer- cial engineers). There is also a growing specialisation in service areas such as environmental impact assessment, disease diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, market studies and foreign trade, among others. The Government has a ProChile group which is very helpful in the trade arena. Annual plan of action Perhaps the most important milestone of the last few years has been the official publishing of the National Aquacultural Policy, which established objectives, principles and strategies associated to the activity’s sustain- able development. This important instrument of public-private participation also established annual plans of action (for the years 2004 and 2005), which have been achieved satisfactorily based on the FAO report. July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 35 EXPERT T●PIC Die and roll re-working machines O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail:
  6. 6. T he results from the commercial- scale project are unusually clear. Fish that received feed with krill offered higher fillet yields than the control group - says Sigve Nordrum, Aker BioMarine. “The fillets' firmness was greater and the incidence of gaping lower in fish fed with krill. The quality improvements could be of major importance to the processing industry and to consumers' experience,” he says. The trial BioMar and Aker BioMarine documented the value of the fish feed containing krill, developed by BioMar and called Quick™. QuickTM increases food uptake and growth in farmed salmon. In this major commercial-scale project, salmon were fed BioMar QuickTM . Researchers compared this group of salmon with the control group of fish that received BioMar feed without krill. The trial examined 260-farmed salmon, bred on five sites in Norway. The fish were analysed by one of Europe's largest institutes for applied research within the fields of fisheries, aquaculture and food, Nofirma. Research examined 14 groups of fish (between May 2013 and January 2014) from the standpoints of yield and quality, including body shape and organ condition, for example heart and liver index and fat content. Fillet quality is determined, in part, by its colour, firmness and gaping. Another determinant is fat deposition around the organs. Fat deposition can affect metabolism and effective metabolism is important for the filet quality. Of course, good taste, smell and storage capabilities are equally vital. The results Krill-fed salmon weighed significantly more than the control group (4.6kg and 4.3kg, respectively). Likewise, the filet yield for the krill feed group was significantly higher (63.7% vs 60.8%). This 2.7 peercent increase corre- lated with the significantly thicker fillet – 4-5 percent thicker and firmer than the control group. In summary, the feed with krill stimulated the development of more and firmer muscle. This in turn led to less gaping (7 percent vs 20 percent) and higher yield. There were no negative effects of the fish examined. Norfima’s study supports earlier experi- ments on krill-fed Atlantic salmon. Independent studies at Norway’s Aquaculture Protein Center showed that dietary krill meal, compared with fish meal, stimulated feed intake and growth in salmon (see brosjyre-2012-web_2.pdf). And a commercial-scale feed trial in Chile showed that young Atlantic salmon eat more and grow faster – and bigger – with krill added to their diet. Farmed salmon use the nutrients in the feed to store fat and build muscle. More muscle improves the fillet quantity and quality. Researchers believe the increased feed intake may be due, in part, to the improved palatability of krill-based diets. Long-term collaboration for sustainability Aker BioMarine and BioMar are also collaborating with other companies and international environmental organisa- tions to (1) assure krill’s essential role in marine ecosystems and (2) minimise the risk of krill fishery impacting ecosystem health. Krill are small crustaceans, like shrimp, that maintain the vital dynamics in the food chain between microscopic plants and larger animals, such as seals and whales. Krill are the most abundant animal species on the planet. Though hard to measure, because of their large home range, the biomass is estimated between 120-600 million tonnes. Because of their position in the food chain, changes that affect krill have repercussions that flow through the rest of the ecosystem. Research is underway to examine the human and environmental changes on krill, that is warmer and more acidic oceans. In June 2014 the British Antarctic Survey and WWF co-hosted a workshop on krill conservation in the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula region. The workshop involved participants from the scientific, conservation and fishery sectors. It concluded that the current catch levels are unlikely problematic, but uncertainties about fishery impact increase with catch levels. Thus, in the management of krill fishery, a research and development strategy is criti- cal. Broadening dialogues and availability of information is equally critical. “Aker BioMarine is taking pro-active initiatives to do just that as it continues to pioneer further development,” Nordrum said. Salmon fillet gap 3Krill improves fillet yield and quality A NEW COMMERCIAL-SCALE PROJECT REVEALED THAT KRILL FEED IMPROVES SALMON FILLET QUALITY AND QUANTITY 36 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC
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  8. 8. 4 IN SALMONID FEEDS V olatility of supply, price and quality of commonly-used ingredients and lack of proper characterisation of their components are forcing aqua- culture feed manufacturers to use high safety margins for nutrients while formulating a feed. Techniques such as cooking, conditioning, soaking and finally, using enzymes for various components are increasingly used to improve the quality of ingredients in feed or to reduce the variations in their quality. Besides phytase (for phosphorus) and some carbohydrases, dietary proteolytic enzymes are gaining attention in recent years, mainly because of the need for better utilisa- tion of proteins from existing sources. Protease breaks down large, indigestible and insoluble proteins to highly digestible smaller peptides and some free amino acids. These small chain peptides may also contain some bioactive properties influencing inges- tion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients in animals. These intrinsic properties of protease enzymes are encouraging for nutritionists and feed formulators as they allow them to include more low-digestible protein ingredients without compromising the quality of the feed. The influence of exogenous protease In the intestine of animals, polypeptides are digested to smaller peptides and amino acids by several enzymes derived from pancreas or secretory cells of the intestinal epithelium in slightly alkaline environment achieved by pancreatic secretion of bicarbonates and bile acids from the gall bladder (see Figure 1). The absorption of nutrients occurs in the intestine by optimising the intestinal surface area within the constraints of the coelomic cavity. Presence of exogenous protease can influence the rate of reactions in the intestine enhancing nutrient utilisation efficiency of the animals. Effects of protease in aquaculture feed can be manifested in more digestible proteins in feed, improved digestibility of nutrients in an ingredient, better mucosal health, growth and feed conversion of the farmed aquatic animals. Trials with shrimp, crab, salmonids, carps, tilapia, pangasius, seabream and other spe- cies have shown significant improvement in growth, feed conversion or nutrient utilisation efficiency. In studies with salmonids spe- cies, addition of protease in feed not only improved the protein quality of the feed but also stimulated gut health, growth, and feed conversion helping the bottom line of feed manufacturers and producers. Improving protein quality In several in-vitro and in-vivo studies with the Jefo protease, a marked improvement in protein digestibility of ingredient and feed was observed. In a study conducted at the University of Saskatchewan of Canada, addition of the protease to a co-extruded canola-pea based diets resulted in significant improvement in apparent digestibility of crude protein, energy, lipid and dry matter (P<0.05) in rainbow trout (see Figure 2A) (Drew et al. 2005). The improvement was less pronounced in the co-extruded flax-pea based diets. Availability of more digestible nutrients also resulted in improved feed conversion and growth of rainbow trout fed diets containing with the protease (see Figures 2B and 2C). In another in-vivo study conducted at the Universidad Catolica de Temuco with three species of salmonids (coho salmon, Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout), both protein and carbohydrate digestibility were improved significantly in fish fed the treat- ment diets containing the protease than those fed the control diets (Chowdhury 2012). In an in-vitro digestibility study at the Universidad de Concepcion of Chile, protein digestibility of commercially extruded (extrusion temp. 120oC) salmonids feeds with and without protease was determined using the HCl- Pepsin method. The method involved grinding of the feed samples followed by HCl- Figure 1: Addition of an exogenous protease in feed during manufacturing and how it affects the protein quality of feed and fate of nutrients in the intestine of animals HEAT-STABLE PROTEASE Experiences from Canada and Chile by M.A. Kabir Chowdhury, PhD, Jefo Nutrition Inc., Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada Dr Pedro Cardenas Villarroal, Alinat Chile, Chile 38 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC
  9. 9. Pepsin digestion for 16 hours and then, separation of solids. The protein digestibility of a feed was then determined using the following equation: Protein Digestibility (%) = 100 x (Initial CP – Final CP)/Initial CP The protein digestibility was analysed in three different hydro- lysing conditions (temperature and pH). In all three cases, sig- nificantly more digestible protein was reported in feeds containing the protease than in those with- out (see Figure 3). Growth performance and intestinal health Several growth and digest- ibility trials conducted in Canada and Chile showed significant improvement in performance of the test animals fed diets contain- ing the protease compared to those fed the control diets (see Table 1). Similarly, height (µm), density and structure of intestinal villi also showed a marked improvement in fish fed the protease diets (see Figure 4). Increased availability of nutri- ents coupled with increased intestinal nutrient absorption capacity resulted in the better growth and feed conversion in treatment animals. Challenges for using a protease enzyme Issues with heat-stability have been a major hindrance for the use of enzymes in aqua- feed. Very few enzymes in the mar- ket today are truly heat-stable. Figure 2: (A) ADC of crude protein in co-extruded flax:pea and canola:pea diets with and without Jefo protease in rainbow trout; (B) Feed conversion and (C) specific growth rate of rainbow trout fed co-extruded flax:pea and canola:pea with and without Jefo protease July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 39 EXPERT T●PIC
  10. 10. In addition, it is difficult for feed manu- facturers to compare efficacy of various enzymes to improve the protein quality of their feed using traditional or prescribed enzymatic activity assays. Traditional or prescribed enzymatic assays rely on spe- cific substrate, which may not be suitable for a feed. Feedmills must be able to rapidly and accurately test complete feeds for the presence of a protease as part of their QA/ QC process. The in-vitro protein digest- ibility assays provide a solution to this problem enabling feed manufacturers to test the effects of an enzyme not by meas- uring activity but in real term, the quality of proteins. This innovative solution should be stand- ardised and utilised as a tool to compare effects of different enzymes on a particular feed. Preference to multi-enzyme containing protease-complex has also been a rising phenomenon. All enzymes are proteins and add- ing a protease in the cocktail creates a situation where other enzymes become the nearest substrate for the protease. While it is acceptable to use all the carbohydrases together, using protease in a cocktail usually reduces the efficacy of other enzymes. Several published and unpublished trials with carps, shrimp and salmonids showed lower beneficial effects of multi-enzyme com- pared to a single protease or a protease- complex. If intended, it is recommended to use protease either separately or in a protected form in a multi-enzyme cocktail to prevent hydrolysis of other enzymes. Conclusion Apart from their availability and poor nutrient characterisation, imbal- anced amino acid profiles, poor digest- ibility of nutrients, presence of various anti-nutritional factors has been limiting the use of some novel ingredients in aquaculture feed. Using a protease enzyme would therefore be a useful solution to address these unknown factors. It can be assumed that in the near future, similar to phytase, protease enzymes would become an essential component of feed as a cost-effective solution to improve the quality of salmonids feeds. References: Chowdhury, M.A.K. 2012. Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation, Autumn Issue. Drew et al. 2005. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 119:117-128 Table 1. Growth performance and intestinal villi height of rainbow trout fed diets containing graded level (0, 175, 250 ppm) of Jefo protease Treatments Initial body weight (g) Final body weight (g) Specific growth rate (SGR, %) Thermal- unit Growth Coefficient (TGC) FCR Villi size (µm) Control 390 850a 0.92a 2.52a 1.43b 630a Control + 175 ppm protease 402 971b 1.05b 2.94b 1.35a 663b Control + 250 ppm protease 399 987b 1.07b 3.03b 1.33a 737b Notes: Different letters in a column denote significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatments Figure 4. Structure of intestinal villi in rainbow trout fed diets with and without Jefo protease Figure 3: Protein digestibility (%) of extruded salmonids feeds with and without protease as determined by HCl-Pepsin method at three different hydrolyzing conditions 40 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC
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  12. 12. 5 N ew Zealand (NZ) has no native Salmonid species and in these days of high biosecurity it always makes you wonder how imported species have become established. In the case of salmon in New Zealand it seems that colonists back in the 19th Century were keen to have access to pleasures that were associated with the very wealthy – the right to hunt and to fish for salmon and trout. At that time NZ rivers were devoid of sporting fish hence species were imported. One of the main organisations behind this work was the Auckland Acclimatisation Society (AAS), which is still in existence today. AAS was New Zealand’s first such society and was established around 1861. Many others soon followed, including in Whanganui and Nelson in 1863, and Otago and Canterbury in 1864. Their rules were very similar to the British Acclimatisation Society and focused on introducing all manner of new species as long as they were ‘innoxious’. By 1866, the British society had merged with the Ornithological Society. New Zealand became the standard set- ting for a network of regional acclimatisa- tion societies that lasted almost 130 years – although their role later changed. Their activities received government sanction, but not financial support. In 1867, the first of a series of Animal Protection Acts in NZ protected many intro- duced animals and formally recognised the acclimatisation societies. The importation of trout was enabled by the Salmon and Trout Act, passed in the same year. Exchange agreements Species exchange agreements were made between New Zealand societies and those overseas. At first many societies had gardens for propagating new plant species, but these were soon shed in favour of focusing on animals, as a result, hatcheries were built for breeding trout and aviaries for raising game birds, for release into the wild. Farmer and rabbit inspector, Lake Ayson, is regarded as being the main person responsi- ble for introducing Chinook salmon into New Zealand. He had apparently seen the successful introduction of Brown Trout in the late 1800s (strangely introduced from Tasmania) and had some first-hand knowledge through being appointed curator of the Masterton trout hatchery. In 1898 he became the Fisheries Commissioner for the country and as a prior- ity decided to identify fish species that would be suitable for New Zealand. Whilst in the USA on a research trip he was offered half a million Chinook ova free-of-charge and from there history was created. King Salmon Chinook or quinnat salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are native to the north-west coast of North America and north-east Asia but are known in New Zealand by the term King Salmon. New Zealand appears the only place in the world where Chinook salmon have become established successfully outside their natural range. Other species such as Atlantic and Sockeye were also imported and from the records there was a strong feeling that the Government had backed the wrong species but history now shows that is not the case. Chinook are the largest species of the Salmonidae family in New Zealand, com- monly reaching 10–15 kilograms. Most adults are three years old when they spawn. When they enter river mouths on their spawning runs, they are very silvery in colour – but this gets duller the longer they stay in fresh water. The fish are found mainly on the South Island’s east coast, from the Waiau River in North Canterbury to the Clutha River in South Otago. There are also small runs in the Paringa, Taramakau and Hokitika Rivers on the West Coast and the renowned fisheries are the Waitaki, Rangitātā, Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers. The taking of water for irrigation has seen these rivers suffer from river mouth closure in summer. Reports have it that in the 2000s they were no longer regarded as good salmon fisheries. Small landlocked Chinook salmon can also be caught in some South Island lakes such as Lake Wakatipu. Dams on the Clutha River prevent them migrating to sea, so they never grow to any great size (they are typically less than one kilogram). Occasionally stray salmon are found in North Island Rivers. Ocean ranching plans and canal farms In the 1970s and 1980s there were also plans for ‘ocean ranching’ – commercialis- ing the fishery – based on the theory that hundreds of thousands of salmon would be hatched from ova and released. They would go to sea and feed at no cost and come back as adults to be harvested. The plans went ahead and the salmon were released, but they did not come back. In the 2000s commercial salmon farms operated at South Island freshwater sites such as Waikoropupū Springs near Tākaka, and the Tekapo canal in the Mackenzie country. Most sea farming occurs in the Marlborough Sounds, Stewart Island and Akaroa Harbour, while fresh water opera- tions in Canterbury, Otago and Tasman KING SALMON The successful transposing of Chinook salmon to New Zealand 42 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 EXPERT T●PIC
  13. 13. utilise ponds, raceways and hydro canals for grow out operations. The salmon are born in land-based hatch- eries and transferred to sea pens or fresh water farms to grow out to harvest size. New Zealand has very focused farming practices, strict bio-security procedures and absence of any native salmon species mean that the King Salmon are raised without need for vaccines or antibiotics. Code of Practice The New Zealand Salmon Farmers Association’s Finfish Aquaculture Environmental Code of Practice states that raw material for fish feeds should come from sustainably managed fisheries. Temperature is an important factor in determining fish health and growth. King Salmon thrive in cooler waters and best growth is achieved at a temperature of 12-17°C. King Salmon take around 12-18 months to grow in sea water. Depending on market requirements, the salmon are harvest- ed at an average of approximately 3.5 - 4.0kg. Farm site selection is very critical and remains the subject of much debate and, as has been seen recently with legal challenges in the New Zealand Supreme Court. Farms tend to be placed in areas with strong currents to flush the cages and improve the rearing environment and minimise the effects of waste on the environment. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI), developed by Dr John Volpe and the Seafood Ecology Research Group at the University of Victoria, Canada, rated New Zealand is the top performer of all 22 assessed salmon farming countries, with a country score of 73. While GAPI only considers the produc- tion of Chinook salmon in New Zealand, according to FAO production data, Chinook salmon actually accounted for all marine finfish production in New Zealand in 2007. Relatively low, dispersed production drives New Zealand’s cumulative country score up to 90—among the highest cumulative scores of all assessed countries. Dominance of the domestic market Initially the industry was driven by the export market but currently the domestic market is absorbing some 60-70 percent of production. The main organisations involved in arms are NZ King Salmon (60-70 percent of NZ production), Sanford (20-25 percent) and Mount Cook Alpine Salmon. Mt Cook Alpine Salmon is driving a bold NZ$20 million expansion plan to fuel a 1400 percent production increase for the company within four years. This organisation was pro- ducing around 500 tonnes in 2011 and with a NZ$20 million expansion, including a pro- cessing factory and a value-added plant, they believe they will be turning out 2000 tonnes in 2014 onwards. New Zealand King Salmon has been through application processes to increase its 2011 production of 7500 tonnes of salmon a year to 15,000 tonnes by 2015-16. Only a small percentage of farms have been granted permis- sion through Supreme Court rulings so the chances of this happening have been stalled. Overall NZ King Salmon remains a strong player in the New Zealand Seafood industry but its future is being questioned by a strong conservation movement and people who would like to see little if anything in the pristine waters of the Marlborough Sounds References: ‘Swimming Upstream’ by Jennifer Haworth newZealand.html nz/industry-overview/key-facts/ uploads/2012/05/NZ-Aquaculture-Facts-2012.pdf key-facts/ July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 43 EXPERT T●PIC SAVE THE DATE September 23-25, 2014 | Beijing, China The international Feed-to-Meat platform for mainland China VIV China2014 establish track record within Ukrainian busi- ness circles. They told International Aquafeed, at the Future Fish Eurasia exhibition, that working with international partners who all spotted an opportunity in the industry and are looking for investment. The aim is to help restore Ukraine to be the ‘bread basket’ of Europe again. They are complimenting their local knowl- edge and experience with international tech- nical fish expertise and food business know- how. Founding partner Petro Berezhnyi explains, “Through our relationship with key Ukrainian food retailers we discovered that there is a shortfall within the Ukrainian market for fresh fish. “We see an opportunity in the market place to develop an aquaculture business in Ukraine that is focused on delivering quality, freshness, and superior customer service.” Ukraine has over 71,000 rivers and lakes. In particular Mr Berezhnyi sees the opportuni- ties to locate such fish farms in the western half of the country where the topography, infrastructure and water quality is ideal for aquaculture growth. For decades Ukraine has had a renowned reputation as a leading agricultural producer and exporter. To put the country into a European context, Ukraine has a greater landmass than France. Fifty-four percent of Ukrainian land is used for agriculture, ranking it third globally in this area. In fact, Ukraine’s agricultural arable land area is almost one-third of the existing agri- culture land area of the entire European Union. FishFarm Ukraine also plans to take advantage of Ukraine’s prowess as a leading food producer. Advisory Board Member, Tom O’Callaghan says, “Ukrainian’s traditionally appreciate high quality food. “Yet, at the same time Ukraine needs to do more to promote itself across the world as a country with an abundance of natural resources that compliment superior food pro- duction. As we enter into the EU Association Agreement we anticipate both an overhaul and modernisation of Ukrainian food legisla- tion, coupled with a greater awareness across Europe of the food production capability of Ukraine. “We strongly believe that these two fac- tors will also help strengthen and grow our business.” Regional Growth Indeed, Ukraine’s position as one of the 10 designated Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries and traditional relationships with neighbouring former Soviet Union, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries facilitate the potential for greater regional growth. Neighbours Poland, Russia and Belarus imported over €1.4 billion in fresh fish in 2013. Regional demands for fish products with continue to outstrip supply for the foresee- able future. This adds to the attractiveness of aquaculture development across Ukraine. As illustrated in the table above, CEE & CIS countries account for about 8 percent of global fish imports. However, the signing of the EU Association Agreement will bring added possibilities for Ukrainian food busi- nesses to develop business within the world’s largest import market for fish. Mr. Berezhnyi concluded, “Our existing business model is initially focused on fulfilling the untapped demands of the local Ukrainian market. Nevertheless, looking into the horizon, we foresee teaming up with international part- ners to exploit wider export opportunities across Europe”. Their plan is formulated to start with farming trout due to its adaptabil- ity on land, the high quality of the product and because it is a good value for money alternative to salmon. A leaving hint from Mr. Berezhnyi at moving to farm additional species such as crayfish, and cheap sorts of fish like carp in the future could be an excit- ing development for this fish farm. July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 15 FEATURE ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel A/S Europe, Asia, and South America: USA and Canada: Your global technology process supplier for the aqua feed industry ANDRITZ is one of the world’s leading suppliers of techno­ logies, systems, and services relating to advanced indu­ strial equipment for the aqua feed industry. With an in-depth knowledge of each key pro- cess, we can supply a compa- tible and homogeneous solution from raw material intake to finis­ hed feed bagging.
  14. 14. LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Tilapia farming in China Ukrainian Fish Farming: – Opportunities for growth Volume 17 Issue 4 2014 - JulY | AuGusT INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY El Niño – plan ahead and manage the risk Fish Farming Technology supplement - Stock protection - Biomass control - Technology round up Microalgae: – A sea of opportunities for the aquaculture industry This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE