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Language and Identity Steven M. Maas Anthropology 103 September 9, 2010
The Plot <ul><li>Structuralism is unable to address: </li></ul><ul><li>contexts in which language is used </li></ul><ul><l...
Opening line of “Tynged yr Iaith” (Saunders Lewis, BBC Radio, 2/13/62) <ul><li>Text:  Rhaid i mi </li></ul><ul><li>sgrifen...
Opening line of “Tynged yr Iaith” (Saunders Lewis, BBC Radio, 2/13/62) <ul><li>Translation:  I must </li></ul><ul><li>writ...
Grammar and Code <ul><li>Grammar—the “DNA” of language </li></ul><ul><li>Only languages have grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Cod...
Structuralism <ul><li>Formal, Impersonal, and General </li></ul><ul><li>structures of interest  do not depend on  the  cir...
Subsystems of Grammar <ul><li>Grammar—the DNA of language </li></ul><ul><li>Grammars consist of several subsystems </li></...
Lexicon <ul><li>The vocabulary of a language (“the”, not “s”) </li></ul><ul><li>words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>native...
Noam Chomsky structuralist linguist Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
If Structuralism is. . . <ul><li>Formal, Impersonal, and General, then </li></ul><ul><li>What about the informal, the pers...
“It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>Message from A to B&C: </li></ul><ul><li>description  of climate temperature </l...
“It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><li>request </li></ul>Which is it? What is the message...
Context and Talk <ul><li>Context—Site of the application of grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative event </li></ul><ul><l...
“It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><li>request </li></ul>Which is it? What is the message...
Multiple Messages <ul><li>Speaker’s intention </li></ul><ul><li>Addressee’s interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropper’...
Whose Intentions? <ul><li>“ Language has been completely taken over, shot through with intentions. . . All words have the ...
Voicing <ul><li>Voice: the use of talk to capture in the imagination some particular social position, point of view, or a ...
Stylized Codes <ul><li>Foreigner talk </li></ul><ul><li>Baby talk </li></ul>
“Foreigner Talk” <ul><li>A response by adults to the desire or need to communicate with somebody who is known to speak a f...
“Baby Talk” <ul><li>A response by adults to the desire or need to communicate with somebody who apparently does not unders...
discourse and Discourse <ul><li>Discourse with a small “d” (“discourse”): everyday conversation and communication </li></u...
discourse and Discourse <ul><li>Discourse with a big “D” (“Discourse”) </li></ul><ul><li>religion (“. . . turn the other c...
Reading Between the Lines and  Behind  the Lines <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse with a small “d” </li></ul></ul></ul></...
Discourse in discourse? <ul><li>How does Discourse get into discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>Is discourse analogous to what th...
Ideologies about Languages <ul><li>Language ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>language practices that imply doctrines of inhere...
Style <ul><li>“Situational use of linguistic resources to negotiate one’s place in the local communicative context as well...
<ul><li>high pitch, wide pitch ranges, long /s/ and /l/ segments, release of many final stops </li></ul><ul><li>  stereot...
Michael Silverstein (U. of Chicago) linguistic anthropologist Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational re...
About Language(s) <ul><li>Code/language structure </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Language-use-in-context ...
Language Myths <ul><li>Some myths about language: </li></ul><ul><li>They speak really bad English down south and in New Yo...
“ Correct” English, Alabama Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New Yor...
“ Correct” English, Michigan Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New Yo...
“ Pleasant” English, Alabama Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New Yo...
Languages as national emblems <ul><li>Usually intended to help to produce a sense of unity (but this may be misguided) </l...
Languages as national emblems <ul><li>Requires thinking of languages as codes, rather than as sets of heterogeneous practi...
 
About Language <ul><li>Code/language structure </li></ul><ul><li>Language-use-in-context </li></ul><ul><li>Language ideolo...
Limitations to the Ideology Concept <ul><li>Language use is ideological and knowing that helps us to learn about language ...
Limitations to the Ideology Concept <ul><li>Cultural anthropologists do not speak of culture as ideology, but language ide...
Political Economy of Languages <ul><li>How does the treatment of marginalized languages by dominant language communities r...
Looking Up, Looking Down <ul><li>Nations without their own states </li></ul><ul><li>Look to the pre-colonial past for nati...
Where is Wales?
The United Kingdom and Wales
The Meaning of “Welsh” <ul><li>The ethnic label, “Welsh,” is derived from an Anglo-Saxon word,  Wælisc    Wealh  meaning ...
Roman Britain (33 B.C.E. – 414 C.E.) Circa 410
The Westward Shifting  Indigenous/ Anglo-Saxon Border in 550 A.D. in 584 A.D. in 626 A.D. . . .34 years later . . .42 year...
Pre-Conquest northern Wales
Edward’s Castles in the   12 th -13 th  Centuries (marked in yellow)
Scenic Wales © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
Scenic Wales © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
Robert Knox,  The Races of Men <ul><li>“ [Celtic misery cannot be attributed to English misrule. . . The] source of all ev...
Language Activism Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
Traffic Sign Vandalism Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
Ten- to   fourteen-year Olds 90-100% 70-  80% 50-  60% 30-  40% 10-  20% 20-30% 30-40% 50-60% 70-80% 90-100%
All Ages   70-  80% 50-  60% 30-  40% 10-  20% 30-40% 70-80% 50-60% 0-10% 20-30%
Translation Industry <ul><li>Because of the 1993 Welsh Language Act, which gave official status to Welsh, the service sect...
Bilingual Sign? Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
Lost in translation <ul><li>Intended translation was for “No entry for heavy goods vehicles. Residential site only.” </li>...
So They Don’t All Speak Welsh? <ul><li>Swansea county overall: </li></ul><ul><li>only 13.2% Welsh-speaking  </li></ul><ul>...
Similar Cases <ul><li>How does the treatment of marginalized languages by dominant language communities relate to the poli...
 
Mexican Spanish in the USA <ul><li>There is a history of tension displayed by the way that Mexican cultural features have ...
Buchanan Rides Alone  (1958) <ul><li>55:35 </li></ul><ul><li>Gomez: I have fulfilled your wish, senor. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Similar Cases of Marginalizing Languages <ul><li>Spanish and Mock Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you want to shine them on...
Steve Maas,   Department of Ant h ropology <ul><li>Many thanks to: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Aid é  Acosta </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Language and Identity
Language and Identity
Language and Identity
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  1. 1. Language and Identity Steven M. Maas Anthropology 103 September 9, 2010
  2. 2. The Plot <ul><li>Structuralism is unable to address: </li></ul><ul><li>contexts in which language is used </li></ul><ul><li>style variations </li></ul><ul><li>identity considerations </li></ul><ul><li>If everything is socioculturally constructed, how do “objective” researchers address social (in)justice issues? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Opening line of “Tynged yr Iaith” (Saunders Lewis, BBC Radio, 2/13/62) <ul><li>Text: Rhaid i mi </li></ul><ul><li>sgrifennu'r ddarli[th] hon </li></ul><ul><li>cyn cyhoeddi </li></ul><ul><li>ystadegau'r cyfrifiad </li></ul><ul><li>a fu y llynedd </li></ul><ul><li>ar y Cymry Cymraeg </li></ul><ul><li>yng Nghymru. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Opening line of “Tynged yr Iaith” (Saunders Lewis, BBC Radio, 2/13/62) <ul><li>Translation: I must </li></ul><ul><li>write this lecture </li></ul><ul><li>before publication </li></ul><ul><li>of the census statistics </li></ul><ul><li>from last year </li></ul><ul><li>on the Cymraeg-speaking Welsh </li></ul><ul><li>in Wales. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Grammar and Code <ul><li>Grammar—the “DNA” of language </li></ul><ul><li>Only languages have grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Code—A particular system for arranging communicative sign-units </li></ul><ul><li>Many kinds of codes—we know them by category: whale songs, monkey signaling, costumes of a specific ethnic/fashion community, “baby talk”, English, American Sign Language </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Structuralism <ul><li>Formal, Impersonal, and General </li></ul><ul><li>structures of interest do not depend on the circumstances of use </li></ul><ul><li>patterns in language are types that apply in general </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand de Saussure </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Subsystems of Grammar <ul><li>Grammar—the DNA of language </li></ul><ul><li>Grammars consist of several subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Units : The basic means of transmitting a message (e.g., phonology: the study of the system of sounds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology : The functional combinations of material units like sounds (e.g., “-s” [plural] or “the”—but not “t” or “th”—are each morphological units in English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax : The combination of morphological units into acceptable orders , resulting in roles like nouns, verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics : The system of representation (e.g., the meaning of the words, “code” and “brussel sprouts”) </li></ul></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Lexicon <ul><li>The vocabulary of a language (“the”, not “s”) </li></ul><ul><li>words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>native speakers have much to say about vocabulary and how they represent things in the world (the “semantics” of a language) </li></ul><ul><li>native speakers are aware of vocabulary, but often ignore the grammatical principles that organize their usage in ordinary use </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Noam Chomsky structuralist linguist Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
  10. 10. If Structuralism is. . . <ul><li>Formal, Impersonal, and General, then </li></ul><ul><li>What about the informal, the personal, and the particular? </li></ul><ul><li>If grammar is based on “unconscious” knowledge, what about the performance of language that we are conscious of? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. “It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>Message from A to B&C: </li></ul><ul><li>description of climate temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Message from A to D: </li></ul><ul><li>request to turn on the A/C </li></ul>A B C © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved. Images on this slide are used without permission of owner, as an educational resource 84 ○ ☼ D
  12. 12. “It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><li>request </li></ul>Which is it? What is the message? Depends on context. . . © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Context and Talk <ul><li>Context—Site of the application of grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative event </li></ul><ul><li>Background/cultural knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Talk” (more flexible than “language”) </li></ul><ul><li>Code use </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Utterance (e.g., “It sure is hot today, isn’t it?) </li></ul><ul><li>Message (i.e., a particular interpretation) </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. “It sure is hot today, isn’t it?” <ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><li>request </li></ul>Which is it? What is the message? Context isn’t enough. . . © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Multiple Messages <ul><li>Speaker’s intention </li></ul><ul><li>Addressee’s interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropper’s interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden messages/reading “between the lines”/subtext </li></ul><ul><li>Deception and ulterior motives </li></ul><ul><li>Which is it? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Whose Intentions? <ul><li>“ Language has been completely taken over, shot through with intentions. . . All words have the ‘taste’ of a profession, a genre, a tendency, a party, a particular work of literature, a particular person, a generation, an age group, the day and hour. Each word tastes of the context and contexts in which it has lived its socially charged life.” (Mikhail Bakhtin) </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Voicing <ul><li>Voice: the use of talk to capture in the imagination some particular social position, point of view, or a person, sometimes called “animating” language </li></ul><ul><li>Folk heroes (e.g., “I have a dream”, to recall Martin Luther King Jr. or civil rights era issues or racial equality, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Generic, but phrases with a particular flavor (e.g., “nuclear winter” on 9/11/01, which concentrates the sense of fear from the Cold War and locates it at a specific site) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stylized Codes <ul><li>Foreigner talk </li></ul><ul><li>Baby talk </li></ul>
  19. 19. “Foreigner Talk” <ul><li>A response by adults to the desire or need to communicate with somebody who is known to speak a foreign language, but apparently does not understand “our” language. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance: “Jan’s first response was to repeat the same message, only at a much slower pace and somewhat more loudly. The results were no better than after the first try.” Finally, “at an even slower pace, even greater volume, and in a heavy, chunky rhythm, with each word intoned as if it were a complete sentence”: “ ‘Here – book. See – book? Open – page – one.’ ” (Hans H. Hock & B. D. Joseph, Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship , p. 419, New York: Mouton de Gruyer, 1996) </li></ul>
  20. 20. “Baby Talk” <ul><li>A response by adults to the desire or need to communicate with somebody who apparently does not understand our language. Those who use baby talk to babies are incorrect to think that it is the way the babies being addressed with it actually talk. It is a stylized way of speaking. (Hans H. Hock & B. D. Joseph, Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship , pp. 421-2, New York: Mouton de Gruyer, 1996) </li></ul>
  21. 21. discourse and Discourse <ul><li>Discourse with a small “d” (“discourse”): everyday conversation and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse with a big “D” (“Discourse”): talk that has connections to larger contexts, rather than only to specific information cued by a phrase like “organic foods”—the awareness of things of cultural significance that is used not only to “read between the lines”, but also to read “behind the lines” </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. discourse and Discourse <ul><li>Discourse with a big “D” (“Discourse”) </li></ul><ul><li>religion (“. . . turn the other cheek“) </li></ul><ul><li>foreign policy (“Iraq has weapons of mass destruction”) </li></ul><ul><li>gender (“There are only two genders”) </li></ul><ul><li>sexuality (“Guys don’t kiss other guys”) </li></ul><ul><li>and other practical principles (“It’s a mile away—that’s too far to walk”) </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse with a big “D” acts both to constrain people and to enable them to accomplish things, to empower them </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Reading Between the Lines and Behind the Lines <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse with a small “d” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>― everyday conversation </li></ul><ul><li>― and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse with a big “D” ― dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>ideologies that shape us in little and big ways ― speeches </li></ul><ul><li>capitalism ― e-mails </li></ul><ul><li>christianity </li></ul><ul><li>multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>white supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>pacifism </li></ul><ul><li>evolution </li></ul><ul><li>homophobia </li></ul><ul><li>male supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>diagnostic schemes for mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>unprofessional, unwanted flirtation as harassment </li></ul>
  24. 24. Discourse in discourse? <ul><li>How does Discourse get into discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>Is discourse analogous to what the ventriloquist’s dummy says? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Discourse the ventriloquist, for whom the dummy would otherwise only make “small-talk”? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we see the ventriloquist’s lips move? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Ideologies about Languages <ul><li>Language ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>language practices that imply doctrines of inherent representational power, beauty, expressiveness, and so on (Silverstein 1985:223) </li></ul><ul><li>“ cultural system[s] of ideas about social and linguistic relationships, together with their loading of moral and political interests” (Irvine 1989:255) </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Style <ul><li>“Situational use of linguistic resources to negotiate one’s place in the local communicative context as well as in society in general” </li></ul><ul><li>“the linguistic means through which identity is produced in discourse” </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. <ul><li>high pitch, wide pitch ranges, long /s/ and /l/ segments, release of many final stops </li></ul><ul><li> stereotypical gay style </li></ul><ul><li>longer mean for duration of /s/ than in non-gay styles, release of final stops </li></ul><ul><li> “mainstream gay activist style” </li></ul>Inferring the Symbolic Meanings © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Michael Silverstein (U. of Chicago) linguistic anthropologist Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
  29. 29. About Language(s) <ul><li>Code/language structure </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Language-use-in-context </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious and conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Language ideology </li></ul><ul><li>conscious, but often involves misunderstandings about language operation </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Language Myths <ul><li>Some myths about language: </li></ul><ul><li>They speak really bad English down south and in New York city </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has an accent. . . except me </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. “ Correct” English, Alabama Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New York City”, by Dennis R. Preston (Optional reading)
  32. 32. “ Correct” English, Michigan Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New York City”, by Dennis R. Preston (Optional reading)
  33. 33. “ Pleasant” English, Alabama Respondents (“2”=lowest) See “Myth 17: They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New York City”, by Dennis R. Preston (Optional reading)
  34. 34. Languages as national emblems <ul><li>Usually intended to help to produce a sense of unity (but this may be misguided) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12 (9 percent) of 130 or so contemporary world states can be described as essentially homogenous even from an ethnic viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>30% of the 130 or so states lack ethnic groups that account for even half of its population </li></ul><ul><li>In many parts of the world, people often use more than one language throughout their daily lives </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. Languages as national emblems <ul><li>Requires thinking of languages as codes, rather than as sets of heterogeneous practices deeply woven into cultural life </li></ul><ul><li>Requires thinking of language as a one-to-one (1:1) relationship, as an equation, of language:country </li></ul><ul><li>Language only works this way at the level of ideology, not in ordinary contexts or even as language codes unified by grammar </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  36. 37. About Language <ul><li>Code/language structure </li></ul><ul><li>Language-use-in-context </li></ul><ul><li>Language ideology </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  37. 38. Limitations to the Ideology Concept <ul><li>Language use is ideological and knowing that helps us to learn about language use, but does it maintain an artificial distinction between language and culture? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  38. 39. Limitations to the Ideology Concept <ul><li>Cultural anthropologists do not speak of culture as ideology, but language ideologies are cultural </li></ul><ul><li>What about cases of social justice? Cosmopolitan ideas that you earn what you have, of working for your just desserts, are at odds with the historical injustices (e.g., the violence of territorial wars, conquests, colonialist or imperialist governmental policies, slavery). Is all of this ideological? Is there any foundation to stand on to judge the “truth” of ideology? </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 40. Political Economy of Languages <ul><li>How does the treatment of marginalized languages by dominant language communities relate to the political history of territories with which the marginalized language is associated? </li></ul>
  40. 41. Looking Up, Looking Down <ul><li>Nations without their own states </li></ul><ul><li>Look to the pre-colonial past for national reference </li></ul><ul><li>Sees that past as extending forever backward and, therefore, as timeless </li></ul><ul><li>States with national identities (state-nations) </li></ul><ul><li>Look to the present and stability of international laws </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores, perhaps actively conceals the “ugly” progression of events that led to the present status quo </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  41. 42. Where is Wales?
  42. 43. The United Kingdom and Wales
  43. 44. The Meaning of “Welsh” <ul><li>The ethnic label, “Welsh,” is derived from an Anglo-Saxon word, Wælisc  Wealh meaning “foreigner”. It was used by Norman-English settlers who, between 600 and 1300 A.D., conquered and maintained regions of Britain that had been occupied by native British people. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  44. 45. Roman Britain (33 B.C.E. – 414 C.E.) Circa 410
  45. 46. The Westward Shifting Indigenous/ Anglo-Saxon Border in 550 A.D. in 584 A.D. in 626 A.D. . . .34 years later . . .42 years later © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  46. 47. Pre-Conquest northern Wales
  47. 48. Edward’s Castles in the 12 th -13 th Centuries (marked in yellow)
  48. 49. Scenic Wales © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  49. 50. Scenic Wales © Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  50. 51. Robert Knox, The Races of Men <ul><li>“ [Celtic misery cannot be attributed to English misrule. . . The] source of all evil lies in the race, the Celtic race of Ireland. There is no getting over historical facts. Look at Wales, look at Caledonia; it is ever the same. The race must be forced from the soil; by fair means, if possible, still they must leave.” (p. 379, 1850) </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  51. 52. Language Activism Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
  52. 53. Traffic Sign Vandalism Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
  53. 54. Ten- to fourteen-year Olds 90-100% 70- 80% 50- 60% 30- 40% 10- 20% 20-30% 30-40% 50-60% 70-80% 90-100%
  54. 55. All Ages 70- 80% 50- 60% 30- 40% 10- 20% 30-40% 70-80% 50-60% 0-10% 20-30%
  55. 56. Translation Industry <ul><li>Because of the 1993 Welsh Language Act, which gave official status to Welsh, the service sector of the economy includes a lot of translators. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  56. 57. Bilingual Sign? Photo used without permission of owner, as an educational resource
  57. 58. Lost in translation <ul><li>Intended translation was for “No entry for heavy goods vehicles. Residential site only.” </li></ul><ul><li>Actual meaning of translation: &quot;I am not in the office at the moment. Send any work to be translated.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Those responsible for the sign requested a translation by e-mail, but did not bother to confirm the translation; they accepted an e-mail reply as sufficient. </li></ul>
  58. 59. So They Don’t All Speak Welsh? <ul><li>Swansea county overall: </li></ul><ul><li>only 13.2% Welsh-speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Some communities in Swansea: </li></ul><ul><li>over 40% Welsh-speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Wales-wide percentage: </li></ul><ul><li>20.5% Welsh- speaking </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  59. 60. Similar Cases <ul><li>How does the treatment of marginalized languages by dominant language communities relate to the political history of territories with which the marginalized language is associated? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at Mexico’s former territories, which were incorporated into the United States of America. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  60. 62. Mexican Spanish in the USA <ul><li>There is a history of tension displayed by the way that Mexican cultural features have been “acquired” by the mainstream US entertainment-cultural system </li></ul><ul><li>In the film, Buchanan Rides Alone , the phrase, “Mi casa [es] su casa” (my house [is] your house), is used to imply a transfer of power, not unlike the acquisition of Mexican territories </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  61. 63. Buchanan Rides Alone (1958) <ul><li>55:35 </li></ul><ul><li>Gomez: I have fulfilled your wish, senor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine. Now if you'll just turn over the money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomez: I will turn over the money when you turn over Juan de la Vega. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What's the matter, don't you trust me? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomez: No, senor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you know you can trust him? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We haven't seen the money, how do we know he's got it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomez: I have the money. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And I believe you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbo, bring the boy back here. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senor Gomez, as you say in Spanish, mi casa, su casa . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomez: Make yourself at home. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  62. 64. Similar Cases of Marginalizing Languages <ul><li>Spanish and Mock Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you want to shine them on, you say, ‘Hasta la vista, baby . . . or, ‘Later, dickwad’” – John Connor in Terminator 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish for “Until we meet again [baby]” is equated with the vulgar expression, “Later, dickwad”. </li></ul>© Steven M. Maas. All Rights Reserved.
  63. 65. Steve Maas, Department of Ant h ropology <ul><li>Many thanks to: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Aid é Acosta </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Janet D. Keller </li></ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate College </li></ul>

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