Kosmos Spring/Summer 2005 1 KOSMOS A PAUSE TO REMEMBER 2 EDITORIAL ARTICLES ONE KOSMOS | MANY VOICESJoe Firmage 6 AWAKENING TO TRUTH A successful entrepreneur shares a passionate narrative of his own awakening to truth and the mind-bending questions that have been the focus of his life journey. The answers he finds have led to a much deeper and vaster sense of being and a new science of time, space and matter. What are the implications?Abdul Aziz Said 10 GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: NEW HORIZONS IN EDUCATION The first generation of global citizens is already among us. Are our institutions prepared to teach the transformational skills necessary for the economic, political and social emergence of a new global order?Llewellyn 11 ONENESS: THE ORGANIC UNFOLDMENT OF GLOBAL CIVILIZATIONVaughan-Lee A new life force is flowing through the Internet creating new patterns of reconnection - one of many signs that planetary regeneration is already occurring. A mystic shares how Life itself is revealing the ways of oneness and how to live in har- mony with the “divine unfoldment” of a global civilization.Don Beck 14 WINDMILLS, TULIPS AND FUNDAMENTALISM Don Beck does not hesitate to take on the hard problems that threaten the integration of a global culture. How do we address the extremes of fundamentalism in Europe with the tools of Spiral Dynamics Integral?Barrett Brown 17 INTEGRAL COMMUNICATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY Meeting people where they are is fundamental to the art and science of Integral Communication. Using images and analysis, Barrett teaches us how to be effective when deal- ing with diverse worldviews on the subject of sustainability. BOOK REVIEWBruce Gibb 23 COLLAPSE: HOW SOCIETIES CHOOSE TO FAIL OR SUCCEED by Jared Diamond A review from a Spiral Dynamics Integral perspective. SPRING | SUMMER 2005 KOSMOS 4
INTEGRAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABILITY Barrett Chapman BrownWhy care for the environment? Ask this question of people from there are at least three general stages of worldviewaround the world and myriad responses will return. You might development: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-hear, “Do it… For your children * For the technical challenge conventional. Each of these worldviews sees the environment—of achieving sustainability * Because the Glorious Qur’an and is motivated to care for it—for different reasons. Somestates that this is man’s obligation * To save Gaia * Because people will be motivated to care for the environment in order toit is the ancestral way * For the opportunity to make money * protect and support themselves and their family. Others willTo preserve the beauty of Nature * So I don’t get cancer from feel compelled to act sustainably to support their group, orpollutants * Because it is honorable and is our responsibility to nation. Still others will be inspired to care for the environmentbe stewards * To stop the greedy industrialists by any means in order to serve all life, everywhere, now and in the future.necessary * Because pollution is a sin against Creation * Tosacredly express love for all of existence. Complement Transformation with Translation What is your answer? Do any of these responses feel true toyou and appeal to your deepest sensibilities? Which responses, if Many approaches to sustainability education attempt toany, fail to strike a chord or feel uncomfortable to you? How and transform a person’s worldview in relation to the environment;where does that discomfort show up in your body? trying to change how someone sees the environment,Place your attention in those areas of your body so that they will care for it more. This may beand feel into how you might be viscerally effective at times, but it is often a long,reacting to one or more of the statements. difficult, and resource consumingThese different statements will resonate process. Robert Kegan, a Harvardwith different worldviews. If you had developmental psychologist, claimseven the slightest negative reaction in his book, The Evolving Self,to any of the statements, it may that it takes approximately fiveindicate that you have some years to completely change adifficulty relating to the worldview worldview if the rightthat generated it. conditions are present. A This article is a brief complementary and moreintroduction to the art and science efficient approach is toof communicating about sustain- translate sustainabilityability to different worldviews. One messages into the worldview(s)key ability is to be able to honor all of the population. This articleworldviews as they are, even if they briefly explains how to translatediffer from our own. Any negative sustainability to the most commonreaction we feel toward a worldview worldviews. Fundamentally, transla-blocks our capacity to authentically tion is a way of truly honoring peoplecommunicate and create mutual understand- where they are, without trying to changeing with someone who holds that lens on life. By them. The process is to carefully frame afocusing conscious attention on where we feel a reaction sustainability message in a way that resonates within our body, we can begin to move through any internal blockage someone’s worldview, with their deepest values andwe might have toward that worldview. Effective communication motivations. If framed well, and supported with the requisitestarts with profoundly understanding ourselves. prompts and reinforcements that help people establish habits, behaving sustainably can become a part of people’s everydayThe Development of Worldviews living. The chart on the following page lays out five differentWorldviews change over time, becoming more complex and “Ecological Selves.” Each represents a common worldview, hasencompassing. This occurs as an individual’s sphere of care and a unique way of understanding the environment, and resonatesconcern grows. We develop from only caring for ourselves, to with a specific communication style. The chart is followed by acaring for our family/group/nation, to eventually caring for all summary of how to choose developmentally appropriatesentient life. Developmental psychology is used to map out world- imagery for sustainability communications. We will finish withviews and identify how they change over time. After decades of a look at how to use this research and communicate aboutresearch in the areas of cognition, morals, values, ego- sustainability to multiple worldviews simultaneously.development, and other facets of human nature, it is clear that
F I V E E C O L O G I C A L S E LV E S AND HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH THEM ABOUT SUSTAINABILIT Y Eco-Self What’s Important Aspects of Eco-Self Best Sources of Best-Fit Approach Demotivators May Be Found In... Communication (Hot Buttons) (Cold Buttons) Eco-Guardian Magic or unseen forces; Storytelling about caring Counsel from revered Refer to traditional rituals, ceremonies, icons; Disrespect chief, tribe, romantic ethos ancestral ways; customs; for land and animals elders, chieftain, or reference mystical elements, superstitions, elders, ancestors; desecrate rituals and rites of based in animism, magic, shaman; from within the magic; appeal to extended family, harmony,PRE-CONVENTIONAL sacred grounds; violate Respects Nature; passage to connect with or some tribal traditions; family/tribe/clan; and safety; honor blood bonds, the folk, the taboos or ritual ways; return to lost natural world; omens; naïve appropriation of through spirit/Natural group, taboos; rely little on written language introduce ambiguity; ecological council of elders; lineage; indigenous views and realm signals; the word and facts; use storytelling, emotions, drama, threaten family paradise; “tribal” shamans and witches practices about nature and ways of ancestors songs, dances, imaginative 2D images Assertion of self over the EarthFirst!; Person with recognized Eco-Warrior Demonstrate “What’s in it for me, now?”; system or Nature; obtain eco-terrorism; the stoic power or something to Challenge power or courage; heroic ethos offer “Immediate gratification if...”; challenge power and be free; mountain climber; offer; straight-talking Big shame or put down person/ and appeal to machismo/strength; point out respect; the “Law of the extreme sports; Boss; respected, revered, group; move onto turf; be Conquer Nature; heroic status and legendary potential; be trophy hunting; or feared other; derisive and laugh; taunt as reject civilization; Jungle”; impulsivity and flashy, unambiguous, reality-based, and immediate reward; frontier mentalities; celebrated “idol” with an outsider; appear or talk fight “the strong; use simple language and fiery images/ toughness; “hands on/ off-the-grid housing; reputation; someone of weak; make excuses system”; macho graphics; appeal to narcissistic tendencies street/survival” skills Monkey Wrenching proven trustworthiness Earth as Garden of Rightful, proper kind of Invoke duty, honor, country; use images of Attack religion, country,CONVENTIONAL Eco-Manager Maintain order and authority; a higher follow the law (divine law Eden; Puritan ethos; discipline and obedience to higher authority; heritage, or standards; stewardship ethos position in the One True or state laws); keep Boy and Girl Scouts; call for good citizenship, stewardship, self- desecrate symbols or Holy environmental Way; down chain of sacrifice for a higher cause; appeal to Books; put down the One Manage Nature harmony and stability; command; according to manage Nature for future legislation and traditions, laws, order, and being prepared; True-Way; violate chain of from secular or rules; person with bounty; follow higher protection agencies; draw upon propriety and responsibilities; command; disregard rules religious position, power, and authority and rules to endangered species show how behavior will insure future rewards, and directives; appear unfair framework rank; in compliance with avoid punishment regulations require delayed gratification, assuage guilt or sleazy; use profanity tradition and precedent One’s own right-thinking Appeal to competitive advantage and Put down profit or Natural Capitalism; Eco-Strategist Progress, prosperity; mind; successful leverage; draw upon success, progress, and entrepreneurism; talk about conservationism; the rational ethos independence; financial mentors and models; status motivations; inspire to face the collectivization; challenge science of ecology; success and the ”good credible professionals; challenge; call for bigger, better, newer, faster, compulsive drives; denyPOST-CONVENTIONAL urban planning; Manage, use, life”; science, technology, sources which are more popular; cite experts; use scientific data, rewards for good perfor- utilitarian perspectives; and exploit universal rights, invisible advantageous to the self- calculated risks, proven experience; show mance; force sameness; trap environmental Nature for profit economic hand; improve image, result from one’s increased profit, productivity, quality, results; with rules and procedures; psychology; industrial and play life through competition own observations, or are demonstrate as best option, strategy; show as seem inflexible or ordinary; agriculture based upon experience way to preempt government intervention treat as one of the herd Deep Ecology; Consensual, Create a sense of belonging, sharing, harmony; Liberate all humans and Assault the group’s goals Ecofeminism; Social communitarian norms; show sensitivity to human issues, Nature, and Eco-Radical life from greed and and ideals; try to get Ecology; animal rights; enlightened colleague; others; call for an expansion of awareness, self- equality ethos domination; protect the centralized control; reject the Biocentrism; Eco- the outcome of sharing understanding, and liberation of the oppressed; global commons; promote collective for individual centrism; and participation; use symbols of equity, humanity, and bonding; Postmodernist; community and unity; accountability; deny affect save Nature for Ecopsychology; Environ- the result of self-growth; use gentle languaging and Nature imagery; share resources; connect and feelings; degrade quality mental Justice; green observation of events; build trust, openness, exploration for growth; humanity and for with Spirit; consensus; of life or environment; rely politics; social construc- the here and now; present real people and authentic emotional its intrinsic value social responsibility; on “hard facts” and exclude tion of nature; corporate appeals to affect/ displays; encourage participation, sharing, political correctness people factors; act elitist citizenship feelings/emotions consensus, teamwork, community involvement Ecological Selves by Sean Esbjörn-Hargens, based upon values research by Clare Graves, Don Beck and Chris Cowan, and self-identity research by Jane Loevinger and Susanne Cook-Greuter. Communications material (approach, hot and cold buttons) adapted completely, with permission, from Spiral Dynamics (www.spiraldynamics.net).
U SING I MAGES TO C OMMUNIC AT E TO D IFFERENT E COLOGIC AL S ELVES ABOUT S US TA I N A B I L I T Y Eco-Guardian Eco-Manager A major component of the Images that Eco-Guardian worldview appeal to the is its magical and Eco-Manager animistic belief system. may be embed- Young children often hold ded in either a this worldview. A similar secular or reli- form of it also makes up gious context. part of the complex Usually, these constellation of beliefs of images will many indigenous groups, show “pure” as well as some aspects of Nature, untouched by humanity, flourishing, pristine, and, in the the New Age Movement. case of Christian environmentalism, reminiscent of the Garden Therefore, images that of Eden. This image of an endangered orangutan is an example. anthropomorphize ani- The Eco-Manager worldview may suggest the way Nature mals, plants, elements, “should be”, according to Divine or state law. Examples ofand natural forces—or show them as imbued with sentient images I have found targeting this worldview are, a loneconsciousness—are often used to communicate sustainability howling wolf, a simple butterfly, a cathedral of trees, and manymessages to this worldview. Such an image is that of Yemaya, images with the sun—God’s grace—shining down upon the Holythe Yoruba Mother of the Sea. An example of her use for a sus- Land. The “What Would Jesus Drive?” campaign sprouted outtainability initiative occurs each New Year’s Day in Rio de of the Christian evangelical movement. It uses images of JesusJaneiro when the city launches “Operação Iemanjá” (Operation looking over a tangled mess of highways and stating,Yemaya) and mobilizes 3000 workers to clean up the beaches “Transportation is a moral issue.”after the previous night of revelry.Eco-Warrior Eco-StrategistThis worldview is also expressed differently amongst youth than Sustainability images that are used to motivate people who holdamong adults. Environmental superheroes appeal to the youth of this worldview fall into two broad categories: Challenge/many cultures. Hibridos del Mar (Hybrids of the Sea) are Strategy and Nature+Technology. This image, from the bookMexican marine superheroes who battle pollution and Winning the Oil Endgame, shows black “oil” pieces againstcorruption. This is an image of Boston-based Hawgman. He is white “sustainability” pieces. The World Business Council for“Nature’s champion, defender of the outdoors, protector of the Sustainable Development uses similar challenge/strategyenvironment.” He has pledged to fight polluters and he imagery in its publications: pictures of hurdles, a tightrope, aencourages youth to practice “catch and release” fishing and to Rubik’s cube, and a maze—all representing the challenge of keep their fishing areas sustainability. clean. In order to appeal Also common to adults deeply rooted are images in the Eco-Warrior that blend worldview, fiery and technology intense images and and Nature, graphics are often used. suggesting Pictures of extreme that our tech- pollution or brutal nology is key environmental destruc- to achieving tion may help success- progress infully move some people to action. The Earth Liberation Front, sustainablefor example, has a picture of a torched Humvee on its development. Eco-Strategist imagery in general tends tohomepage, symbolizing their intention to “stop [the] continued communicate a “human control” dynamic. The assumption isdestruction of life, by any means necessary.” Subtler and less that we have control over nature; this is a common theme in theextreme imagery, such as pictures of a solo mountain climber or rise of modernism worldwide.other images showing “heroic efforts to save Nature” are alsocommonly used to appeal to the Eco-Warrior in us.
Eco-Radical 3) Combine the three separate communications into one, being Images that motivate careful not to use any of the “demotivators” for any of the this worldview fall worldviews. As long as no “cold buttons” are pressed, people into two categories: will tend to “hear” only that which resonates with their worldview. cynical/deconstruc- For example, someone with an Eco-Manager worldview will tune tionist and nurturing/ into the Eco-Manager-specific communication yet pass over the spiritual growth. The part of the message tailored to the Eco-Strategist or Eco-Warrior. postmodern backlash This process demands that we be mindful of our own against modernism worldview. If the communication I’ve crafted sounds good to me— and its (unintended) yet I haven’t tailored it to the audience’s worldviews—then I am ill effects has led to a most likely on the wrong track. I may be merely communicating slew of imagery that the way I see the world, which might be either a fundamental challenges our defini- (unconscious) dishonoring of the audience, or lazy scholarship. tion of progress and Knowing that different worldviews exist, I feel a deep, internalsuggests alternative ways of seeing the world. A vanguard responsibility to learn from and learn about an audience first, andorganization in this arena is Adbusters, with its “culture then tailor the message as specifically as possible.jamming” initiatives. Adbusters’ website is replete with smart, I believe that this depth of conscious communication is requisite for all sustainability education if we are to authenticallyhip, and cutting edge artistry that appeals to the Eco-Radical. and intelligently respond to the increasing complexity of ourAn example is this image of Earth as victim of a hit-and-run environmental and social challenges. This process is ultimatelyaccident. Another example is an Ecologist cover which shows a about 1), profoundly understanding ourselves and how we see themalnourished African boy in front of a giant, felled, old-growth world, and then 2), turning that mindful engagement to our audi-hardwood. The headline screams, “Why have you forsaken me?” ence and striving for seamless mutual understanding. While thisThis worldcentric sensitivity to the downtrodden, which the approach is by no means a panacea, it is a vital part of successfulEco-Radical embodies, generally emerges alongside a communication. For years now, various senior leaders in UNICEFcommitment to personal/spiritual growth. This growth motif have successfully tailored all their communications to local world-employs positive, beautiful images of humans communing/ views. Currently, business consultants, government officials, andmeditating in nature, celebrating life outdoors, and serving civil society leaders from around the world do this as well. If thissustainability while transforming themselves. manner of meeting people where they are resonates in your heart and mind, I invite you to test it, learn more, and eventually useCommunicating to Multiple Worldviews Simultaneously this approach in all your communications about sustainability.These Ecological Selves are the environmental “lenses” of the A Note from Barrett C. Brownmost common worldviews held by humanity. However, peopledon’t merely operate with one worldview. While these worldviews Thank you for having taken the time to read this article. It is anmay appear to be strict stages—developing from pre-conventional honor to share it with you. We at the Integral Sustainability Centerto conventional to post-conventional and beyond—they are more are working at the nexus of sustainable development, Integralakin to probability waves. This means that although people have theory, and developmental psychology. We are attempting to mapa “center of gravity” —the core worldview they tend to operate and design sustainable development theory and practice thatfrom, say 50% of the time—they also respond from more address both the complexity of the exterior world of behaviorcomplex and less complex worldviews the other 50% of the time. and systems (natural and social) and the complexity of the inte-Three other factors make this analysis challenging. The accurate rior world of psychology, consciousness, and culture. Our inten-measurement of a worldview is a rigorous process and, in any tion is to continue sharing our research and growing the Integralgiven population, a variety of worldviews are present. Finally, Sustainability community in service of effecting global sustain-highly developed adults are often found to value all the world- able development. For further information, please visit usviews, seeing the importance of each. Given these issues, the best on-line through Integral University (www.integraluniversity.org),strategy for communicating about sustainability is to use languag- or contact me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org and images that appeal to multiple worldviews simultaneously. Barrett C. Brown is Co-Director of Experienced, intuitive communicators do this naturally, the Integral Sustainability Center atsensing the appropriate language for their audience. Here’s a Integral University. He was formerlysimple, 1-2-3 process for crafting these communications. international development director of1) Identify the three dominant worldviews, or Eco-Selves, amongst The Sustainable Village and isthe target population. 2) Develop a separate sustainability currently studying for a Ph.D. incommunication (with images if needed) for each of these world- Human and Organizational Systems.views, drawing upon relevant authorities and communication He lives in the green mountains ofsources, and using the “best-fit approach” guidelines. Vermont, USA.