Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          We live i...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          We live i...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          We live i...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          We li...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          We l...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          These tes...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          These...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          These...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          These...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Achieveme...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Achieveme...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Multiple ...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Multi...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Mult...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Mult...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Mult...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     A    Mult...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Ignoring ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Ignoring ...
Introduction       Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Ignor...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Igno...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Igno...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Igno...
Introduction        Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References     C    Igno...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          I draw on...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          I draw on...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Are the Less...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Are the Less...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Are the Less...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Are the Less...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Are the Less...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  A Brief History o...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  A Brief History o...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  A Brief History o...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Early edu...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Early edu...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  IQ          IQ in...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Binet:      “[Suc...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          “What are...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          The moder...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          The moder...
Introduction           Lessons           History               IQ           Origins Modern              Stability         ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Operationalizing ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References Problem similar to...
Introduction   Lessons        History    IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References Problem similar t...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Origins of the Mo...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Origins of the Mo...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Origins of the Mo...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  General Knowledge...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  General Knowledge...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  General Knowledge...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Iowa Test of Educ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Iowa Test of Educ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          What matt...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          They were...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Achieveme...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Achieveme...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Achieveme...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Do Schools P...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Do Schools P...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Mann:     “Hence ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Other mec...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          “We lean ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          But time ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          But time ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  How are IQ and ac...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  How are IQ and ac...
Introduction        Lessons            History        IQ          Origins Modern        Stability         Appendix        ...
Introduction       Lessons            History        IQ          Origins Modern        Stability          Appendix        ...
Introduction       Lessons            History        IQ        Origins Modern         Stability           Appendix        ...
Introduction        Lessons            History       IQ         Origins Modern        Stability         Appendix          ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Only rece...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Only rece...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Only rece...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Table 2: Validiti...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Personality      ...
Introduction           Lessons         History          IQ          Origins Modern                Stability          Appen...
Introduction            Lessons          History           IQ           Origins Modern                Stability           ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References           Alternat...
Introduction             Lessons           History        IQ           Origins Modern               Stability           Ap...
Introduction               Lessons           History        IQ              Origins Modern           Stability            ...
Introduction          Lessons           History      IQ          Origins Modern      Stability              Appendix      ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Big Five ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Big Five ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Big Five ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          Big Five ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Defining non-cogni...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Defining non-cogni...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Validities for Pe...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Validities for Pe...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  How Predictive Ar...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  How Predictive Ar...
Introduction         Lessons         History             IQ         Origins Modern          Stability          Appendix   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Figure 3: Correla...
Introduction        Lessons             History        IQ         Origins Modern         Stability     Appendix         Re...
Introduction         Lessons             History    IQ         Origins Modern         Stability       Appendix       Refer...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Figure 6: Correla...
Introduction                       Lessons            History              IQ             Origins Modern                  ...
Introduction                   Lessons             History              IQ            Origins Modern                   Sta...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  How Predictive Ar...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Table 5: The Rela...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  What Do Grades an...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction                  Lessons          History          IQ          Origins Modern          Stability       Append...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ     Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Figure 10: Deco...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References          This expl...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Table 2: Validiti...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Causal Inference ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Causal Inference ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Causal Inference ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References                   ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Questions        ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Questions        ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Questions        ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Questions        ...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Difficulties in Est...
Introduction   Lessons        History   IQ   Origins Modern   Stability       Appendix       References  Difficulties in Est...
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
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James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21
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James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21

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Apresentação da palestra de James Heckman, no Seminário Educação para o Século 21, promovido pelo Instituto Ayrton Senna. Saiba mais: http://www.educacaosec21.org.br/

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James Heckman_apresentação Seminário Educação para o Século 21

  1. 1. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Hard Evidence on Soft Skills James J. Heckman University of Chicago; University College Dublin; Director, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group, Institute for New Economic Thinking Noncognitive Skills: Importance and the Relation with Cognitive Abilities Ayrton Senna Institute Sao Paulo, Brazil October 25, 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  2. 2. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References We live in an era of widespread testing. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  3. 3. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References We live in an era of widespread testing. Achievement tests in particular have assumed a prominent role. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  4. 4. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References We live in an era of widespread testing. Achievement tests in particular have assumed a prominent role. They are used to: Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  5. 5. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References We live in an era of widespread testing. Achievement tests in particular have assumed a prominent role. They are used to: i Measure skills of persons (e.g., SAT, ACT, ENEM, GRE, GED) and certify suitability for admission and qualifications in a variety of domains of life. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  6. 6. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References We live in an era of widespread testing. Achievement tests in particular have assumed a prominent role. They are used to: i Measure skills of persons (e.g., SAT, ACT, ENEM, GRE, GED) and certify suitability for admission and qualifications in a variety of domains of life. ii To measure the performance of schools and entire national school systems and nations (e.g. PISA scores, NCLB) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  7. 7. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References These tests are not well understood. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  8. 8. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References These tests are not well understood. a What do they measure? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  9. 9. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References These tests are not well understood. a What do they measure? b How are they validated? What do they predict? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  10. 10. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References These tests are not well understood. a What do they measure? b How are they validated? What do they predict? c What do they miss? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  11. 11. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Achievement tests miss—or perhaps better—do not accurately capture—soft skills. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  12. 12. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Achievement tests miss—or perhaps better—do not accurately capture—soft skills. Personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valuable in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  13. 13. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  14. 14. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. i People differ in their endowments of these skills. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  15. 15. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. i People differ in their endowments of these skills. ii These differences in endowments and values of endowments across tasks give rise to comparative advantage and sorting in the labor market. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  16. 16. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. i People differ in their endowments of these skills. ii These differences in endowments and values of endowments across tasks give rise to comparative advantage and sorting in the labor market. B Personality traits—“soft skills”—can be measured. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  17. 17. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. i People differ in their endowments of these skills. ii These differences in endowments and values of endowments across tasks give rise to comparative advantage and sorting in the labor market. B Personality traits—“soft skills”—can be measured. i They are often as predictive of many life outcomes as are measures of cognition. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  18. 18. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Multiple skills are useful in predicting and causing economic and social success but with different weights in different tasks. i People differ in their endowments of these skills. ii These differences in endowments and values of endowments across tasks give rise to comparative advantage and sorting in the labor market. B Personality traits—“soft skills”—can be measured. i They are often as predictive of many life outcomes as are measures of cognition. ii Personality traits have causal effects on behavioral outcomes: changing traits through interventions changes life outcomes. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  19. 19. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  20. 20. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  21. 21. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. i Yet they can also be changed in a gradual way through investment and experience. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  22. 22. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. i Yet they can also be changed in a gradual way through investment and experience. ii Enhancing these traits is an important avenue for policy. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  23. 23. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. i Yet they can also be changed in a gradual way through investment and experience. ii Enhancing these traits is an important avenue for policy. E No evidence for extreme situational specificity of the sort once advocated by Walter Mischel (1968). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  24. 24. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. i Yet they can also be changed in a gradual way through investment and experience. ii Enhancing these traits is an important avenue for policy. E No evidence for extreme situational specificity of the sort once advocated by Walter Mischel (1968). F Situational specificity — that we are what we need to be in any specific situation — plays a prominent role in modern behavioral economics. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  25. 25. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References C Ignoring personality traits can deceive: conceals major social problems by using achievement test scores as the measure of success. D Traits are stable across situations. i Yet they can also be changed in a gradual way through investment and experience. ii Enhancing these traits is an important avenue for policy. E No evidence for extreme situational specificity of the sort once advocated by Walter Mischel (1968). F Situational specificity — that we are what we need to be in any specific situation — plays a prominent role in modern behavioral economics. G There are “enduring traits” that persist and govern behavior across multiple domains of economic and social life. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  26. 26. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References I draw on recent research on the GED, an achievement test that secondary school dropouts in the U.S. can take to certify that they are the equivalents (in cognition) of high school graduates. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  27. 27. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References I draw on recent research on the GED, an achievement test that secondary school dropouts in the U.S. can take to certify that they are the equivalents (in cognition) of high school graduates. Brazil has a version of this test applied on a wide scale (ENEM). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  28. 28. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Are the Lessons from This Research? Success in life requires a lot more than what is measured by academic achievement tests. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  29. 29. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Are the Lessons from This Research? Success in life requires a lot more than what is measured by academic achievement tests. Soft skills matter. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  30. 30. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Are the Lessons from This Research? Success in life requires a lot more than what is measured by academic achievement tests. Soft skills matter. Personality—“character” broadly defined—can be measured. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  31. 31. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Are the Lessons from This Research? Success in life requires a lot more than what is measured by academic achievement tests. Soft skills matter. Personality—“character” broadly defined—can be measured. Personality can be fostered. It is an important, but neglected, component of what schools and families produce. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  32. 32. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Are the Lessons from This Research? Success in life requires a lot more than what is measured by academic achievement tests. Soft skills matter. Personality—“character” broadly defined—can be measured. Personality can be fostered. It is an important, but neglected, component of what schools and families produce. A focus on achievement tests fostered by movements for “accountability” distorts the incentives of students and teachers. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  33. 33. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Brief History of Testing Goal of developers of IQ and achievement tests: to produce “objective” and “comparable” measures of children and schools. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  34. 34. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Brief History of Testing Goal of developers of IQ and achievement tests: to produce “objective” and “comparable” measures of children and schools. Pioneers recognize their limits. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  35. 35. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References A Brief History of Testing Goal of developers of IQ and achievement tests: to produce “objective” and “comparable” measures of children and schools. Pioneers recognize their limits. They understood that schools produced more than simple “book learning” — academic knowledge — expressed frustration about how to measure it. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  36. 36. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Early educators lacked a conceptual framework for thinking about what exactly should be measured. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  37. 37. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Early educators lacked a conceptual framework for thinking about what exactly should be measured. They lacked the technology for implementing such tests on a wide spread scale. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  38. 38. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  39. 39. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  40. 40. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  41. 41. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. IQ was tested on a wide scale. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  42. 42. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. IQ was tested on a wide scale. The successful application of the IQ test suggested the possibility of testing achievement — what was learned — not just the ability to learn — on a wide scale. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  43. 43. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. IQ was tested on a wide scale. The successful application of the IQ test suggested the possibility of testing achievement — what was learned — not just the ability to learn — on a wide scale. First IQ test was designed to screen out misfits in school. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  44. 44. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. IQ was tested on a wide scale. The successful application of the IQ test suggested the possibility of testing achievement — what was learned — not just the ability to learn — on a wide scale. First IQ test was designed to screen out misfits in school. Role of the test was broadened to capture “intelligence” and quickly became associated with “g”. (Terman and Thorndike) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  45. 45. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References IQ IQ in its modern form is an early Twentieth Century invention. It was conceived as a measure of the capacity to learn. Was later broadened to a concept of ability to solve abstract problems. IQ was tested on a wide scale. The successful application of the IQ test suggested the possibility of testing achievement — what was learned — not just the ability to learn — on a wide scale. First IQ test was designed to screen out misfits in school. Role of the test was broadened to capture “intelligence” and quickly became associated with “g”. (Terman and Thorndike) But the creators of IQ tests realized their limitations. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  46. 46. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Binet: “[Success in school] . . .admits of other things than intelligence; to succeed in his studies, one must have qualities which depend on attention, will, and character; for example a certain docility, a regularity of habits, and especially continuity of effort. A child, even if intelligent, will learn little in class if he never listens, if he spends his time in playing tricks, in giggling, in playing truant.” -Binet (1916, p. 254) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  47. 47. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References “What are the chief personality traits which, interacting with g, relate to individual differences in achievement and vocational success? The most universal personality trait is conscientiousness, that is, being responsible, dependable, caring, organized and persistent.” -Jensen (1998, p. 575) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  48. 48. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References The modern conception of intelligence has moved well beyond “g ” to a hierarchy of traits. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  49. 49. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References The modern conception of intelligence has moved well beyond “g ” to a hierarchy of traits. But “g ” is still at the top of the hierarchy. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  50. 50. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 1: Modern View of “g ”: An Hierarchical Scheme of General Intelligence and Its Components Math Reasoning Visual Perception Closure Quantitative Reasoning Visualization Closure Speed Math Problems Spatial Relations Closure Flexibility Closure Speed Closure Flexibility gf Serial Perceptual Integration (Fluid Intelligence) Spatial Scanning Sequential Reasoning Imagery Perceptual Speed Inductive Reasoning Number Computation Quantitative Reasoning RT and other Elementary Cognitive Tasks Piagetian Reasoning Stroop Clerical Speed gc Gc Digit/Symbol (Crystallized Intelligence) Verbal Comprehension General Lexical Knowledge g= Learning and Memory Intelligence Memory Span Reading Comprehension Associative Memory Reading Speed Free Recall Memory “Cloze” Meaningful Memory Spelling Visual Memory Phonetic Coding Ideational Fluency Grammatical Sensitivity Ideational Fluency Knowledge and Achievement Foreign Language Naming Facility General School Achievement Communication Expressional Fluency Verbal Information and Knowledge Listening Word Fluency Information and Knowledge, Math and Science Oral Production Creativity Technical and Mechanical Knowledge Oral Style Figural Fluency Knowledge of Behavioral Content Writing Figural Flexibility Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  51. 51. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Operationalizing IQ Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  52. 52. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Problem similar to the Raven’s Progressive Matrices test items Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  53. 53. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Problem similar to the Raven’s Progressive Matrices test items Correct answer: 5 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  54. 54. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Origins of the Modern Achievement Test Achievement tests were created in the wake of the IQ test as a way to capture the knowledge acquired in schools, not just the capacity to learn. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  55. 55. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Origins of the Modern Achievement Test Achievement tests were created in the wake of the IQ test as a way to capture the knowledge acquired in schools, not just the capacity to learn. The distinction between knowledge and the ability to acquire it is clear. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  56. 56. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Origins of the Modern Achievement Test Achievement tests were created in the wake of the IQ test as a way to capture the knowledge acquired in schools, not just the capacity to learn. The distinction between knowledge and the ability to acquire it is clear. How one separates these concepts empirically is not so clear, especially since the ability to acquire knowledge is not a fixed trait but can be changed. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  57. 57. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References General Knowledge The inventors of the achievement test sought to measure “useful knowledge” or “general knowledge” valuable in functioning at work and in society, not specific knowledge of a course. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  58. 58. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References General Knowledge The inventors of the achievement test sought to measure “useful knowledge” or “general knowledge” valuable in functioning at work and in society, not specific knowledge of a course. Designed to be “objective”—not depend on teacher assessments as captured by grades. This was perceived to be a way to implement meritocratic notions of education. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  59. 59. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References General Knowledge The inventors of the achievement test sought to measure “useful knowledge” or “general knowledge” valuable in functioning at work and in society, not specific knowledge of a course. Designed to be “objective”—not depend on teacher assessments as captured by grades. This was perceived to be a way to implement meritocratic notions of education. Iowa tests; ACT; GED; ENEM; No Child Left Behind; NAEP; PISA tests are modern versions. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  60. 60. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Iowa Test of Educational Development (ITED) Developed in 1930s and 1940s. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  61. 61. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Iowa Test of Educational Development (ITED) Developed in 1930s and 1940s. The prototype for all achievement tests. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  62. 62. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What matters most is not how many detailed facts a person can quote, but how well he can make use of what he knows, and how straight he can think about personal and group problems. The Iowa Tests, therefore, were planned to measure the fundamental ideas the student has acquired permanently, and what he is able to do with them. This seemed much more important than just measuring the specific information he had memorized in a course, which he would forget after the final exam. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  63. 63. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References They were planned to measure the real knowledge and reasoning ability a student had, no matter how he had acquired them . . . -Lindquist (1948) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  64. 64. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Achievement tests are designed to measure acquired knowledge. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  65. 65. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Achievement tests are designed to measure acquired knowledge. But what motivates students to acquire knowledge? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  66. 66. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Achievement tests are designed to measure acquired knowledge. But what motivates students to acquire knowledge? Cognition, personality, as well as environmental determinants, such as parents, teachers, and peers. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  67. 67. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Do Schools Produce? Is it just the knowledge captured by standard achievement tests? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  68. 68. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Do Schools Produce? Is it just the knowledge captured by standard achievement tests? Every creator of an achievement test thought otherwise. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  69. 69. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Mann: “Hence to value schools, by length instead of quality, is a matchless absurdity. Arithmetic, grammar, and the other rudiments, as they are called, comprise but a small part of the teachings in a school. The rudiments of feeling are taught not less than the rudiments of thinking. The sentiments and passions get more lessons than the intellect. Though their open recitations may be less, their secret rehearsals are more.” -Horace Mann (1867, p. 420) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  70. 70. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Other mechanisms of assessment besides the objective exam were often suggested. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  71. 71. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References “We lean heavily on written examinations, on a few types of objective tests, and on the subjective impressions of teachers. Many other appraisal devices could be used, such as records of activities in which pupils participate, questionnaires, check lists, anecdotal records and observational records, interviews, reports made by parents, products made by the pupils, and records made by instruments (motion pictures, eye-movement records, sound recordings, and the like).” -Tyler (1940) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  72. 72. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References But time and again, the achievement test won out as a cheap tool of assessment. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  73. 73. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References But time and again, the achievement test won out as a cheap tool of assessment. Other methods were more costly, even if they missed a lot. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  74. 74. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References How are IQ and achievement tests validated? Usually on grades and other tests. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  75. 75. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References How are IQ and achievement tests validated? Usually on grades and other tests. This is ironic in light of the fact that the achievement test was invented in order to avoid the “subjectivity” of grades. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  76. 76. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 1: Predictive Validities of Standard IQ and Achievement Tests Cognitive Achievement and IQ Tests Test Domain over Estimated Validities Source Notes which it is validated SAT First year col- 0.35 to 0.53 Kobrin et al. (2008) lege GPA ACT Grades in 0.42 ACT Incorporated early years of (2007) college Stanford- Correlations 0.77 to 0.87 with WISC-R Rothlisberg (1987); Binet with other Greene et al. (1990) intelligence tests WISC Correlations WISC: 0.443 to 0.751 Hartlage and Steele WRAT = (Wechsler with aca- with WRAT tests, 0.482 (1977) Wide Range Intelligence demic to 0.788 with 1st grade Achievement Scale for achievement grades, 0.462 to 0.794 with Test; ranges Children) 2nd grade grades; WISC-R: are given 0.346 to 0.760 with WRAT because cor- tests, 0.358 to 0.537 with relations vary 1st grade grades, 0.420 by academic to 0.721 with 2nd grade subject grades Source: Almund et al. (2011). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  77. 77. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 1: Predictive Validities of Standard IQ and Achievement Tests Cognitive Achievement and IQ Tests Test Domain over Estimated Validities Source Notes which it is validated WAIS (Wech- Correlations 0.67 (median) with ver- Feingold (1982) sler Adult with other bal tests, 0.61 (median) Intelligence intelli- with nonverbal tests, 0.69 Scale) gence tests, with education attained, achievement 0.38 to 0.43 with col- tests, and lege grades, 0.62 with high outcomes school grades Raven’s Correlations 0.74 to 0.84 with WAIS-R O’Leary et al. Standard with other (1991) Progressive intelligence Matrices tests GATB (Gen- Supervisor 0.23 to 0.65 Hunter (1986) Large range eral Aptitude rating per- due to variety Test Battery) formance of jobs in training programs and in job performance Source: Almund et al. (2011). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  78. 78. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 1: Predictive Validities of Standard IQ and Achievement Tests Cognitive Achievement and IQ Tests Test Domain over Estimated Validities Source Notes which it is validated ASVAB Performance 0.37 to 0.78 for training Schmidt et al. Large range (Armed in military (mean=0.56); -0.15 for at- (1988) for perfor- in training Services training trition mance in training correlations Vocational programs programs; Sticht due to a Aptitude and military et al. (1982) for variety of Battery) attrition rates attrition rates jobs GED (Gen- Test difficulty 0.33 to 0.49 for HS Senior Technical Manual: eral Ed- is normed GPA 2002 Series GED ucational against grad- Tests Develop- uating HS ment) seniors. Test scores of high school seniors and grades of high school seniors Other Valid- Correlation .75–.79 AFQT, .78 NALS, Boesel et al. (1998) ity Studies of with other .81 Iowa Tests the GED achievement tests Source: Almund et al. (2011). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  79. 79. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 1: Predictive Validities of Standard IQ and Achievement Tests Cognitive Achievement and IQ Tests Test Domain over Estimated Validities Source Notes which it is validated DAT (Dif- Correlations 0.13 to 0.62 for college Omizo (1980) Large range is ferential with aca- GPA due to vary- Aptitude demic ing validity of Tests) achievement eight subtests of DAT WIAT Correlation 0.80 with grade 4 CAT/2, Michalko and CAT=California (Wechsler with other 0.69 with grade 5 CAT/2, Saklofske (1996) Achievement Individual achievement 0.83 with grade 6 CAT/2; Test Achievement tests; teacher 0.67 with teacher ratings Test) ratings of student achievement Source: Almund et al. (2011). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  80. 80. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Only recently has the validity of the tests on real world outcomes been established. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  81. 81. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Only recently has the validity of the tests on real world outcomes been established. They predict a bit, but they leave a lot unexplained. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  82. 82. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Only recently has the validity of the tests on real world outcomes been established. They predict a bit, but they leave a lot unexplained. Achievement tests and grades are usually more predictive than IQ. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  83. 83. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 2: Validities in Labor Market Outcomes from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 NLSY79 Table of Proportion of Explained Variance (tests and school performance) Source: Borghans et al. (2011) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  84. 84. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  85. 85. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  86. 86. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  87. 87. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  88. 88. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Openness Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  89. 89. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Openness Conscientiousness Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  90. 90. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  91. 91. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  92. 92. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Personality Personality and Motivation: missing dimensions that predict adult performance. Some of the missing dimensions manifest in these tables that explain a variety of educational and labor market outcomes. Economist’s “Dark Matter” or “Dark Energy.” One popular measurement system: Big Five — OCEAN Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  93. 93. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 3: The Big Five Domains and Their Facets Big Five Personality American Psychology Facets (and correlated Related Traits Childhood Factor Association Dictionary trait adjective) Temperament Traits description Openness to “the tendency to be open Fantasy (imaginative) Sensory sensitivity Experience to new aesthetic, Aesthetic (artistic) Pleasure in low- cultural, or intellectual Feelings (excitable) intensity activities experiences” Actions (wide interests) Curiosity Ideas (curious) — Values (unconventional) Conscientiousness “the tendency to be Competence (efficient) Grit Attention/(lack of) organized, responsible, Order (organized) Perseverance distractibility and hardworking” Dutifulness (not careless) Delay of gratification Effortful control Achievement striving Impulse control Impulse control/delay (ambitious) Achievement striving of gratification Self-discipline (not lazy) Ambition Persistence Deliberation (not Work ethic Activity* impulsive) OCEAN Source: Table adapted from John and Srivastava (1999). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  94. 94. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 3: The Big Five Domains and Their Facets Extraversion “an orientation of one’s Warmth (friendly) Surgency interests and energies Gregariousness Social dominance toward the outer world (sociable) Social vitality of people and things Assertiveness (self- Sensation seeking rather than the inner confident) Shyness* — world of subjective Activity (energetic) Activity* experience; Excitement seeking Positive emotionality characterized by (adventurous) Sociability/affiliation positive affect and Positive emotions sociability” (enthusiastic) Agreeableness “the tendency to act in a Trust (forgiving) Empathy Irritability* cooperative, unselfish Straight-forwardness (not Perspective taking Aggressiveness manner” demanding) Cooperation Willfulness Altruism (warm) Competitiveness Compliance (not stubborn) Modesty (not show-off) Tender-mindedness (sympathetic) Neuroticism/ Emotional stability is Anxiety (worrying) Internal vs. External Fearfulness/behavioral Emotional Stability “predictability and Hostility (irritable) Locus of control inhibition consistency in emotional Depression (not Core self-evaluation Shyness* reactions, with absence contented) Self-esteem Irritability* of rapid mood changes.” Self-consciousness (shy) Self-efficacy Frustration Neuroticism is “a Impulsiveness (moody) Optimism (Lack of) soothability chronic level of Vulnerability to stress Axis I Sadness emotional instability and (not self-confident) psychopathologies proneness to (mental disorders) psychological distress.” including depression and anxiety disorders OCEAN Source: Table adapted from John and Srivastava (1999). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  95. 95. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Alternative measurement systems and their communalities Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  96. 96. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Competing taxonomies of personality Evsenck Costa & McCrae Tellegen Zuckerman Cloninger Big Nine Big Three NEO-PRF Big Five MPQ Neuroticism Neuroticism Negative Emotionality Neuroticism-Anxiety Harm Avoidance Adjustment Anxious Anxiety Stress reaction Vulnerability Depressed Depression Guilt-feeling Low self-esteem Tense Irrational Shy Self-consciousness Alienation Moody Emotional Impulsiveness Psychotism Aggressive Hostility Aggression Aggression-Hostility Cooperativeness Agreeableness Cold Egocentric Rugged Individualism Impersonal Agreeableness Anti-social Altruism Unempathic Compliance Tough-minded Tendermindedness Straightforwardness Trust (cont.) Modesty Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  97. 97. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Competing taxonomies of personality (cont.) Evsenck Costa & McCrae Tellegen Zuckerman Cloninger Big Nine Big Three NEO-PRF Big Five MPQ Psychotism (cont.) Conscientiousness Constraint Self-Directedness Dependability Deliberation Dutifulness Impulsive Self-discipline Control Locus of Control Order Competence Persistence Achievement Achievement striving Traditionalism Extraversion Extraversion Sensation-seeking Excitement seeking Harm avoidance Impulsive Sensation Novelty Seeking Seeking Venturesome Active Activity Activity Surgent Carefree Positive emotionality Achievement Reward Dependence Social Closeness Sociable Gregariousness Sociability Affiliation Lively Assertive Assertiveness Dominant Social Potency Potency Positive emotions Well-being Warmth Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  98. 98. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Competing taxonomies of personality (cont.) Evsenck Costa & McCrae Tellegen Zuckerman Cloninger Big Nine Big Three NEO-PRF Big Five MPQ Openness Self-Transcendence Fantasy Aesthetics Absorption Feelings Actions Ideas Values Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  99. 99. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Big Five is widely used. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  100. 100. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Big Five is widely used. Criticisms of Big Five Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  101. 101. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Big Five is widely used. Criticisms of Big Five The five-factor model is atheoretical. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  102. 102. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Big Five is widely used. Criticisms of Big Five The five-factor model is atheoretical. The five-factor model is relatively silent on an important class of individual differences: motivation and goals. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  103. 103. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Defining non-cognitive traits for children Childhood temperament is the term used by developmental psychologists to describe the personalities of infants and children. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  104. 104. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Defining non-cognitive traits for children Childhood temperament is the term used by developmental psychologists to describe the personalities of infants and children. Most of the research on temperament has examined specific lower-order traits rather than broader, higher-level factors that characterize studies of adult intelligence and personality. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  105. 105. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Validities for Personality Tests What are the validities for personality tests? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  106. 106. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Validities for Personality Tests What are the validities for personality tests? How correlated are scores on these tests with behaviors? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  107. 107. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 4: Validities for Personality Tests Source: Almlund et al. 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  108. 108. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 4: Validities for Personality Tests Source: Almlund et al. 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  109. 109. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References How Predictive Are These Personality Traits? What do they predict? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  110. 110. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References How Predictive Are These Personality Traits? What do they predict? With what strength? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  111. 111. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 2: Association of the Big Five and intelligence with Years of Schooling Males Emotional Stability Agreeableness Extraversion Conscientiousness Openness Fluid Intelligence Crystalized Intelligence -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 Standardized Regression Coefficient Unadjusted for Intelligence Adjusted for Intelligence Source: Almlund et al. 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  112. 112. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 3: Correlations of The Big Five and Intelligence with High School Course Grades Source: Almlund et al. 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  113. 113. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Duckworth, Heckman, Almlund, and Kautz 10/22/2010 126 Figure 13. Associations with Standardized Achievement Test Scores Figure 4: Associations with Standardized Achievement Test Scores Emotional Stability Agreeableness Extraversion Conscientiousness Private School Public School Openness Intelligence -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Standardized Regression Coefficient Note: The values represent standardized regression coefficients when controlling for age at IQ test, gender, and ethnicity. IQ is measured using Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Source: Duckworth (2009) Martin and colleagues were among the first to demonstrate that teacheron Soft Skillsratings Heckman Hard Evidence and parent
  114. 114. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References and the authors do not clearly delineate when the measures of personality were taken. Figure 5: Associations with Job Performance Figure 14. Associations with Job Performance Emotional Stability Agreeableness Extraversion Conscientiousness Openness Intelligence 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Correlation Note. The values for personality are correlations that were corrected for sampling error, range restriction, and measurement error. Job performance was based on performance ratings, productivity data and training proficiency. The authors do report the timing of the measurements of personality relative to job performance. The value for IQ is a raw correlation. Source(s): The values reported for personality traits come from a meta-analysis conducted by Barrick and Mount [1991]. The value for IQ and job performance was reported in Schmidt and Hunter [2004]. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  115. 115. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 6: Correlations of Mortality with Personality, IQ, and Socioeconomic Status (SES) Source: Almlund et al. 2011 Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  116. 116. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Ever Been in Jail by Age 30, by Ability (Males) Figure 7: Ever been in jail by age 30, by ability (males)zation .15mentnce .10 Probabilityal andtiveds .05onmentveates .00ation 0 – 20 21 – 40 41 – 60 61 – 80 81 – 100 Percentilemary Cognitive Noncognitive Note: This figure plots the probability of a given behavior associated with moving up in one ability distribution for someone after integrating out the other distribution. For example, the lines with markers show the effect of increasing noncognitive ability after Source: Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua (2006) integrating the cognitive ability. Source: Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua (2006). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  117. 117. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Probability of Being Single With Children (Females) Figure 8: Probability of being teenage and single with children (females)zation .10ment .08nce Probability l and .06 ive s nment .04veates .02ation 0 – 20 21 – 40 41 – 60 61 – 80 81 – 100 Percentilemary Cognitive Noncognitive Note: This figure plots the probability of a given behavior associated with moving up in one ability distribution for someone after integrating out the other distribution. For example, the lines with markers show the effect of increasing noncognitive ability after Source: Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua (2006) integrating the cognitive ability. Source: Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua (2006). Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  118. 118. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References How Predictive Are Achievement Tests Compared to Conscientiousness for Success in Post-Secondary Education? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  119. 119. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 5: The Relative Predictive Power of Conscientiousness and SAT Scores for College GPA Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  120. 120. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References What Do Grades and Scores on Achievement Tests Measure? How are the scores on test and grades determined? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  121. 121. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References f c Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  122. 122. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 9: Decomposing Achievement Tests and Grades into IQ and Personality [NLSY79] 0.60 Achievement Grades 0.50 0.48 0.43 0.40 R-Squared 0.30 0.23 0.20 0.19 0.16 0.10 0.10 0.00 AFQT Grades IQ, Rosenberg, and Rotter IQ Rosenberg and Rotter Source: Borghans, Golsteyn, Heckman et al. [2011]. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  123. 123. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Figure 10: Decomposing Achievement Tests and Grades into IQ and Personality [Stella Maris] Source: Borghans, Golsteyn, Heckman et al. [2011]. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  124. 124. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References This explains in part the greater predictive power of achievement tests and grades compared to IQ in explaining real world outcomes. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  125. 125. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Table 2: Validities in Labor Market Outcomes from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 NLSY79 Table of Proportion of Explained Variance (tests and school performance) Source: Borghans et al. (2011) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  126. 126. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Causal Inference Causality is essential in designing policy and interpreting evidence. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  127. 127. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Causal Inference Causality is essential in designing policy and interpreting evidence. Correlation is not the same as causation, although a lot of public policy is based only on correlations. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  128. 128. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Causal Inference Causality is essential in designing policy and interpreting evidence. Correlation is not the same as causation, although a lot of public policy is based only on correlations. The doctors in Russia. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  129. 129. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? A B Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  130. 130. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? A B ? B A Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  131. 131. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? A B ? B A ? A B Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  132. 132. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? A B ? B A ? A B ? A C B Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  133. 133. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? ? B A B C ? A B A ? A B ? A C B Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  134. 134. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? ? B A B C ? A B A ? B ? C A B A ? A C B Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  135. 135. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Correlation vs. Causality A is correlated with B What is causal? ? ? B A B C ? A B A ? B ? C A B A ? A ? B C C B A Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  136. 136. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Questions Are any of the predictive relationships between personality and cognition and outcomes causal? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  137. 137. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Questions Are any of the predictive relationships between personality and cognition and outcomes causal? Can we change cognition and personality and affect outcomes or are they fixed traits? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  138. 138. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Questions Are any of the predictive relationships between personality and cognition and outcomes causal? Can we change cognition and personality and affect outcomes or are they fixed traits? Is promoting cognition and personality a useful policy option? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  139. 139. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Questions Are any of the predictive relationships between personality and cognition and outcomes causal? Can we change cognition and personality and affect outcomes or are they fixed traits? Is promoting cognition and personality a useful policy option? What do we miss by ignoring soft skills? Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  140. 140. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Difficulties in Establishing Causality Reverse causality (A ⇐⇒ B) Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
  141. 141. Introduction Lessons History IQ Origins Modern Stability Appendix References Difficulties in Establishing Causality Reverse causality (A ⇐⇒ B) Measured traits can be caused in part by the outcomes being studied. Heckman Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
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