Insee annual report 2013

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Insee annual report 2013

  1. 1. 2013 Annual Report
  2. 2. Annual Report
  3. 3. 3 Editorial 5 INSEE and official statistics 6 Head Office organisation chart 8 INSEE: a nationwide presence 10 2013 highlights 11 Increasing the impact of INSEE on public debate 14 Advances in understanding globalization 17 Revision of the Labour Force Survey 20 Supporting public policies in access to services, and urban policy 23 INSEE’s major operations 24 INSEE measures unemployment, economic growth, and price changes 26 INSEE conducts the population census 28 INSEE carries out business surveys Contents 30 INSEE carries out household surveys 32 INSEE disseminates its statistics far and wide 34 INSEE exploits data from administrative records 36 INSEE manages major registers: SIRENE and BRPP 38 INSEE prepares short-term economic analyses and forecasts 40 INSEE analyses key economic and social issues 42 INSEE carries out studies with its regional partners, and sheds light on regional and local issues 44 INSEE constantly improves its methods and coordinates the statistical system 46 Working at INSEE 47 The men and women at INSEE 48 Employees by region and by job category 49 Working as interviewer and price collector on consumer price and household surveys 50 Training INSEE employees in 2013 50 INSEE budget 51 Events during the year INSEE 2013 Annual Report
  4. 4. Editorial “M easuring, Understanding,” these words can now be found on the INSEE logo. They represent our ongoing efforts to provide a better description and analysis of economic and social change in France. This annual report provides a concise presentation of all INSEE’s activities, whether in data collection, data processing and dissemination, short-term analyses, national and regional studies. I would like here to look back on some of the major advances made by INSEE in 2013. The first concern enterprises. This year INSEE devoted an entire publication to them. This was the latest in the INSEE Références collection, and a new edition is planned to come out every year. It gives a complete overview of the productive system in France. One chapter deals with the internationalisation of firms, an area in which observation systems are growing fast; a section in this report gives details of advances in this area. Much more information is now available on outsourcing and on subcontracting abroad. It is also possible now to find out about relations between multinational firms and their subsidiaries abroad, and what they bring to France in terms of jobs and growth. Finally, the statistical system is in the process of changing the basic unit it uses to describe the productive fabric: until now it was built around legal units, which were the basic descriptive units used in data sources, administrative sources or surveys. We are currently moving towards a statistical system based on the notion of enterprise in the economic sense, which is much more relevant. As for social statistics, 2013 was the year the Labour Force Survey was updated. This revision provided the opportunity to modify the questionnaire slightly so that it was more easily understood by those surveyed. The results will be seen in 2014 with the publication of new long retropolated series. In 2013 we also published the results of the PIAAC (Programme for the international assessment of adult competencies) and Homeless surveys. The former measures adult literacy and numeracy skills. According to this survey, in metropolitan France, 22% of people aged between 16 and 65 have a low level of literacy and 28% have a low level of numeracy. The Homeless survey highlights the fact that the number of homeless has increased sharply since the last survey, which was taken in 2001. Lastly, the delays in publication of figures on civil service employment and salaries have been considerably reduced; in addition, the concepts used to describe them are now the same as those used in the private sector. There is a growing social demand for local data, whether to be aware of any inequalities between areas or for better guidance of public policies. On this subject, I would like to point out that INSEE can now provide detailed local data about population and income so everyone can create their own customised zone (grid-marked data). INSEE has very detailed information on the location of amenities, making it easier to pinpoint those areas where access to amenities and healthcare is difficult. The information can also highlight the more disadvantaged areas, which is relevant for new urban policy. The quality and diversity of the work done by the regional offices also enhances the reputation of INSEE. All the regional offices participated alongside regional services for youth, sport and social cohesion at the launch of multiannual plans tackling the struggle against poverty and promoting social inclusion, instigated by François Chérèque. He has acknowledged the contribution made by INSEE. 3
  5. 5. This list of our achievements is far from exhaustive. The purpose of all these efforts is to meet the needs of our users. I would like to finish by stressing that INSEE has been particularly mindful of these needs throughout 2013 through our participation in the programme “Public statistics and democracy: what’s the point of figures?” (Statistique publique et démocratie: à quoi servent les chiffres ?) launched by the President of the National Council for Statistical Information (CNIS). This initiative provided the opportunity for many meetings with these users, culminating in a day specially devoted to debates at the Economic Social and Environmental Council (CESE) on 30 January 2014. One thing this series of events highlighted was the very high level of expectations regarding the figures and analyses produced by INSEE, expectations that I have every confidence in the ability of the INSEE staff to meet. Jean-Luc Tavernier Director-General of INSEE INSEE 2013 Annual Report 4
  6. 6. INSEE: a central-government agency and independent institute T h e F re n c h N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f S t a t i s t i c s and Economic Studies (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques: INSEE) was established by the Budget Act of April 27, 1946. The Institute is a Directorate-General of the Ministry of the Economy and Finance. It is therefore a public agency whose personnel are government employees. INSEE operates under government accounting rules and receives its funding from the State’s general budget. Within this framework, it enjoys total professional independence, and no external authority has inspection rights on the statistical results that it publishes. This professional independence is enshrined in law. The Economic Modernization Act of August 4, 2008, established the Official Statistical Authority (Autorité de la Statistique Publique: ASP) to “oversee compliance with the principle of professional independence in the design, production, and dissemination of official statistics.” A prime goal: to shed light on the economic and social debate, and assist in decision-making I N S E E c o l l e c t s , p r o d u c e s , a n a l y z e s , a n d disseminates information on the French economy and society. This information is relevant to public officials, government bodies, social partners, businesses, researchers, the media, teachers, and private individuals. It helps them to deepen their knowledge, conduct studies, prepare forecasts, and take decisions. To satisfy its users, INSEE listens to their needs and adjusts its work program accordingly. INSEE coordinates the work of the official statistical service The official statistical service comprises INSEE and the ministerial statistical offices (services statistiques ministériels: SSMs), which conduct statistical operations in their areas of expertise. INSEE and the SSMs, under the Institute’s coordination, decide which methods, standards, and procedures to apply in preparing and publishing statistics. INSEE acts as the secretariat for the official statistics governance bodies The reference document for official statistics is Act no. 51-711 of June 7, 1951 (amended), on legal obligation, coordination, and confidentiality in the field of statistics. The Act defines the broad principles that guarantee the quality of official statistics production. The National Council for Statistical Information (Conseil National de l’Information Statistique: CNIS) is the forum for consultation between producers and users of official statistics, while the Official Statistical Authority (Autorité de la Statistique Publique: ASP) enforces compliance with the ethical principles set out in the European Union (EU) recommendations on statistical best practices: professional independence, objectivity, impartiality, quality, and relevance of the data produced. INSEE acts as the secretariat for both bodies. France has also enacted specific legislation concerning the processing of nominative data, which applies to statistical processing as well: the 1978 Act on Information Technology and Civil Liberties (“Informatique et Libertés”). INSEE represents France in EU and international bodies responsible for statistical harmonization INSEE works daily with Eurostat (the Statistical Office of the European Communities) and its EU counterparts. It thus contributes to the construction of the EU’s statistical space. The Institute also participates in the statistical activities of the UN (United Nations), the IMF (International Monetary Fund), OECD (Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development), and the World Bank. INSEE is a member of the UN Statistical Commission, the Geneva-based UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), and the OECD Committee on Statistics (STD). INSEE and official statistics 5
  7. 7. Executive Committee At December 31, 2013 1 National Council for Statistical Information (Conseil National de l’Information Statistique) Survey Operations Contracting Division Demography Department Demographic and Social Studies Unit Consumer Prices, Household Resources, and Household Living Conditions Department Employment and Earned Income Department Registers, Infrastructure, and Structural Statistics Department Sector Analysis Department Short-Term Statistics Department Statistical Methods Department Innovation Mission Statistical and International Coordination Department Quality Unit IT Production and Infrastructure Department Applications and Projects Department Short-Term Analysis Department National Accounts Department Economic Studies Department CNIS1 Secretariat INSEE Info-Service Department Documentary Resources and Archiving Unit Regional Action Department Publications Department Department of Financial Affairs and Work and Resource Programming Living Environment and Working Conditions Department Human Resources Management Department Human Resources Enhancement Department Supervision and Coordination of Regional-Office Managers Legal Affairs and Litigation Unit Cross-Sectional Activities Coordination Unit Statistics Center in Metz Head Office organization chart General Secretariat Alain Bayet Information Technology Sector Jean-Pierre Grandjean Methodology and Statistical Coordination and International Relations Directorate Philippe Cuneo Business Statistics Directorate Fabienne Rosenwald Demographic and Social Statistics Directorate Fabrice Lenglart Economic Studies and National Accounts Directorate Éric Dubois Dissemination and Regional Action Directorate Pierre Audibert Valérie Albouy Head of Director-General’s Office Jean-Luc Tavernier Director-General Pierre Muller Inspectorate-General INSEE 2013 Annual Report 6 7
  8. 8. Pointe-à-Pitre Basse-Terre Cayenne Fort-de-France Ajaccio Lille Rennes Nantes Poitiers Bordeaux Cefil Libourne Toulouse Montpellier Marseille Lyon Besançon Reims St Quentin en Yvelines Orléans Dijon Limoges Clermont- Ferrand Amiens RouenCaen Strasbourg Aix-en-Provence Nancy Metz Mamoudzou Saint-Denis Paris Guadeloupe GuyaneMartinique NORD - PAS- DE-CALAIS HAUTE- NORMANDIE BASSE- NORMANDIE BRETAGNE PAYS DE LA LOIRE POITOU- CHARENTES AQUITAINE MIDI- PYRéNéES LANGUEDOC- ROUSSILLON PROVENCE - ALPES - CôTE D’AZUR RHôNE-ALPES FRANCHE- COMTé CHAMPAGNE- ARDENNE îLE-DE- FRANCE (Paris region) CENTRE BOURGOGNE LIMOUSIN AUVERGNE ALSACELORRAINE Mayotte (Mayotte Branch) La Réunion Corse PICARDIE Regional Office Manager Regional Office Manager Alsace Joël Creusat Languedoc-Roussillon Francis Vennat Antilles-Guyane Georges-Marie Grenier Limousin Fabienne Le Hellaye Aquitaine Jean-Michel Quellec Lorraine Christian Toulet Auvergne Arnaud Stéphany Midi-Pyrénées Jean-Philippe Grouthier Bourgogne Moïse Mayo Nord - Pas-de-Calais Daniel Huart Bretagne Michel Guillemet Basse-Normandie Daniel Brondel Centre Dominique Perrin Haute-Normandie Jean-Christophe Fanouillet Champagne-Ardenne Laurence Bloch Pays de la Loire Jean-Paul Faur Corse Alain Tempier Picardie Yvonne Pérot Franche-Comté Patrick Pétour Poitou-Charentes Didier Blaizeau Île-de-France Sylvie Lagarde Provence - Alpes - Côte d'Azur Patrick Redor La Réunion - Mayotte Valérie Roux Rhône-Alpes Pascal Oger At December 31, 2013 INSEE’s regional organization INSEE resources are distributed across its Head Office located in Paris and the new Statistics Center in Metz, Regional Offices, and national computing centers and services. In France’s overseas départements (DOMs), the Regional Offices take the form of Inter-Regional Offices supported by regional services. Our Head Office defines statistical and economic work programs, allocating the tasks involved between its own units, the Regional Offices, and the national computing centers and services. It coordinates France’s official statistical service, and manages the Institute’s human, financial, and information-technology (IT) resources. Our Statistics Center in Metz, which opened in 2011, performs a range of functions in three areas: human resources management, IT production, and social and local statistics. INSEE Regional Offices collect most of the statistical data and handle a large share of their processing. In continuous contact with local players, they prepare studies and disseminate economic and social information locally. Their main interlocutors are decentralized central-government units and local authorities. Our national computing centers and services are in charge of IT projects and make the necessary software, hardware, and remote-transmission resources available to the Institute. INSEE: a nationwide presence Head Office Regional Office Regional Service National Computing Center or Service School or Training Center Inter-Regional Office INSEE 2013 Annual Report 8 9
  9. 9. 2013 highlights 11 Increasing the impact of INSEE on public debate 14 Advances in understanding globalization 17 Revision of the Labour Force Survey 20 Supporting public policies in access to services, and urban policy INSEE 2013 Annual Report 10
  10. 10. An exhibition titled All you need to know about economics (L’Économie, Krach Boom Mue?) was held at the Cité des Sciences in La Villette at the request of the Banque de France. INSEE helped to design the exhibits, and found that this provided an ideal opportunity to explain to visitors the statistical indicators used in the world of economics - GDP, unemployment rate, inflation - and the way INSEE constructs them. INSEE also provided the statistical and economic data required in several exhibits. One exhibit in particular proved to be a great attraction, Price your time (Valorisez votre temps), designed so that visitors to the exhibition could see the value of the time they spent on domestic chores, such as housework, DIY, helping children with homework, etc. This exhibition proved very successful, offering a foretaste of what is to come in the Banque de France’s future exhibition centre, the Cité de l’économie et de la monnaie, due to open in 2016. Getting closer to users In collaboration with the National Council for Statistical Information (CNIS), INSEE launched a programme titled Public statistics and democracy: what’s the point of figures? (Statistique publique et démocratie: à quoi servent les chiffres), the aim being to make the relevance of public statistics more widely known and to promote a better understanding and more widespread use of its data. Several events were planned. INSEE was present at the Journées de l’économie organised in Lyon in November 2013. Specialists from INSEE participated in Cafés de l’économie and shared their expertise in a number of different fields: enterprise creation, measuring quality of life and well-being, social economy and solidarity, especially in the Rhône-Alpes region. A seminar entitled Statistics, regions and journalism (Statistiques, territoires et journalisme) was organised with the École Supérieure de Journalisme in Lille in December 2013. The objective was to make statisticians aware of the constraints under which journalists work, and to introduce journalists to statistical data processing in accordance with the rules of public statistics. A highlight of the programme was a presentation of a form of journalism that is currently developing fast, “data journalism”: how to exploit the increasingly vast amounts of data produced and present them in a way that is attractive to the readers, for example in an interactive format on the internet. The culmination of these events will be a conference-debate, What’s the point of figures? (À quoi servent les chiffres ?), to be organised in collaboration with the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (Conseil économique, social et environnemental), on 30 January 2014. To mark this event, INSEE is bringing out a volume in the INSEE Références collection tracing Thirty years of economic and social life (Trente ans de vie économique et sociale) in a presentation and analysis of a number of long data series. In addition, there will be a web page accessible on insee.fr showing the main long series on each topic in the form of interactive graphs that are continuously updated. One of INSEE’s goals is to boost the impact of the work it performs on public debate by facilitating its use. To achieve this, INSEE is treading several paths. It is working to develop locally based actions, especially aimed at young people. In collaboration with the National Council for Statistical Information (CNIS) it has launched a programme to make the relevance of public statistics more widely known, to promote a better understanding of its indicators and to discuss future developments. Lastly, it is constantly working to improve the insee.fr website, and more specifically simplifying access to local data, something that more and more users are looking for. Increasing the impact of INSEE on public debate 11
  11. 11. Again in the interests of getting closer to users, INSEE has developed networks, especially through associations. It has signed an agreement with the association Les Petits Débrouillards, a winner in the “future investments” programme. To promote science and make it accessible to all, this educational movement has organised a fleet of trucks to go out and meet young people. The first projects are aimed at young secondary school students. The aim is to take examples from everyday life to help them understand what a measurement is and how it can be useful, especially when forecasts have to be made. New communication tools Making economic indicators easier to understand by all types of public is a priority for INSEE. To achieve this, in 2010 INSEE launched communication kits, each containing an 8 to 12-page document, INSEE in brief, a video, a quiz, sometimes also a web folder. When the first results for the quarterly accounts came out for Q3 2013, INSEE brought out a new tool to explain how GDP and economic growth is measured; it came in three parts: • a n e w i s s u e o f I N S E E i n b r i e f : Understanding GDP and growth, with definitions of GDP, growth and the main stages in calculating them. It also explains what GDP is for and how to complement this indicator. • A teaching video gives economists a chance to speak and explain how GDP is measured and the economic importance of calculating growth. • A quiz with ten questions invites everyone to have fun testing their knowledge of GDP and growth. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p a c k a g e c o m e s i n addition to the tools already available on insee.fr, dealing with measuring inflation and purchasing power and measuring unemployment. These documents and videos are online at insee.fr to ensure that they are disseminated as widely as possible, and they have also been posted on the appropriate social networks, Slideshare for INSEE in brief and Dailymotion for the videos. To disseminate their work even further, INSEE opened a Twitter account in 2011. By the end of 2013, this account had more than 20,000 followers and had put out 2,500 tweets. The account is Measuring user satisfaction INSEE measures the satisfaction levels of those who use its statistics. This is done through regular surveys of “inseesurfers”, web users who visit the website. The surveys are used to discover how respondents use the site, and to get their opinions and suggestions. Each survey leads to an action plan to improve the service, in the short or medium term. The overall results of these surveys will gradually be added to the insee.fr website. In 2013, inseesurfers were surveyed on their reading habits, on the INSEE Résultats collection and on defi- nitions of economic terms. Another customer satisfac- tion survey was conducted on the INSEE.net actualités newsletter, which has 30,000 subscribers. Data analysis covered replies received in September and October 2013 from 1,900 subscribers and 240 inseesurfers who looked at this newsletter. The analysis revealed that overall, readers were very satisfied with the services provided by the newsletter. It was also noted that if it could provide more detailed information, both subs- cribers and inseesurfers would opt mainly for “more explanation about what the figures mean and how they are produced” (41% of subscribers and 36% of insee- surfers). INSEE also pays attention to its image and that of the data it produces and disseminates. The vast majority of the general public have a very good opinion of INSEE and find that it is a worthwhile institute which inspires confidence and produces essential information. Replies were less favourable concerning INSEE’s data productions. Indeed, 54% of those surveyed thought that the price index does not properly reflect reality; and 62% were of this opinion for the unemployment rate. Additionally, 60% said they did not trust the published figures and data on the economic and social situation in France. However, when the same questions were put to inseesurfers, the replies were much more favourable. Most notably, 83% do have confidence in these figures and data. The institute is also interested in any media attention paid to it. Since 2011, INSEE has opened a Twitter account and has also started an internet monitoring procedure. This web intelligence helps us to understand which figures or indicators the online media, bloggers or tweeters react to, and how they do it. Keeping in touch with different types of user in this way can help improve the efforts put into educational aspects of data provision. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 12
  12. 12. updated automatically through t h e R S S f e e d ( h e a d l i n e s o f national publications, short- term economic indicators) and manually by communication tweets. Most of these are to send out essential messages from publications after they have been published. Others deal with institutional information: census, trade fairs, interactive tools on the website insee.fr… Some are used to revive interest in older publications when the subject matter once again becomes topical. More and more data and services on insee.fr Since 2003, INSEE has made its website the main vehicle for disseminating its work. Users of official statistics can find, free of charge, the major macroeconomic indicators, reference statistics on numerous economic and social topics, interactive infographics, maps, databases, all INSEE’s publications, as well as tools for revising maintenance allowances or calculating a personalized price index. The latest survey on INSEE’s image showed that in 2013, satisfaction with the website Insee.fr was the same as in 2012: 82% of respondents gave the website insee.fr a score equal to or higher than 6 out of 10. To improve the service rendered via the website even further, INSEE has embarked on an ambitious revision programme. Eventually, it will be possible to update information disseminated via the website more quickly and in a more modern and more reliable way, thanks to a web service- oriented architecture. The search for information will be optimised by improved usability. In the meantime, INSEE is still improving its current website. In 2013 it was already implementing some of the recommendations from surveys carried out on its users to gain a better idea of their needs and expectations. The homepage was improved to give better visibility to the most important information, communicate better about INSEE’s publications and activities and make it easier to access the most requested pages. The design has been refreshed and modernized before a much larger- scale overhaul takes place in the future. Interactive graphics (where values are displayed as the mouse passes across) have been introduced to illustrate the major economic and social indicators: they are updated automatically, as soon as the necessary information is available in the INSEE databases. The new version of the website went on line on 27 June 2013, at the same time as the detailed statistical results from the 2010 census. Before this, the results from the annual census were disseminated via dedicated websites. Now that they are integrated into insee.fr they will be more visible and hence will be disseminated even more widely. More generally, local data are being requested more and more frequently and an effort has been made to make them easier to access. They are now not only available via the heading “Databases”, but also from the “Topics” pages, which are also viewed a great deal. Opinions and expectations about the INSEE Résultats collection 732 subscribers completed the survey between May and June 2013 91% were satisfied with the detailed data 22% said it was not easy to find the tables they needed 7.7/10: this is the average score for the collection 13
  13. 13. Three of INSEE’s statistical operations are linked directly with globalization. Two of these relate to FATS (Foreign AffiliaTes Statistics) and come in response to European Union regulations set out under Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Commission. Previously, they were developed within the larger structures of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and the OECD (Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development). Information about foreign affiliates of multinational groups is found in FATS which in turn is in two parts, I-FATS (Inward-Fats) and O-FATS (Outward-Fats). I-FATS is the older of the two. It was set up at INSEE in the 1990s. Each participating country collects data on the subsidiaries of foreign firms implanted in its own territory. In France, this information comes through the Financial Links between Companies survey, which collects data on financial links between one business and another (ownership of capital and voting rights between the two) and thus deduces the direct and especially the indirect control of capital to establish the limits of the groups. Data on the activities of the affiliates themselves and their productive structure are provided by the annual business statistics programme (ESANE), which combines accounting information obtained from company tax and social contribution declarations with that from complementary surveys. O-FATS consists of a survey in each country of all companies with a foreign affiliate. The first studies were carried out by the Banque de France from 1992, others by the Treasury. Since 2007 the annual survey has been conducted by INSEE, and by the Banque de France for the banking and financial sectors. Using this system, which is coordinated at European level, heads of the groups to which multinational firms belong are surveyed in every country, these companies being defined as groups of companies controlling at least one company abroad. They provide the number of affiliates they have, the number of employees and their turnover, by country of implantation and by sector of activity. Since 2010 the INSEE is expanding its statistics on the theme of globalization. In addition to what can be gleaned from macroeconomic approaches (national accounts, balance of payments, etc.), the intention is to highlight the role of multinational firms and gain a better understanding of this role. Information is already available every year on relations between multinationals and their affiliates abroad, and what they bring to France in terms of jobs and growth. A survey conducted for the first time in 2012 shed new light on subcontracting abroad and on offshoring. All this information will be assimilated and used to produce in-depth studies, particularly in the framework of a working group set up with the Banque de France and the Customs authorities. Lastly, INSEE headed a working group of several EU countries looking into close individualized monitoring of large groups of multinational companies at European level, called “profiling”. Advances in understanding globalization INSEE 2013 Annual Report 14
  14. 14. survey has also collected some further variables, including staff costs and tangible investment. Every year 2,500 French groups with at least one subsidiary outside France are questioned. The entity being surveyed is the one that has control over the subsidiaries; this control consists of the power to nominate directors of the company or of operational units. Usually, this entity also has information on all the affiliates of the group. One of the aims of Eurostat was to be able to compare data collected by the different countries through the O-FATS and I-FATS operations. Indeed an affiliate surveyed by one country in I-FATS is also an affiliate of its controlling entity, which in principle, should be questioned in O-FATS in the country where it is located (if this country is a member of the European Union and is participating in the operation). In addition, through the information it holds on financial links with which to monitor groups of enterprises in France, INSEE can compare the “outward” affiliates of a group and its French base on which a great deal of accounting and economic information is available (i.e. all legally autonomous units located in France and belonging to the same group of companies). This year INSEE published a detailed overview of these three sets of companies (Inward affiliates, Outward affiliates and French parent companies), by country and by sector, assessing their relative importance to the French economy. This overview forms part of a study included in INSEE Références Les Entreprises en France, and can also be found in specific files on globalization in this same volume. INSEE now collects these data every year, and they are analysed in INSEE Première. Global value chains The CAM survey (global value chains) is a third operation linked directly with globalization. It was first conducted in 2012. Its aim is to study the fragmentation of production processes at global level. A representative sample of companies which are located in France and have at least 50 employees are questioned. T h e r e i s a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s o n subcontracting. Companies may indeed subcontract some of their production within France or abroad, and for those that are part of a group, they may subcontract within this group or outside it. They may make different choices for their core business or for their cross-disciplinary functions, such as research and development or logistics. Another series of questions deals with any offshoring of activity between 2008 and 2011, offshoring being defined as a total or partial transfer of activity by the company being questioned to a company abroad, which may or may not belong to the same group. Companies were also questioned on the reasons for this offshoring, and any obstacles encountered. The CAM survey is the first to question companies on all these aspects. A number of European Union countries do this on a 15
  15. 15. voluntary basis, France being the largest country to do so. At present, the other countries with a great economic weight are Romania and the Netherlands. Eurostat intends to incorporate the survey into a regulation in order to make it compulsory for all countries of the Union, and to repeat it from time to time. Advantage of pooling different sources Three more major sources are produced by public statistical bodies: foreign trade through customs; balance of payments, which describes the international flow of services, technological payments, capital, and finance; and France’s international investment position, which tracks foreign capital stocks in France and French stocks abroad. To produce these statistics the corresponding public bodies are already cooperating closely, in particular making use of the register of companies (SIRENE then SIRUS) administered by INSEE. This cooperation then limits the number of companies questioned, and hence the burden of statistics forms to fill in. These detailed data provide the information required for the statistical synthesis of the national accounts, contributing to an overall view of the internationalization of the French economy. However, by using an approach via multinationals it is hoped to obtain a more thorough understanding of the phenomena. Combining these statistical data with the surveys will give a richer and multifaceted vision of globalization. This is one of the objectives of a working group that is currently being set up by the Banque de France, the Customs office and INSEE. Each body will bring its own specific knowledge to the table: international financial flows, income flows and trade in services for the Banque de France; international trade in goods for Customs; surveys of companies for INSEE. The aim will be to understand not only how the globalization of companies operates, but also how it manifests itself in France, where we have by nature only a partial if not skewed image of this phenomenon, not only in terms of jobs, but also in terms of available value added, type of activity, and corporate revenue. The “economic” approach to the enterprise: a new definition that better reflects reality for groups The enterprise is defined in terms of the economic approach introduced by the French Law on the Modernization of the Economy (LME). The definition is based on economic criteria (headcount, turnover and balance sheet total) and is no longer exclusively a legal definition. This gives a better appreciation of the way groups are organised. A group of companies in the legal sense is considered here as a single enterprise (for the part in France), in the same way as an independent company. Using this approach there are four categories of enterprise: • microenterprises: employing fewer than 10 people and with an annual turnover or a total balance sheet of under €2 million; • small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): employing fewer than 250 people, with an annual turnover of less than €50 million or a balance sheet total not exceeding €43 million; • intermediate-sized enterprises (ISE): employing fewer than 5,000 people, with an annual turnover of less than €1.5 billion or a balance sheet total not exceeding €2 billion; • large enterprises: any company that does not fall into the previous categories. A multinational firm (MNF) is a group of enterprises with at least one company (legal unit) in France and one other abroad. A MNF is considered to be under the control of a country if the controlling company in the group, or the board of this company, is located in that country. Other enterprises are called purely French. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 16
  16. 16. The Labour Force Survey is one of INSEE’s longest running surveys as it dates back to 1950. It was originally set up to provide a description every year of the state of the labour market and, in particular, to give an annual estimate of the unemployment rate. Over the years it has had several makeovers, covering the questionnaire and the data processing chain. The most important of these was in 2003: until then the survey had been annual, but in order to conform to a European regulation, the Labour Force survey became a continuous survey, producing quarterly estimates of employment and unemployment. The people that make up the sample are interviewed once every quarter for six quarters. Thus every quarter the survey provides a picture of the labour market situation and also any changes in employment and unemployment. One sixth of the sample is renewed every quarter; the first and the last interviews are carried out by an interviewer face to face, while the rest of the interviews are by telephone. There are additional specialised surveys as well as the main Labour Force survey. The topics are changed every year, and are harmonised at European level. In the past they have covered, for example, the integration of young people or of people living with a disability. A necessary revision During 2006, a divergence appeared between the change in unemployment figures given in the Labour Force survey and the number of job seekers registered at the job centres (ANPE). At the same time, questions were being asked about the way unemployment was measured in the Labour Force survey, and in particular whether it was able to identify marginal jobs. It also emerged that the weighting systems needed to be reviewed and the In 2008 INSEE launched the “Reflee” project to overhaul the Labour Force Survey. The new format was unveiled on 1st January 2013. The sample size has been increased, the questionnaire improved, and the data processing chain entirely rewritten. This revision of the survey has had a limited effect on the measurement of the unemployment rate. Revision of the Labour Force Survey 17
  17. 17. method used to correct for non-responses had to be refined. On a more technical level, the computing chain for gathering and processing data had to be adjusted. The first operation to improve estimates was to set up a survey of non-respondents. This was a postal survey, with a short questionnaire. After tests in 2005, and a pilot survey in 2006, the main survey was brought out in 2007. Next, in 2008, INSEE launched the Reflee project to overhaul the entire Labour Force survey. First of all, this overhaul focused on sample size, which was rather smaller than in other European countries. The size was gradually increased by 50% over a six-quarter period, starting on 1st  January 2009. The dwellings were now drawn from the local residence tax files, whereas previously they had been taken from the census returns; thus they were easier to find, which eased the burden of work considerably. As from 1st  July 2010, the sample consisted of 67,000 main residences, or 108,000 respondents aged 15 or more. In the French overseas departments (DOM), the survey remained annual with the transition to a continuous survey occurring in these territories on 1st  January 2013 (except Mayotte). The questionnaire was recast. Several questions were simplified. The interviewers had indeed found that some people had difficulties understanding them and so they had had to rephrase them, which d e t r a c t e d f ro m t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f the responses collected. For example, the question to determine whether an unemployed person was available to take up a job was changed, because it regularly raised questions about jobs not matching up to the person’s aspirations. In addition, the questionnaire had to able to be administered more easily and using different interview modes, face to face, by telephone and where necessary, online. The questionnaire had to be adapted to take into account the changes in the way the labour market operates. The list of ways of actively seeking work has been changed: the use of social networks has been added; conversely, the simple fact of being contacted by the job centre is no longer considered as an active procedure, in compliance with the European regulation governing the survey. All those surveyed who had no job were asked about their desire, or otherwise, to work, in order to gain a better picture of the potentially active population. A question about informal work was now asked specifically; this gave a better indication about certain types of job that are not entirely formal. For a fuller understanding of the labour market, some questions were introduced, in particular about health and disability. A major effort was put into security and automation at all stages of the survey data processing chain. The software used by the interviewers to enter data was entirely rewritten, an operation that was made especially complex by the large number of filter questions in the questionnaire. As far as possible, the coding of responses had to be done at this stage so that interviewers could INSEE 2013 Annual Report 18
  18. 18. enter a second heading if necessary. The coding has been improved, especially for professions and qualifications. The entire process chain has been designed to ensure complete traceability. All those involved have access to the progress of the data collection for all clusters of the sample, on a day-by-day basis. This makes for better monitoring and better reactivity in case of any problems. Limited impact overall The survey in its new form was launched on 1st January 2013, after a test phase. The effect on the response behaviour of the people interviewed of rewording certain questions had to be assessed. The effect of some rewordings was to increase the unemployment rate, for example adding ways of actively seeking work; others caused this same rate to fall, like the question on informal work. After some extensive research we could be sure that the overall impact was limited: at around – 0.3 point on the unemployment rate, +0.1 point on the employment rate and – 0.2 point on the labour force participation rate. Further studies are underway to measure the impact that the changes to the questionnaire have had on the other main variables provided by the Labour Force survey: unemployment halo, under- employment, part-time work, proportion of open-ended contracts, etc. T h e i m p a c t o f t h e c h a n g e s t o t h e questionnaire has to be incorporated into previous series, in order to produce series that are homogeneous over time. To do this we have to estimate as accurately as possible what the responses would have been if the questions in the survey now had been asked in the past. This operation has already been carried out for unemployment, employment and labour force participation rates, and is currently ongoing for the other main variables. By chance, the launch of the new Labour Force survey coincided with the introduction of the new status for survey interviewers (see page 49), which affected the data collection process. The result was an unusually high non-response rate in 2013, and even no survey at all in some parts of Île-de-France. In addition, a full check of the new data processing chain had to be carried out. As a result, on 6 June 2013 we published only an estimate of overall change in the unemployment rate, as defined by the ILO, for Q1 2013, instead of the more comprehensive results that are usually produced. These problems were gradually ironed out during the year. As for the new data processing chain, extensive checks were made and confirmed that the system was running as it should. An expert assessment of the survey methodology has also been conducted to look at the increase in non-responses. The only effect that could be detected was that it was slightly more pronounced among students. This effect was corrected by the appropriate statistical treatment. Civil service employment and wages Since 2009, estimates for civil service employment and wages have come from SIASP, the System for Information on Civil Servants. This system represents progress in several ways. It derives its information solely from administrative sources, thus removing the need for surveys and ensuring that information is exhaustive. The Directorate-General for the Government Administration and the Civil Service, the Directorate-General for Local Government Units and the Directorate for Research, Studies, Assessment and Statistics of the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health are involved in assessing and validating the data in this system. Using SIASP it is also possible to process civil servants, local government officers and public hospital employees in the same way, which simplifies comparisons one with another. It can detect multiactivity, i.e. employees with several jobs in the course of a year. In addition, the employment concepts developed in SIASP are coherent with those used in the Annual Declaration for Social Data for the private sector, while the specific features of employment and pay in the civil service can still be analysed. SIASP is incorporated into the Information System on Employment and Earned Income and provides quarterly employment estimates which include the civil service. The year 2013 was also significant as annual data on employment and wages in the civil service were made available earlier than before. The first data to be published relating to 2011 were in Informations Rapides in May, employment, and in August for wages. For the following years, the delay is shortened even further: these early data are published one year after the end of the year in question for employment (this was the case for 2012 data, published in December 2013), and about three months later for wages. Data can also be found by region and by department on the INSEE website. 19
  19. 19. INSEE manages a permanent database of facilities (BPE) which covers a very wide range of 177 types of facility throughout Metropolitan France, in services, private or public, shops, health and social action, teaching, tourism, transport, sport and leisure. The BPE is updated annually on 1st  January from numerous administrative s o u rc e s , t h e m a i n o n e s b e i n g : t h e SIRENE register (Database for a National Enterprise and Establishment Register); the FINESS file (National File of Health and Social Service Establishments); the RAMSESE file (Academic and Ministerial list of Educational Establishments). In 2012 the database was extended, in particular to include job centres and railway stations, airports and petrol stations. Further expansion is being considered: childcare services (including childminders) and cultural facilities, so that the database would then cover many more public or private operators working in the general public interest. The location of every facility is given very precisely by its two coordinates for a point of reference covering the whole of France. Facilities can therefore be grouped together according to any g e o g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n : m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , socially homogeneous districts (“Iris”), 200-metre squares into which the country itself is divided. Such precise locations make the database an essential and effective tool for everything related to land management and planning. The spatial distribution of facilities can be studied, highlighting those areas where each kind of facility is lacking. Using software derived from a database of road data, this database can gauge the time needed for the residents of a municipality to reach the facility, when it is not located in the municipality where they live. Thus a precise comparison can be made between access to services in different areas, according to their geographic location, whether they are urban or rural, whether they are close to an urban centre. Nevertheless, the presence of facilities i s s o m e t i m e s n o t s u ff i c i e n t t o g i v e information about the level of service provided. The existence of a railway s t a t i o n t e l l s u s n o t h i n g a b o u t t r a i n frequency. A new indicator for access to healthcare E a s y a c c e s s t o d o c t o r s , h o s p i t a l s and maternity wards is a particularly important aspect. The simplest indicator of accessibility is the time taken to INSEE now has very finely detailed local information covering many topics, especially facilities. This information, combined with data on distances and travel times can pinpoint areas where access to facilities and care is least satisfactory. It also provides an essential contribution to the introduction of new urban policies. Supporting public policies in access to services, and urban policy Living zones Using the information contained in the Permanent Database of Facilities, “living zones” have been compiled. These zones are created by dividing up the territory in such a way that inhabitants of the living zone have the best possible access within the zone itself to everyday facilities: shops, administrations, health, education. The country has been divided into 1,666 living zones, three quarters of which are in rural areas. This breakdown into living zones complements the division into urban areas, which was based on travel between home and work. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 20
  20. 20. Changes in numbers of maternity facilities in municipalities Source: INSEE, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health © IGN, INSEE 2013 Municipality without facilities in 2001 and with facilities in 2010 Municipality with facilities in 2001 and without in 2010 Change in time taken to reach maternity facilities between 2001 and 2010 Time taken has increased Time taken has remained stable Time taken has decreased reach the nearest municipality where a healthcare professional is available ( g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r, s p e c i a l i s t b y speciality, physiotherapist, etc.), and where there is a hospital. However, patients do not always contact t h e n e a re s t d o c t o r. T h i s i s w h y a n indicator of real frequentation has been created for hospitals and maternity wards, as the patients’ place of residence is known. The true time taken to reach these facilities can then be assessed. For a better assessment of whether t h e s u p p l y o f h e a l t h c a re c a n m e e t the demand, INSEE and the statistics department of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health have developed an innovative approach based on a specific, more sophisticated indicator called localised potential accessibility (APL). This indicator is calculated for each municipality and for each type of healthcare professional. It takes into account the care facilities available in the municipality, but also in the surrounding municipalities, if the travel time is not too great (e.g. 15 minutes for a general practitioner). It incorporates the age structure of the population, which has a major effect on the demand for care. It also takes into account whether each healthcare professional practises on a full-time or part-time basis. The APL can better pinpoint areas where there may be some tension between supply and demand for care. It is of invaluable help to the ARS (regional health agencies) in preparing and monitoring regional health plans, which they must do in accordance with the Hospitals, Patients, Health and Territories Law dated 21 July 2009. This indicator was presented by INSEE to a working group on territorial indicators at the OECD. Efficient tools for urban policy INSEE was called upon to help develop a new urban policy, by pinpointing the most disadvantaged districts. The Institute was able to oblige, as it already had the necessary tools. The first of these tools is the dividing up of France into square units of 200 metres on each side. This has the two- f o l d a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g s u ff i c i e n t l y detailed and not affected by administrative boundaries. INSEE also has information o n h o u s e h o l d t a x re v e n u e a t a v e r y detailed geographic level. From these two elements, it was possible to define areas made up of contiguous squares 200 metres on each side and sufficiently populated (over 1,000 inhabitants), where the proportion of people living below a low-income threshold was greater than a given level. 21
  21. 21. This work was requested by SGCIV, the Secretary General of the Interministerial Committee for Cities. INSEE provided a set of maps showing the proportion of households whose income was below various low-income thresholds, thresholds that had been defined on the basis of different hypotheses put forward by SGCIV. The maps showed the results in a very meaningful form, thanks to the mapping representation solutions developed by INSEE. Using these maps and data, the SGCIV was able to produce many simulations. A consultation period is to be launched in Q2 2014 with Prefects and then with loca l authorities in order to rec eive proposals for changes in defining the borders of district units. INSEE will back up the SGCIV in assessing these proposals. Proportion of households living in an over-occupied dwelling unit Proportion (%) over 15.0 to 32.0 over 7.0 to 15.0 over 4.7 to 7.0 over 3.1 to 4.7 between 0.0 and 3.1 Scope: all households of two or more persons Radius of smoothed area: 15 kilometres Source: INSEE, population census 2010 complementary operations © IGN, INSEE 2013 INSEE 2013 Annual Report 22
  22. 22. INSEE’s major operations 24 INSEE measures unemployment, economic growth, and price changes 26 INSEE conducts the population census 28 INSEE carries out business surveys 30 INSEE carries out household surveys 32 INSEE disseminates its statistics far and wide 34 INSEE exploits data from administrative records 36 INSEE manages major registers: SIRENE and BRPP 38 INSEE prepares short-term economic analyses and forecasts 40 INSEE analyses key economic and social issues 42 INSEE carries out studies with its regional partners, and sheds light on regional and local issues 44 INSEE constantly improves its methods and coordinates the statistical system 23
  23. 23. The definition of unemployment used by INSEE is that of the ILO (the International Labor Office, a specialized agency of the United Nations): an out of work person is regarded as unemployed if (s)he is available for work and is actively seeking a job. The definition does not take into account the reasons for the person’s unemployment, whether or not (s)he is registered as a job-seeker, or whether or not (s)he is receiving unemployment benefits. A person is regarded as employed even if (s)he is working on a very part-time basis. That is why the additional notion of “under-employment” was introduced, to count the number of people who are working part-time but would like to work more, or who have been temporarily laid off or asked to work short-time. Other persons might like to work more but are prevented from doing so for various reasons: they are classed within the “halo” around core unemployment. The measurement of unemployment, under-employment, and the unemployment halo is based on our Labour Force Survey. Every quarter  we i nte rv i e w 100,000 people. This large sample allows a reliable estimation of the unemployment rate. For even greater accuracy, we extend the investigation with an additional survey of non-respondents. The results are published two months after the end of every quarter. They include quarterly estimates of the overall unemployment rate and its breakdown by sex and age, and many data on employment. In 2008 INSEE launched a project to recast its Employment Survey: the sample size was progressively increased by 50%; the questionnaire was improved to make it easier to understand by respondents; and the management application was entirely redesigned. The new version became operational on January 1st , 2013 (see page 17). Moreover, the Labour-Force Survey is part of a harmonized system of similar surveys conducted by EU countries, referred to as “labour-force surveys.” By applying the ILO definitions, the questions asked have been harmonized with respect to Eurostat, the EU’s statistical office, in agreement with the Member States. The use of international definitions allows us to compare unemployment rates in France and other countries. Measuring growth INSEE publishes the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) quarterly, 45 days after the end of the quarter. This is a high-visibility publication. INSEE publishes estimates of the unemployment rate and economic growth rate every quarter, and the consumer price index every month. The Institute devotes substantial resources to obtaining reliable, accurate estimates of these indicators. They are prepared using principles and methods consistent with EU and international practices, allowing relevant comparisons among countries. INSEE measures unemployment, economic growth, and price changes Educational communication tools Facilitating the understanding of its economic indicators by all target audiences is a priority for INSEE. New information tools are now available to show economic growth; inflation and purchasing power measurements; and unemployment measurements. These educational kits consist of various materials: a publication called INSEE in brief, complemented by a short quiz and an instructional video. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 24
  24. 24. The growth rates are obtained from the preparation of the quarterly accounts. These, in turn, are compiled in accordance with the annual national accounts, which are fuller and more accurate but take longer to prepare. The preparation of national accounts is based on a very large set of statistical data, notably regarding c o n s u m p t i o n , c o r p o r a t e a c c o u n t s , general-government accounts, retail and producer prices, and imports and exports. As well as growth rates, the national accounts also provide detailed data on the production of goods and services, household consumption and income, company revenue, and the major public- finance aggregates—all in a consistent framework. The national accounts are prepared in accordance with the European System of Accounts (ESA), adopted by all EU Member States. This system is derived directly from the United Nations’ System of National Accounts (SNA), adopted by the vast majority of UN Member States. As a result, GDP growth rates and, more generally, national-accounting data are comparable among countries. Price changes Around the 13th of each month, INSEE publishes the consumer price index (CPI), which shows price changes in the previous month along with a detailed breakdown into approximately one hundred items. The index tracks inflationary pressures in the French economy. It also serves as the benchmark for determining trends in certain categories of expenditure and income. E a c h m o n t h , I N S E E s u r v e y o ff i c e r s visit 29,000 sales outlets and collect 200,000 price listings. Prices for the same items are collected month after month at the same retail outlets. These prices, collected in the field, are supplemented by prices collected monthly on a centralized basis from national and regional entities such as the national electricity company (EDF) and railway company (SNCF). We conduct a separate survey for rents. The set of goods and services whose prices are tracked is representative of household consumption. Each good or service is weighted in the calculation of the index proportionally to its share of total consumption. INSEE updates the sample of products and services annually to reflect the disappearance of certain products, the introduction of new products, and changes in consumer behaviour. To offer a vision of prices more consistent w i t h h o u s e h o l d p e rc e p t i o n s , I N S E E publishes price indices by household category, calculated based on those categories’ consumption patterns, for example: couples without children, with one child, two children, three children or more; single-parent families; people living alone; and households in the 20% lowest-earning or 20% highest-earning brackets. INSEE also calculates a harmonized consumer price index (HCPI) prepared by all EU Member States based on the same principles. There are only minor differences between the principles applied in these calculations and those used to determine the French CPI, and trends in the HCPI and French CPI are very similar. 200 survey workers and 90 staffers in our Regional Offices and Head Office are involved in preparing the CPI 29,000 sales outlets visited 200,000 prices collected each month throughout France 180,000 price lists and rates collected (SNCF, electricity...) 25
  25. 25. The population census is a very long- standing institution. It was first conducted in France in 1801, more than two centuries ago. The census was generally repeated every five years, until World War II. In many areas of study, it was the only statistical source available. With the expansion of official statistics, censuses have become less frequent, but they remain essential. Their first purpose is to accurately determine the legal population of municipalities and other administrative divisions. There are nearly 350 articles of laws and codes that apply to the census, mainly regarding the distribution of the “general operating grant” (dotation globale de fonctionnement) given by the State to the municipalities, but also, for example, establishing compensation for local government personnel and issuing permits to new pharmacies. The census also provides an accurate view of the population’s main socio-demographic characteristics at all geographic levels. It also yields detailed information on the housing stock. Since 2004, the French census has been based on annual surveys. The entire national territory is enumerated during a five-year cycle. The method differs according to municipality size. In towns and cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants, the population of 8% of dwellings is counted every year. By the end of a five- year cycle, 40% of the population of every municipality has thus been enumerated. In other words, the census is not exhaustive for municipalities in this size category. The obvious advantage of this is the substantial cost savings for the public finances, but also a lighter response burden for the local population. The method does entail a slight loss of accuracy, but this has proved entirely acceptable, all the more so as we can better control data-collection quality and reduce omissions. For municipalities of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, the loss of accuracy with the survey method would have been too great. INSEE accordingly divided these localities into five groups under strict rules assigning the same demographic weight to each group. Each year, the census Since 2004, the French population census has been based on annual surveys, with total national coverage achieved in five-year cycles. The initial goals of the new method have been met: results are updated regularly and released on schedule, and the workload is better distributed over time than in the former exhaustive-census procedure. INSEE conducts the population census 66 million inhabitants as of January 1st , 2014 24.6% aged under 20 9.1% over 75 years of age INSEE 2013 Annual Report 26
  26. 26. survey covers the entire population and all dwellings in the municipalities of the group concerned. By the end of the five- year cycle, all municipalities of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants have been enumerated.  Each year, the census is conducted in more than 8,000 municipalities, which act as INSEE’s partners in arranging the data collection. They hire the 22,000 census agents who visit over 4 million dwellings and interview over 9 million people. The collection takes place in the field between mid-January and mid-February. This leaves maximum time to establish the new legal population figures before year-end. A proven method U n t i l 1 9 9 9 , F r e n c h c e n s u s e s w e r e exhaustive, i.e., the country’s entire p o p u l a t i o n w a s e n u m e r a t e d a t t h e same time. Starting in 1993, INSEE methodologists began to explore the possibility of a “continuous” or “rolling” census method. Their work led to the development of an approach based on annual surveys. The rolling census provides timelier results, updated regularly. The last conventional censuses took place every eight or nine years. By the end of the period, the municipal legal population figures had thus become very outdated. Fast-growing towns and cities were allowed to conduct “supplementary” censuses, but this offered only a very partial solution to the problem. Similarly, by the end of the period, the detailed data on population and dwelling characteristics had aged considerably, at the very time when decentralization had given greater powers and responsibilities to local government. Another advantage of annual census surveys is that they smooth the financial and human-resource burden of the operation for large municipalities and INSEE. As census workers are called into service every year, they are becoming more professional. Census operations, because of their more modest size, can be better organized and better controlled. The annual frequency has also enabled us to implement a strict system for continuous process assessment and improvement. A National Census Assessment Commission has been established, and its findings have been positive. Since the new method was launched, we have met all the planned publication deadlines for legal population figures as well as for population and housing data. Given the novelty and complexity of the operation, the challenge was real—and INSEE rose to it. The quality of the results has not been called into question, despite difficulties in establishing the legal population figures for certain municipalities of more than 10,000 inhabitants. The fact that only 8% of dwellings are enumerated every year inevitably causes non-significant annual population increases or decreases in some municipalities. This phenomenon has been widely explained, and very few municipalities have voiced objections. Online census Since the original census, households have responded by completing paper questionnaires. Those who wish to do so will soon be able to respond online. Their responses will be made easier, as they will be automatically redirected after each filter question. In addition, plausibility checks will highlight any inconsistencies in their responses, which they will be able to correct immediately. With online responses, INSEE will not be required to input the data; this will save time, paper, and data entry errors. The first tests took place in 2011. They were extended to all regional offices in 2013. The results were very satisfactory, with an internet response rate of 33%; 99% of households who responded online said they would do so again. The tests will be extended further in 2014, before their generalization countrywide in 2015. The project will also provide an opportunity to revamp the whole downstream processing chain for the census questionnaires; this operation will be completed in 2016. 27
  27. 27. The results of these business surveys are of interest to many types of users, due to the precise, across the board knowledge they provide of the production system. Professional organizations use the results to monitor their sector and specific subjects, and to develop their strategies. The companies also use the results themselves in order to situate themselves relative to their competitors, and to better understand the sectors upstream or downstream of their own business activities. Public bodies rely on the results to prepare their decisions. For economists, the surveys meet multiple sectoral or cross-sectional analysis needs. They are also indispensable for the preparation of the national accounts. Structural surveys are given to all non- financial firms. In services, construction, food industry, transport and trade, annual sectoral surveys (ESA) ask companies for basic information about their business activities (which allows their primary business activity to be deduced), about the events that occurred during the year, such as mergers or acquisitions, as well as sector-specific information. In the manufacturing industry, the annual production survey (EAP) details this same information and also collects a precise breakdown of invoicing and quantities. A third survey, the survey on the cost of labour and the wage structure (Ecmoss), complements the other two. Its aim is to perform an annual monitoring of the structure of employee remuneration and labour time. In addition, once every two years it asks for explanatory elements regarding wage disparities, and once every two years it performs a measurement and breakdown of labour costs for employing establishments. Short-term surveys given to companies aim primarily to provide cyclical monitoring of corporate activity, pricing and demographics. For industry, the monthly branch surveys thus allow a calculation of the industrial production index. For commerce, services, construction and industry, the calculation of turnover indices, or in some cases, of sales volume, is based on the information provided in the forms businesses fill out when making their VAT payments. The survey on the activities of large food stores (Emagsa) completes this investigative apparatus. The Industry and services price monitoring survey (OPISE) measures monthly or quarterly changes in transaction prices for goods or services. It covers the production price indices for the domestic and foreign market, as well as import price indices for industrial products. These indices are published monthly for industry, and quarterly for services. INSEE has established a comprehensive system for performing business surveys. The system allows the collection of structural and cyclical information, as well as data on specific themes. Several measures have been taken to reduce the response burden placed on businesses by these surveys. INSEE carries out business surveys The 2013 monthly tourism survey • 12,000 hotels surveyed out of 17,000    • 6,000 campsites surveyed in summer out of 7,500 • 2,500 other accommodation facilities surveyed out of 3,500 • 22 partnerships in French regions between INSEE and regional and departmental tourist boards • outlook results for precise geographical areas • data on the origin of tourists • 70 people working on survey collection at 10 sites in France INSEE 2013 Annual Report 28
  28. 28. As for business demography, creations are monitored and published monthly. INSEE also conducts monthly surveys of hotels, campsites and other shared tourism facilities to monitor their occupancy rates and overnight tourist stays by nationality. Clarifying specific topics Other business surveys shed light on specific topics. One of these surveys aims to provide a better understanding of the spread of computerization and information technology and communication within businesses (the ICT survey). Another survey, done once every two years, measures efforts toward innovation within businesses. T h e re a re s e v e r a l s u r v e y s t h a t a re directly related to the environment. One of these is an annual examination of establishments regarding their industrial energy consumption and production (EACEI), and another (Antipol) examines studies done and investments made to protect the environment. The themes of Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility have recently been examined as well, through a survey with questions of an essentially qualitative nature. Several surveys deal with concer ns regarding corporate globalization: one survey, performed yearly on French business groups with affiliates abroad, gathers information regarding their subsidiaries, their facilities, their activities and their staff (O-FATS); another annual survey gathers information regarding the subsidiaries of foreign groups in France. A survey conducted in 2012, whose results were published in 2013, has provided clarification on the theme of global value chains of activity and offshoring. Particular attention is given to business start-ups and self-employment. Surveys are regularly conducted among entrepreneurs, first of all to study the conditions in which they have created their company, then secondly to study the survival rates for new businesses three and five years after their creation. Burden-reduction measures Several measures have been taken to reduce the burden that the surveys place on companies. Exhaustive use is made of administrative data that companies have already provided, so that companies do not have to supply it again. In total, according to professional organizations, the response burden for statistical surveys accounts for only 1% of the administrative obligations to which companies are bound. The Sirus file now allows the response burden to be better distributed so the same company is not subject to two different surveys, when those surveys are not exhaustive for companies of that size. It also allows us to gather and analyse response burden data for the business surveys. The INSEE surveys are coordinated with the surveys carried out by the statistical departments of the various ministries within their spheres of competence, in order to minimize the overall response burden on businesses. All INSEE business surveys can be collected online. Firms can respond by connecting to a specific response portal, http://entreprises. insee.fr/. The possibility of responding by mail is still offered as well, however. 220,000 companies or sole proprietorships surveyed by INSEE in 2013 (out of approximately 3 million) compared to nearly 245,000 in 2012 29 surveys performed in 2013 among businesses, establishments, networks of outlets... 26 of which were accessible for online response A network of business interviewers consisting of 17 agents Classifications kept up to date All statistics, of whatever nature, are based on classifications. These must be regularly updated to keep pace with the changing reality they are designed to depict. These updates are also often designed to allow for harmonization at European level, and sometimes for global harmonization. The data series obtained in different countries are thus made as comparable as possible. But updates introduce breaks in the statistical series, which prevents data homogeneity over time. However, this disadvantage can be partly overcome when the series obtained under the old classifications can be re-estimated under the new classifications. 29
  29. 29. The household surveys are of interest to decision-makers, both public and private, who find in them the information they need regarding household situations and household behaviour. Researchers find the data they need for their work. The press reports on their results very regularly, reflecting an interest among the general public. Some household surveys are designed to describe structural phenomena. They are usually carried out every five to ten years as they represent a large response burden: the questionnaires are long, as they are intended to cover the various aspects of the phenomena studied as broadly as possible; their sample size is significant, so as to obtain sufficient accuracy. The main surveys: • The Housing Survey describes the housing conditions of households, estimates their spending for housing, and seeks to assess the impact of housing policies. • The Family Budget Survey provides a highly detailed estimate of consumption levels for various goods and services, and allows comparisons to be made among the consumption behaviours of various categories of households. • T h e We a l t h s u r v e y d e s c r i b e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h according to the different types of assets, and provides comprehensive information regarding the factors constituting that wealth. • The Health and Disability Survey aims to estimate the number of people with health INSEE carries out numerous household surveys. Structural surveys, which are burdensome but are only performed once every five to ten years, cover various aspects of household situations and household social and economic behaviour. Other surveys are annual, and allow an observation of trends in this behaviour. INSEE carries out household surveys How are the surveys determined? Some of our surveys are carried out to meet European Union requirements. Discussions involving all EU Member States have led to the adoption of common methods and concepts, allowing the most meaningful comparisons possible. Whatever their origin, surveys performed in France are decided upon after a dual review by the CNIS, with participation, among others, from labour and management groups, researchers, non-profit organizations, and economic journalists. The review begins by assessing the survey’s usefulness for improving statistical knowledge and in particular whether same information could not be obtained without carrying out a new survey. The second criterion reviewed is the quality of the operation, taking into account the execution procedures specified by the entity that plans to carry out the survey. Most surveys are mandatory. The CNIS makes the recommendation to render a survey mandatory; this must be approved by the ministry or ministries with the proper authority. If such approval is granted, the enterprises or individuals surveyed are obliged to respond. Individual data collected in all surveys are protected by statistical confidentiality rules. Substantial measures are taken to prevent any breach of privacy. Detailed survey results are distributed free of charge on the INSEE website. Commentaries are provided in publications that cover all survey topics and are also posted on the INSEE website free of charge. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 30
  30. 30. problems or with disabilities, and to assess the assistance they need. The survey given to households is supplemented by a survey given to public institutions working in the domain. • The Health and Career Path Survey assesses the links between health problems and professional difficulties and their differences over time. • The Working Conditions Survey aims to provide a detailed description, broken down by occupational group and industry, of working conditions of the employed active population. • The Training/Professional Qualifications Survey is the primary source of information regarding the relationship between basic and vocational education, employment, and wages, as well as occupational and social mobility. • The Time Use Survey collects data on how people use their time, especially depending on their employment status. • The Electoral Participation survey, conducted in presidential and legislative election years, follows the behaviour of persons registered in the electoral rolls between two rounds of the same election and between different elections running consecutively. • The Family Survey has been part of censuses since 1954. It was renewed in 2011 as a Family/Housing survey, which covers current marital and family situations in detail. • A survey among the users of shelters and hot meals was conducted in 2001 and 2012. It helped to better understand the economic and social situation of persons without stable housing, as well as the processes that led them to this situation. • A survey designed to measure the capacity of adults to understand written and numerical information was conducted in France as well as in 23 other OECD countries in 2012. Annual surveys to supplement the survey system • The Living Environment and Security Survey, referred to as the victimization survey, is primarily intended to examine data on the crimes to which households and their members may have fallen victim; it also provides criminal complaint rates according to the types of crimes to which people fall victim, and thus finds the rate of unreported violations. • T h e s u r v e y o n I n f o r m a t i o n a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n Te c h n o l o g y a n d E-commerce gathers indicators describing the information technology, internet, and telephone equipment in households, as well as individual usage. • The Resources and Living Conditions Statistics system is the French contribution to a Europe-wide statistical operation that provides indicators regarding poverty and social exclusion in the Member States. It consists of an annual survey and a panel of households monitored in France over nine years. • The most exhaustive survey given to households is the Labour Force Survey. It provides employment and unemployment data of a comprehensive nature, and has recently been redesigned (see page 17). The household surveys are generally conducted by interviewers, most often face to face, sometimes by phone. INSEE has a network of about 900 interviewers to perform survey work. However, experiments are underway to test giving household questionnaires out over the Internet. The sample size could thus be much larger, since interviewers would no longer have to travel and there would be no need to input data from questionnaires. 10 household surveys conducted in 2013 7 in face to face interviews, one by telephone, 2 combining the 2 methods 4 surveys were conducted using online collection in a methodological trial 500,000 households surveyed Half of them face to face More than 1,000 interviewers The Housing Survey 42,500 dwellings drawn in Metropolitan France and 12,000 in the French overseas departments (including Mayotte). The expected number of respondents is around 35,000. Interviews lasting one hour on average, conducted face to face with an interviewer. Additionally: an experimentalinternet/paper surveyon rents, from running March to May. Collection from June 2013 to June 2014 and dissemination of the results in March 2015: INSEE Première; definitive detail sheets will be available in mid-2015 A survey design team comprising 4 people working full-time or part-time for 4 years, and around 600 interviewers over the whole of France during the collection period, which lasts one year. 31
  31. 31. Most national statistical institutes now offer free online access to all their data and publications. INSEE decided to do so in 2003. At the website insee.fr, users can now find millions of data of many kinds: framework data and key figures; historical data and chronological series; localized data for regions, municipalities, and neighbourhoods; and microdata at individual level, anonymized to comply with statistical confidentiality requirements. To meet additional user requests, INSEE assembles and supplies special statistical tables, for a fee; 5,067 such orders were filled in 2013. Users who have trouble finding information can call INSEE Contact, a service that centralizes all questions received by the Institute and provides answers on a continuous basis. It forwards the most complex questions to INSEE experts. O ur w e bsi te a l so offe rs v i si tor s t h e information they need to interpret the data correctly. A comprehensive statistical dictionary defines all the technical terms used. A “Sources and methods” section presents the methodology of our surveys and other statistical operations. The website insee.fr has thus become INSEE’s dissemination medium of choice. The number of visits has risen steadily from 10.8 million in 2004 to 29.4 million in 2013. The number of page views rose from 144 million in 2012 to 171 million in 2013. However, user satisfaction surveys indicate that while online visitors are quite satisfied with the wealth of information on the site, they still have difficulty locating the data they need. We are therefore preparing a new redesign, notably to improve navigation. In 2011, we introduced a mobile version of the site enabling users to retrieve The INSEE website offers visitors all our available statistical data free of charge, as well as the information needed to interpret them correctly. A wide range of publications cater for the needs of different categories of users. We conduct major programs to satisfy requests from the media, a vital channel for reaching a broader audience. INSEE disseminates its statistics far and wide 29.4 million visits per year to insee.fr 171 million page views per year to insee.fr 26,250 subscribers to insee.net News 36,360 regional newsletters subscribers  125,750 publication alerts subscribers 20,000 Twitter followers INSEE 2013 Annual Report 32
  32. 32. information with cellphones and tablets. Thus users can obtain the information they seek through that medium, in a compatible format. A range of publications fully accessible online INSEE issues a range of national and regional publications that can be read and downloaded free of charge on insee.fr; some titles are also available in paper versions. The four- page publication INSEE Première gives the initial results of our main surveys and statistical operations. 53 issues were released in 2013. INSEE Première has been praised by its readers, nine out of ten of whom say they are satisfied. Online consultations have risen to 2.590 million page views, compared to 2.275 in 2012. INSEE Première online thus reaches far more readers than it is able to via the paper edition. I N S E E A n a l y s e s o f f e r s s u m m a r i e s o f m a c r o e c o n o m i c a n a l y s e s a n d microeconomic assessments of public policies in an educational format accessible to a wide audience. INSEE Références is a series of volumes providing benchmark data and analyses o n s p e c i f i c t o p i c s . S o m e t i t l e s a re annual, such as our flagship publications L’Économie française and France Portrait social, or yearbooks devoted to individual economic sectors or topics: Emploi et salaires [Employment and wages] and R e v e n u s e t p a t r i m o i n e [ I n c o m e a n d wealth]. Other titles are published on an ad-hoc basis, such as the first dedicated to corporations for 2013. É c o n o m i e e t s t a t i s t i q u e i s I N S E E ’s scholarly journal, which publishes many contributions from non-INSEE authors. Topics covered in special dossiers in 2013 included investigations of transport s y s t e m s , h e a l t h c a r e s y s t e m s , a n d economic modelling. Three Notes de conjoncture [business outlook reports] are distributed each year, in March, June, and December, and a Point de conjoncture [business outlook review] is issued in October. Our Informations Rapides [cursory information] series publishes the main economic indicators; 350 issues were released in 2013. The media: a vital link The press and audiovisual media are a vital link for the dissemination of INSEE statistics and studies. Print media, radio, television, and the internet reference the INSEE’s work daily. The Institute informs the media of all its publications and announces their release dates in advance. In 2013, at national level, press releases were issued for 42 publications, and press conferences were held for 13 publications. INSEE’s regional offices also organize numerous communications to the press. The mission of INSEE's press office is to facilitate contact among journalists and INSEE experts. These contacts are established daily, for interviews or technical explanations. The press office also continually responds to requests from journalists: twenty calls a day on average, and more than thirty in periods of intense activity. Regional branches, in turn, meet requests from local media. • 60,000 annual calls to the INSEE CONTACT voice mail server • 30,000 telephone responses from consultants • 30,000 responses from the SVI controller to requests on CPI, RRI or Sirene • 18,000 requests received by email annually • 85% of email inquiries have an initial response within 3 days • 28 guidance officers on duty daily 33
  33. 33. Administrative records have long been used to prepare statistics. Since 1950, INSEE has been making use of the documents that French employers are required to complete every year, providing information on their workers’ employment periods and wages. Similarly, since the 1960s, income-tax retur ns for incorporated industrial and commercial enterprises (bénéfices industriels et commerciaux: BICs) and unincorporated enterprises and professionals (bénéfices non commerciaux: BNCs) have been one of the main sources for the preparation of the national accounts. Since the 1970s, value added tax (VAT) declarations have been used to compile sales indices, which in turn serve as a guide for analyzing current economic conditions, particularly in wholesale/retail trade and services. The advantage of using administrative records is obvious when it avoids the need to collect the same information through surveys, which consume time and money for respondents and surveying entities alike. One of the indicators from the European Statistics Code of Practice states that: “Proactive efforts are made to improve the statistical potential of administrative data and to limit recourse to direct surveys.” The Quality-Label Committee of the French National Council for Statistical Information (CNIS) accordingly rejects all proposals for new surveys when existing administrative data can be used instead. In the same spirit, government agencies are now legally bound to comply with all requests for individual data from official statistical services. Administrative records offer a second advantage. Because they are exhaustive or nearly so, they make it possible to prepare statistics at a far more detailed level of classification than sample surveys. Likewise, in certain cases, only they can provide data at detailed geographic levels. For example, the EPURE system supplies quarterly indicators of employment trends at national, regional, departmental, and “employment area” levels. The system mainly relies on the quarterly extraction of data from the forms that legal entities with paid employees send to URSSAF monthly or quarterly—depending on their size—for the payment of their social security contributions. These forms show the number of employees at the end of the period, as well as the number of paid employees and gross wages paid during the period. The Annual Payroll Data Declarations (Déclarations Annuelles de Données Sociales: DADS) are another source of information on employment and wages. They are filled out by establishments with paid employees, and cover total gross wages, the number of persons employed, and, for each employee, their job category and skill level, the starting and ending dates of their pay periods, the number of hours worked, and the wages paid. As regards structural business statistics, INSEE set up a new system called ESANE in 2008. It relies mainly on income-tax returns of incorporated industrial and commercial enterprises (bénéfices industriels et commerciau: BICs) for accounting data on firms, and on DADS forms for workforce size and pay. The more timely availability of these records and the introduction of more systematic controls allowed INSEE to abandon the prior system, which was Statisticians increasingly rely on administrative records, notably to obtain data on employment, wages, and income distribution. These sources avoid the need for surveys, which are costly not only for the organizations that conduct them, but for respondents as well. They also help to meet the growing demand for data at detailed geographic or classification levels. INSEE exploits data from administrative records Statistical confidentiality Strict statistical confidentiality rules apply to all data extracted from administrative records or collected in surveys. Such data are embargoed for 75 years if they concern private lives and 25 years if they consist of business and accounting data. That is why every precaution is taken to ensure that statistics published from these sources can never allow respondents and their responses to be identified by intersecting criteria. If authorized by the Statistical Confidentiality Committee, researchers may access individual data, subject to statistical confidentiality requirements. INSEE 2013 Annual Report 34
  34. 34. largely dependent on Annual Enterprise Surveys. We have replaced the latter by far simpler surveys. The Taxable and Social Income Survey draws on personal income-tax return records; these records are then coupled with the Labour Force Survey records. The survey covers social benefits actually received and income from financial assets that is tax exempt and therefore not declared in the returns. This allows for an accurate calculation of various inequality indicators, as well as the poverty line and poverty rate. Ministerial statistical offices use many other administrative records in their areas of responsibility. However, the use of administrative files requires substantial resources. Long, complex processing operations are needed to ensure the satisfactory quality of the resulting statistics. The data’s internal and intertemporal consistency must be checked. Edits are needed for missing units and for missing data concerning some of the units present. Other edits are required for consistency, while headings given in plain language—such as for occupations and socio-occupational categories—must be coded numerically. These operations are partly automated but may also require human intervention. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e re c o rd s c o m p l y w i t h definitions and regulatory categories that may differ from those needed by statistics users. Moreover, the variations measured may become largely invalid when management rules change for administrative reasons. It is therefore important to make sure that these administrative changes are tracked by the entities in charge of overseeing administrative sources, or, alter natively, that the processing sequences are adjusted to take the changes into account. For the dissemination of results, confidentiality rules require the implementation of specific precautions that are constraining but essential. Share of public employment in total employment by region Scope: employment as of December 31, 2011, including beneficiaries of subsidized contracts, France. Sources: INSEE, Siasp and Estim CLAP: Local Knowledge of the Production System There is a constant, heavy demand for highly localized statistics on theeconomic fabric. It has further increased since the start of the decentralization policies. The Local Knowledge of the Production System (CLAP), designed to provide statistics on the local economic fabric, is built with information from various sources. It produces annual statistics localized at the workplace through to municipal levels regarding employment and wages for the various activities of market and nonmarket sectors. By design, CLAP compares several sources of information; for companies it uses the Register of Enterprises and Local Units (SIRENE). Its employment data are the result of cross-refe- rencing information gleaned from the DADS (Annual Payroll Data Declarations), summary records of contributions from URSSAF (Union for the payment of social security and family benefit contributions), data from the Agricultu- ral Social Insurance fund (MSA) in addition to URSSAF data for agriculture related business sectors, and information from the Government officials’ information system. Data from CLAP are available free of charge on the website Insee.fr, but are also available in the form of tables made to order upon request for a fee. Lastly, thanks to the Secure Data Access Center (CASD), CLAP is accessible to researchers upon approval from the Statistical Confidentiality Committee. Around a hundred of people are involved in the management of the CLAP system over different periods of the year. Entire civil service France 20.4% in% 31.0 to 42.1 25.0 to less than 31.0 22.0 to less than 25.0 19.0 to less than 22.0 17.5 to less than 19.0 35
  35. 35. Under French law, INSEE is responsible for managing SIRENE and BRPP, even though the two registers are not used solely for statistical purposes. The reason for this arrangement is that INSEE has considerable experience in handling large databases and can guarantee their security and confidentiality. In so doing, the Institute performs a “sovereign” mission defined as the management of registers of private individuals. SIRENE contains all the enterprises (legal entities and unincorporated enterprises) and all the local units (establishments) that are present on French territory. Each enterprise is identified by a “SIREN number” and each local unit by a SIRET number that begins with the SIREN number of the enterprise to which the unit is linked. SIRENE has included government agencies since 1983 and the agricultural sector since 1995. For each person recorded, the National Identification Register of Private Individuals (Répertoire National d’Identification des Personnes Physiques: RNIPP) contains an identifier consisting of the registration number—commonly known as the “social security number”—plus personal details: last name, first name, and date and place of birth. The Voter-Registration Database (Fichier É l e c t o r a l ) comprises the voter rolls maintained by every municipality. For each person currently or formerly registered in a voter roll, the Database lists his or her vital statistics, municipality where registered, and, where applicable, disqualification from voting. The Database serves two purposes: to prevent the same person from being registered in more than one voter roll, and to prevent a disqualified person from voting. The SIRENE register is a powerful factor in simplifying relations between businesses and government. Since 1997, all government bodies are required to use the SIREN or SIRET number in their dealings with INSEE is responsible by law for regularly updating two registers: SIRENE, the French acronym for “Computerized System for the Register of Enterprises and Local Units,” is used to identify enterprises; BRPP, “Database for the Register of Private Individuals,” comprises the National Identification Register of Private Individuals (RNIPP) and the Voter-Registration Database. INSEE manages major registers: SIRENE and BRPP The SIRENE register in 2013 9.9 million legal units are recorded in SIRENE, of which 8.6 million are economically active 12,000 changes are made every day, including 2,000 business start-ups 280 staff are in charge of SIRENE management INSEE 2013 Annual Report 36

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