1. The living beings unit a. Levels of organization of living beings b. The cell2. Living beings nutrition3. Cellular metabolism4. Authotrophic nutrition5. Heterotrophic nutrition
Living beings have important common characteristics:1. They all are made up of the same chemical substances: biomolecules2. They all are made up of one or more cells. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit in all organism: it is the smallest unit that can carry out the 3 vital functions: nutrition, interaction and reproduction3. They carry out the 3 vital functions.
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings1. ATOM ◦ The smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of that element. ◦ It’s made up of subatomic particles: neutrons, protons and electrons. Ex: A hydrogen atom2. MOLECULE ◦ Two or more atoms that are joined by chemical bonds. ◦ Molecules that made up living beings are called… …
… BIOMOLECULES! ☺ and there are two types: Inorganic:We can find them in living things but also,1. Inorganic: in no living things. 1. WATER: Livings being are made up of a high percentage of water. (63% of our body’s mass) 2. MINERAL SALTS: They have different functions in the body Structural Bones (Calcium: Ca) Allow organs to function correctly Muscles (Potassium: K) Cell regulation
… BIOMOLECULES! ☺ and there are two types:2. Organic: We can find them ONLY in living beings. They all Organic: have a carbon skeleton (some carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms) a. CARBOHYDRATES: Basic unit: monosaccharides Functions: To store “energy” (starch & glucose) and structural (cellulose) MONOSACCHARYDES Ex. GlucoseCARBOHYDRATES Ex. Sucrose DISACCHARYDES Or GLUCIDES Lactose Ex. Starch POLYSACCHARIDES Cellulose
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.) BIOMOLECULES! ☺ 2. Organic: Organic: b. LIPIDS: Basic unit of some of them: fatty acids. Functions: To store “energy” (fats), structural (cholesterol), hormones, etc… Ex: Fats, cholesterol & oils. c. PROTEINS: Basic unit: amino acids. Functions: structural (collagen), to carry oxygen (haemoglobine), metabolism (enzymes), etc… Ex: Collagen, haemoglobine, enzymes, antibodies...
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.) BIOMOLECULES! ☺ 2. Organic: Organic: d. NUCLEIC ACIDS: Basic unit of some of them: nucleotides. Functions: To store the genetical information Ex: DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) & RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.)3. ORGANELLES ◦ Specialized subunit inside a cell that has a specific function, and is usually surrounded by its own membrane. ◦ Ex: mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vacuoles… ◦ … you’ll stydy it in the next point The cell
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.) ALIVE LEVELS4. CELL ◦ The smalles unit that can perform the three vital functions of all organisms: nutrition, interaction and reproduction. ◦ There are 2 types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.)5. TISSUE ◦ Is a set of the same type of cells from the same origin and with specific function. ◦ There are only tissues in Plants and Animal kingdom.
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.)6. ORGAN ◦ Is a group of tissues that perform a common function. ANIMAL PLANTS
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.)7. ORGAN SYSTEM ◦ It’s a group of organs that perform a common function. ◦ Ex: digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system…
1. The living beings unit (cont.) a. Levels of organization of living beings (cont.)8. ORGANISM ◦ Any complete living being PLANT ALGAEBACTERIAFUNGI ANIMAL PROTOZOA
Robert Hooke-1665◦ Coined the word “cell”◦ Looked at cork cellsRobert Brown -1831◦ Discovered the "nucleus"Theodor Schwann - 1838◦ Cells are unit of biological structureMattias Schleiden – ca. 1850◦ Cells are the fundamental basis of lifeVirchow -1858◦ All cells come from cells
1. Every living organism is made up of at least one cell.2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of organisms.3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
CELLPROCARYOTIC EUKARYOTIC - Larger, 8—100 µm- Smaller, 1—5 µm - Membranous organelles- No organelles - Nucleus- No nucleus - DNA in linear chromosomes- DNA in circular loop
It’s the most primitive type of cell.It hasn’t got nucleus, so genetic material isdispersed throughout the cell’s cytoplasm.BACTERIA are prokaryotic single-celledorganisms
They’re more complicated and evolved They have a nucleus, surrounded by a membrane. ANIMALS, PROTOZOA, ALGAE, FUNGI and PLANTS are made up of eukaryotic cells. We’re going to study 2 differents types of eukaryotic cells:ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL
All Eukaryotic cells have those estructures: ◦ Plasma membrane ◦ Cytoplasm with organelles ◦ Nucleus (with DNA) PlantAnimal CellCell
1. Plasma membrane The cell membrane surrounds the cell Isolates cytoplasm from environment Regulates molecular movement into and out of cell2. Cytoplasm This is a gel inside the cell membrane, which contain all the organelles. It’s made up of water and mineral salts.
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 3. Nucleus It’s a structure usually located in the center of the cell. It’s a home to the cell’s chromosomes*, surrounded by the nuclear membrane.* Chromosomes: They are genetic structures that containinformation to make new cells. Basically, the instructions for howto make new cells, the DNA. They are made up of DNA withproteins.
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 4. Endoplasmatic reticulums: Smooth and Rough These 2 structures work together producing important products for the cell. Smooth E.R Synthesize lipids Rough E.R. Synthesize proteins (thank to the Ribosomes)
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 5. Ribosomes Site of proteins synthesis Dark granules, (usually drawn as small circles) 6. Golgi complex It packs products in the cell to be carried through the cell in vesicles.
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 7. Mithocondria They take the “food” the cell took in (glucose & fatty acids) and turn them into energy. The energy is needed to carry out activities. It’s called cellular respiration NUTRIENTS + O2 ENERGY + WASTE + CO2 + H2O
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 8. Vacuoles These are fluid-filled structures used to store different substances. In animal cells there are often many small vacuoles. In plant cells there is usually only one vacuole, but it is larger than, even, the nucleus.
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) 9. Lysosomes • They carry out the digestion of nutrients. • They are similar to vacuoles, but they have enzymes to do digestion inside.
1. The living beings unit (cont.)b. The cell - EUKARYOTIC CELL’S STRUCTURE (cont.) … and ONLY in PLANT CELLS: 10. Cell wall A rigid layer, outside the cell membrane It’s made up of cellulose It provides these cells with structural support and protection 11. Chloroplast It’s the organelle where photosynthesis takes place. It has chlorophyll inside, that helps to capture the energy from sunlight.
2. Living beings’ nutrition beings’ All living beings carry out NUTRITION. They do this in order to get the nutrients they need … 1. … to renew and maintain their cells, tissues and organs. They need matter 2. … to get the energy they need to carry out vital functions, move, produce heat, and allow their organs to function and their cells to make the biomolecules that they need.
2. Living beings’ nutrition (cont.) beings’ HUMAN NUTRITION Humans take food from the environment, but also, they take water and O2. What human systems do take part in the nutrition? Only the digestive system FALSE Digestive system: to get nutrients from the food by means of the digestion Respiratory system: to get O2 and throw out CO2 Circulatory system: to transport nutrients and gases Excretory system: to expel waste products.
2. Living beings’ nutrition (cont.) beings’ HUMAN NUTRITION 1. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
2. Living beings’ nutrition (cont.) beings’ HUMAN NUTRITION 3. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 4. EXCRETORY SYSTEM
3. Cellular metabolism METABOLISM: is the set of chemical reactions that happen inside the cell. There are 2 types: 1. CATABOLISM: Chemical reactions to get more simple molecules and energy by means of breaking out biomolecules. 2. ANABOLISM: Chemical reactions to get larger molecules, to renew cell structures and to grow structures. Those reactions need energy.
3. Cellular metabolism (cont.)1. CATABOLISM Is the set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and get energy.* ATP is the energy-coin of the cell Large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids and proteins, are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids, respectively. Ex: Cellular respiration (with O2) & Fermentation (without O2) NUTRIENTS + O2 ENERGY (ATP + WASTE + CO2 + H2O ATP)
3. Cellular metabolism (cont.) 1. CATABOLISM: CELLULAR RESPIRATION It happens inside the mitochondria . This process is also called aerobic respiration (with oxygen)
4. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION Autotrophic living beings can make their own “food” to grow. They make organic matter from inorganic matter, by… PHOTOSYNTHESIS: They use the energy from sunlight. Chemosynthesis: They use Chemosynthesis: the energy from other chemical reactions.
4. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION (cont.) Autotrophic nutrition occurs in plants, algae and some bacterias. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: It has the following stages:1. Nutrients are taken in from the environment. They are inorganic molecules: water and mineral salts (absorbed through the roots) RAW SAP (transport by the xylem) Carbon dioxide (CO2) which plants take in directly through the leaves.
4. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION (cont.)2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: It takes place in the chloroplasts of the plant cell, where the chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight. The water, mineral salts & the CO2 are used to produce organic matter such as glucose. Oxygen is realeased to the air (through stoma)
4. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION (cont.)3. ORGANIC MATTER IS USED: The organic matter is: • used in the same cell or • transported to other organs ELABORATED SAP (through the phloem) The organic matter is used: • To renew their structures. Ex. To make cellulose (Cell wall) • To grow • To carry out the cellular respiration in the mitochondrion, to release energy (ATP). http://www.pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/tooncell.htm http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/animation1401.html
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION Heterotrophic living beings use to feed on organic matter from other living or dead living beings. Heterotrophic nutrition occurs in animals, fungi, protozoas and some bacterias. They use the organic matter from other living beings to: Renew structures and grow Get energy
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION: Animals nutrition The digestive process include 4 stages: 1. Ingestion: To take in the food 2. Digestion: to break the complex molecules of the food in simpler molecules of nutrients. It can be: Inside the cells of the digestive system. Intracellular Ex: SpongesDigestion Outside the cells of the difestive system Extracellular Ex: Humans Inside the body Internal Ex: humansDigestion Outside the body, with chemical substances External releases from the body. Ex: fungis, spiders
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION: Animals nutrition The digestive process include 4 stages: 3. Absortion: Nutrients go inside the blood through Absortion: the capillary walls. 4. Faecal egestion. egestion.
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION: Animals nutrition There are different types of digestive systems. It depends of how evolved the animals are. Digestive tubes Digestive tube of a carnivore Digestive tube of a ruminant herbivore Digestive tube of a non-ruminant herbivore gastrovascular cavity
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION: There are different types of living beings, depending on what kind of food they take in. 1. HERBIVORES: • They only eat plants, flowers, fruits… • Ex: Cow, koala, bees 2. CARNIVORES: • They only eat animals • Ex: Lion, cocodrile 3. OMNIVORES: • They eat animals and plants • Ex: Humans, pigs
5. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION: 4. SAPROPHYTES: • They take in substances from dead organisms or decaying organic matter… • They “recycle” the organic matter into inorganic matter, and it’s available again for plants nutrition. • Ex: Fungi, bacteria 5. PARASITES: • They live in or on another living being and feeds on it. • Ex: Worms, fungi, bacteria.