Place-Based Creative Problem-Solving    and the Power of the Everyday           Chiara Camponeschi
Based on research conducted by Chiara Camponeschi as part of the Major Portfolio submitted tothe Faculty of Environmental ...
ContentsACKNOWLEDGEMENTS           4    PARTICIPATION   66FOREWORD                   6    CONCLUSION      74INTRODUCTION  ...
AcknowledgementsThis toolkit, in many ways, is a love letter to my community.    For his inestimable generosity and assist...
Foreword    How much does a city trust its citizens?          I first came across the concept of active citizenship when I...
So why this toolkit?                                                                                                      ...
IntroductionPlace-Based Creative Problem-Solving and the Power of the EverydayThe word ‘innovation’ seems to have become u...
This toolkit, then, is a collection of everyday experiments happening                                                  “Wh...
The Enabling City           Unlocking the Democratic Potential of Places & Spaces“That democracy is intrinsically geograph...
“Parks, streets, and other public spaces provide thevision for our urban centres is a matter of using interactive tools   ...
Culture, then, is not merely confined to the realm of artistic           Unfortunately, over the years, many urban centers...
Consequently, without a focused analysis of the intricacies of            “What is pragmatically possible is not fixedplac...
3. Creates an enabling environment by creating conditions for creativeReimagining the City: Characteristics of City 2.0   ...
Sustainable Flatbush • http://www.flickr.com/photos/sustainableflatbush/4154003392/                                       ...
Collaboration         Dialogue and Design for Distributed EnterpriseIf every problem is connected to something or         ...
“In the past, thinking about democracy focused                                                                            ...
“Change is not driven by systems, but rather bypeople who find themselves trusted. Systems onlyhelp people innovate. The r...
The InnovationsSocial innovation thrives on the ideas and efforts            As the categories suggest, these examples are...
Place-Making
PLACE-MAKING                                                                 The InnovationsJane’s WalkGlobalStarted in 20...
PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsCity RepairPortland, Oregon (USA)City Repair is an Oregon-based non-profit driven almostentirel...
PLACE-MAKING                                                               The InnovationsTransition NetworkGlobalA Transi...
PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsCittaslowGlobalCittaslow, also known as Slow Town, is agrowing international network of over 14...
PLACE-MAKING                                                                The InnovationsNeglected SpacesLondon, UKNegle...
PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsStorefront ResidenciesWindsor, Ontario (Canada)Broken City Lab is an artist-led interdisciplina...
Eating & Growing
EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsNot Far From the TreeToronto, Ontario (Canada)Not Far From the Tree is a network of resident...
EATING &                                                                 GROWING                                          ...
EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsYum ShareU.K.YumShare is a dynamic web tool that helps users findorganic and specialty food ...
EATING &                                                                GROWING                                           ...
EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsPatch MatchLondon, U.K.Patch Match is a free service for people who live in or nearWestcombe...
EATING &                                                                GROWING                                           ...
Resource Sharing
RESOURCE                                                                  SHARING                                         ...
RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsTool-Lending LibrariesBerkeley, CaliforniaA tool-lending library is a service that allows li...
RESOURCE                                                               SHARING                                            ...
RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsFreecycleGlobalThe Freecycle Network™ is a grassroots and entirelynonprofit movement that pr...
RESOURCE                                                                   SHARING                                        ...
RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsBright NeighborU.S.A.Bright Neighbor combines community involvement withsocial tools that he...
RESOURCE                                                                SHARING                                           ...
RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsMaison des InitiativesEtudiantesParis, France.The Maison des initiatives étudiantes (MIE) is...
Learning & Socializing
LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsHuman LibraryGlobalThe Human Library is an innovative concept designedto promote dialo...
LEARNING &                                                             SOCIALIZING                                        ...
LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsSpiritus MundiMalmö, SwedenSpiritus Mundi is an intercultural dialogue organizationwor...
LEARNING &                                                               SOCIALIZING                                      ...
LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsLaundromat CaféCopenhagen, DenmarkThe Laundromat Café is part of what are called “fusi...
LEARNING &                                                                                                                ...
Steering & Organizing
STEERING &                                                                ORGANIZING                                      ...
STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsRaging GranniesGlobalRaging Grannies is an activist organization born in Victoria,Briti...
STEERING &                                                               ORGANIZING                                       ...
STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsMindLabCopenhagen, DenmarkMindLab was established in 2002 as an in-house growthfacility...
STEERING &                                                                                                                ...
STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsToronto Cyclists UnionToronto, Ontario (Canada)The Toronto Cyclists Union is a membersh...
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
The enabling city
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The enabling city

  1. 1. Place-Based Creative Problem-Solving and the Power of the Everyday Chiara Camponeschi
  2. 2. Based on research conducted by Chiara Camponeschi as part of the Major Portfolio submitted tothe Faculty of Environmental Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster in Environmental Studies at York University in Toronto, Canada.This toolkit is published under a Creative Commons ‘Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives’ licence. You are free to share, to copy, to distribute and to transmit this workunder the following conditions:AttributionYou must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that they endorseyou or your use of the work.)NoncommercialYou may not use this work for commercial purposes. No Derivative Works — You may not alter,transform, or build upon this work.No Derivative WorksYou may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.With the understanding that: • Waiver Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. • Public Domain Where the work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license. • Other Rights In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: • Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other applicable copyright exceptions and limitations; • The author’s moral rights; • Rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work issued, such as publicity or privacy rights. • Notice For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to the Creative Commons web page.2010Some rights reservedTo find out more about Creative Commons licenses go to www.creativecommons.orgFor more information, please contact: enablingcity@gmail.com or visit www.enablingcity.com
  3. 3. ContentsACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4 PARTICIPATION 66FOREWORD 6 CONCLUSION 74INTRODUCTION 8 GLOSSARY 75THE ENABLING CITY 10 RESOURCES 76COLLABORATION 16THE INNOVATIONS 19 PLACE-MAKING 20 EATING & GROWING 27 RESOURCE SHARING 34 LEARNING & SOCIALIZING 43 STEERING & ORGANIZING 50 FINANCING 59
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThis toolkit, in many ways, is a love letter to my community. For his inestimable generosity and assistance during myI am indebted to countless kind and supportive individuals research trip to Scandianvia, I thank Fredrik Björk at Malmöwhose commitment and creativity have given me the University, as well as August Nilsson and Ola Möller for theirdetermination to explore my interests and the confidence to solidarity and hospitality.articulate my passions, layer by layer. This toolkit has also benefitted profoundly from conversationFor their patience and encouragement during my time at the with friends. For their unwavering friendship, unrelentingFaculty of Environmental Studies, I thank Ellie Perkins and optimism, and for reading through an overly-verboseLiora Salter. I thank Chris Cavanagh for introducing me to the first draft of this toolkit, I thank Kathryn Grond and Sarahemboldening world of popular education and Roger Keil for Feldbloom. For participating in kitchen consultations andhelping me grow as a student and critical thinker. for their musical support, I thank Emily Briggs and my friends at FES. For their invigorating devotion to socialThanks are also due to the talented and generous people who and environmental justice, I thank Joanna Dafoe andhave made time to share their insight with me. Eli Malinski at Adam MacIsaac. Lastly, Stephanie Simms deserves specialthe Center for Social Innovation has been a constant source recognition for her design work on this toolkit.of support throughout the writing process. I am extremelygrateful to him for his sagacity and for giving me advice in To creative citizens worldwide, thank you for yourthe form of a 30 Rock reference. Todd Harrison has provided commitment to the issues you address through your projects.invaluable editorial help. Issue by issue, the entire Spacing Your involvement fuels my passion for sustainability andfamily of which he is a part has encouraged me to challenge deepens my commitment to strengthening networks ofmy relationship with the urban environment, and for that I grassroots social innovation.am truly grateful. I would also like to express my heartfeltappreciation to Patrick Keenan for his interest in my work,and to Mark Kuznicki for the engaging conversations and hisencouraging work with ChangeCamp. Chiara Camponeschi Toronto, July 2010
  5. 5. Foreword How much does a city trust its citizens? I first came across the concept of active citizenship when I was lasting solutions to the problem of environmental degradation writing my honors thesis called When Green Was Still a Color, a — especially in the age of ‘peak oil,’ growing urbanization, and piece of original research that looked at “green” consumerism from global economic crisis. I wanted to believe that there were sound a critical perspective. At the time, environmental issues were finally alternatives to the model of participation-through-consumption, seeping into mainstream consciousness; eco-celebrity gossip sites so I started collecting evidence that spoke to the potential of and designer tote bags were all the rage. In a way, the renewed participatory governance and co-design in moving cities and interest in environmentalism relieved me, but I worried about the communities towards a more sustainable future. inherent message that seemed to transpire from traditional media: that we could shop our way to sustainability. The rapid surge in The concept of active citizenship is one that resonated deeply “green” products left me feeling like we were ready to consume with me because of its inclusive, creative, interdisciplinary, and environmental solutions more than to engage with them for their participatory characteristics. Today, I am fascinated by the world inherent values. of creative communities because, to my eyes, it represents an antidote to the widespread erosion of local practices and cultures, Organic candy and celebrity-endorsed bottled water did not and is also an inventive and timely way of tackling increasingly reflect my own journey with active citizenship, nor my personal interconnected social issues. What is even more remarkable is and professional experiences with the climate change and the democratic and grassroots level in which communal change youth-led development communities. All around me, I saw is achieved — through dialogue, openness, collaboration, and the consumerism being confused with activism, carbon offsets rediscovery of the everyday. with environmentalism and growth with innovation. Nowhere in the mainstream did I see the principles of self-organization, I call all this place-based creative problem-solving, an approach to mutual support, and interaction — the elements that kindled my participation that leverages the imagination and inventiveness of commitment to sustainability — recognized as valid pathways citizens, experts, and activists in collaborative efforts that make to participation. Instead, concerned citizens like me were being cities more inclusive, innovative, and interactive. This toolkit exists encouraged to buy (RED), shop green, and donate to far-away to document and celebrate the power of inter-actor collaboration causes from the comfort of their home. and of our everyday experiences in enhancing problem-solving and social innovation. I emerged out of that research feeling disempowered, but hopeful. I refused to believe that citizens were nothing more than consumers; that the only way of truly making an impact was by matching good intentions with credit card swipes. Gradually, I became interested in studying the (many) ways citizens can be part of effective, long-6
  6. 6. So why this toolkit? • To reclaim definitions of innovation and sustainability from their static, corporate counterpart and expand them to include creativity and local culture; • To document the contributions of the already-strong ‘creative community’ movement;The tools are many, but the argument can be summarized • Creativity fosters • To spark a conversation about the potentialas follows: open-mindedness of our everyday experiences in contributing • Innovation is being reduced to a repetitive formula, but if we and innovative thinking, to sustainability, and the roles cities can take a closer look at the local level, we uncover a vibrant world helping communities play in providing enabling frameworks where individuals and organizations in the social economy articulate their needs and for social innovation and are mobilizing to generate solutions that make cities more visions in ways that celebrate participation. sustainable and governance more inclusive. the spaces and places that are at the core of their everyday reality. • Through DIY tools and interactive technologies, the way we collaborate is redefining the role our everyday experiences B. We need to create enabling environments for enhanced play in formulating a more nuanced understanding of urban participation both in the public sphere and at the sustainability and social innovation. institutional level. • Why is this important? Cities are currently facing massive How? challenges that range from growing urbanization rates to over- consumption. The way they choose to address these issues • By using public spaces as sites of experimentation, — and who they decide to involve — will influence the future of places where we can learn to interact with (and respect) the planet in permanent ways. We need cities that are: livable, diverse actors, as well as harness the power of collective inclusive, and resilient. imagination.How do we achieve this? • By pushing for a new idea of governance that expands the definition of citizenship to reflect: our multiple identities and A. We need to include culture and creativity in the definition of affiliations, the value of experiential knowledge, and our new sustainability. ideas about well-being (think commons vs profit) • Culture encompasses lifestyle choices, value systems, and local traditions that empower residents to tackle social/ urban needs in a localized, but scalable, way. 7
  7. 7. IntroductionPlace-Based Creative Problem-Solving and the Power of the EverydayThe word ‘innovation’ seems to have become ubiquitous. But whatexactly is innovation and why do we need more of it? “We are the leaders we have been waiting for.” Grace Lee Boggs, activist and organizerThe term in itself is nothing new: business and tech ventures have individuals not only challenge our ordinary ideas about expertise,been innovating for years in an attempt to remain on the leading but they actively redefine our understanding of citizenship itself.edge of market fluctuations. In fact, when we think of innovation, Their involvement demonstrates that citizenship is so muchmost of us think immediately of multi-million-dollar development more than duties and taxes — it’s about outcome ownership,projects or the latest, status-defining electronic gadgets of the enablement, and the celebration of the myriad connections thatfuture. But this toolkit is not another rhapsodizing piece of prose on make up the collective landscape of the place(s) we call home.why businesses need to innovate to remain relevant, nor an exposéon the many ways new technologies are going to revolutionize our We know that markets are no longer the only sources of innovation,lives. This publication is about a different kind of innovation, one and that citizens are capable of more than just voting duringthat springs from the most unlikely (according to some) places election time. We now see artists working alongside policy— the sites of need and frustration, imagination and opportunity makers, policy makers collaborating with citizens, and citizens— that shape our public lives. They are the places where citizens, helping cities diagnose their problems more accurately. This isindividually or in concert with one another, nurture creative projects particularly significant as respect for our political leaders seemsthat make their lives, and those of others, a little better. They are to be declining, while support for democratic principles such asthe streets, living rooms, gardens, and squares reshaping the way openness, transparency, and inclusion is on the rise.ii We havewe think of the public sphere. entered an era where interactive technologies and a renewedThey are the places where social innovation begins. idea of citizenship are enabling us to experiment with alternative notions of sustainability and to share knowledge in increasinglyAs ‘creative communities’ guru Ezio Manzini explains, the term dynamic ways. Inevitably, this becomes a process that allows therefers to shifts in the way individuals or communities act to solve a public to articulate a more nuanced understanding of sustainabilityproblem and generate new opportunities.i Here, then, innovation is — one that acknowledges and celebrates the realm of the everydayintended as a catalyst for social change — a collaborative process while, at the same time, showcasing the role that creativity can playthrough which citizens can be directly involved in shaping the way in promoting a kind of sustainability that opens up new avenuesa project, policy, or service is created and delivered. As a whole, the of participation for civil society. The elements can be glaring or parttheories and cases presented in this toolkit speak to the desire of of a long-term journey of discovery; either way, they are likely tocommunities the world over to participate more meaningfully in generate new perspectives and insights that help society uncoverthe process of brainstorming and designing initiatives that address diverse ways of thinking, doing, behaving, and advocating.the complex realities of urban sustainability. In so doing, creative
  8. 8. This toolkit, then, is a collection of everyday experiments happening “What has been missing so far in the storyin our backyards — ones that prove how everyone can unlocktheir creative potential and embark on a transformative journey about innovation in cities are the human andtowards participatory citizenship. Its aim is to document the global neighborhood dimensions.”movement of ‘creative citizen’ projects and the ripple effects they are Melissa Mean, Director, Demos Cities Programhaving on the way we learn, work, eat, and govern. size-fits-all. We want to celebrate the places and spaces that make up our daily reality, and we want to cooperate with all kindsHere you will find international initiatives and interventions that of actors in the quest for an expression of citizenship that allowspush us to reconsider process, momentum, and innovation from us to participate in our own society in interactive, deliberate, andan everyday perspective. The focus is on the social economy and considerate ways.on participatory governance; actors in the social economy — singlecitizens, co-ops, foundations, and NGOs — have been introducing In short, this toolkit is about place-based, creative problem-solvingmeaningful innovations often while facing great constraints. Their and the many inspiring individuals who are working hard to provecontributions are numerous, but often underestimated and in need just how powerful our everyday actions can be. You do not have toof visibility. In addition, what these examples make clear is that be a hero or a public leader to make a difference; what these casesthe time for institutional innovation has come, and that we are demonstrate so clearly is that humility, hard work, creativity, andready to spur governments in the direction of open, inclusive, and an open mind can go a long way in pushing for institutional reformtransparent governance. In other words, one needs the recognition and as well as building communities that are more livable, inclusive, andsupport, while the other needs a push — and proof that we’re up for the resilient.challenge. After all, as the Young Foundation reminds us, “the way anThis is not a journey free of obstacles, battles, or social justice innovation is developed is just as important as the innovation itself.iiiconsiderations, but when the motives are legitimate and thestrategies considerate, collaborative innovation can have powerfuleffects that resonate across neighborhoods, cities, and evencountries. The examples collected here make it evident that weare past a model of participation that is unresponsive and one-i For more information, see: Manzini, E., Jegou F., eds. (2007) Collaborative Services: Social Innovation Quotes (in order of appearance)and Design for Sustainability, Milan: Edizioni Polidesign. “Grace Lee Boggs.” Bill Moyers Journal. PBS Television. June 15, 2007. Interview available here: http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/06152007/watch3.htmlii See, for example, Cornwall, A. (2008) Democratising Engagement: What the UK Can Learn fromInternational Experience. London: Demos Mean, M. (2007) “Chapter 6: Urban Innovation and the Power of Mass Imagination” in Unlocking Innovation: Why Citizens Hold the Key to Public Service Reform. Parker, S. and S. Parker, eds. London,iii The Young Foundation is a British organization that specializes in social entrepreneurship and UK: Demos, p. 95innovation. Social innovation enthusiasts may want to take a look at their recent publication:Murray, R., Caulier-Grice, J. and G. Mulgan (2010) The Open Book of Social Innovation. London: YoungFoundation/NESTA. 9
  9. 9. The Enabling City Unlocking the Democratic Potential of Places & Spaces“That democracy is intrinsically geographic And it’s not just stickers and SMS that are helping us tell our ownis somewhat unconventional.” stories and discover the everyday potential of places. [murmur] isNancy Ettlinger, Professor, Ohio State University another perfect example of how oral histories and memories can be documented and shared within a city. [murmur] signs are hard They are yellow and can often be found in inexplicable places: light to ignore: they are green, ear-shaped, and great at making you poles, fire hydrants, public phone booths. They can be in pristine wonder what they stand for. Anyone with a mobile phone can call condition or clearly weathered, lonely or surrounded by other sticky the number provided at each [murmur] location to listen in on the objects. No matter the case, many urban centers now host the stories of others, thus experiencing personal or historical accounts tiny yellow stickers that over the years have turned into a secret that are a connection between past and present, intimate, and symbol of lived experiences, at once a subculture’s language and its public. brand. What started in 2004 as Yellow Arrow, a street art project on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, quickly expanded to over 460 Lonely Planet’s Experimental Travel Guide is a repository of cities and 7500 arrows, turning into a global public art project that International Situationist–like prompts for transforming tourists makes use of the urban landscape to chart crowd-sourced ‘deep into travelers, city-dwellers into urban safarians. As in the tradition maps’ that reveal the many personal stories hidden in our everyday of the Surrealists and Psychogeographers, travelers are invited spaces. to engage in all manner of creative experiments in an attempt to connect with more than just the de rigueur monuments and The way the project works is intuitive even for the biggest tech museums a city has to offer. From photo jaunts to walking through skeptics, provided they have operated a cell phone at least once. streets with horse masks, the guide’s approach to experimental Participants make use of uniquely coded yellow arrow stickers travel illustrates how anyone can uncover and appreciate what’s to draw attention to a location of special significance to them. unique in any city — seeing things from a different perspective, Whether it’s the Eiffel Tower or a piece of graffiti, all that’s needed finding a connection between seemingly disparate realities, and is to place a sticker on a chosen site, text one’s story to the becoming the author of one’s own experience. number provided, and leave the yellow arrow for others to find. When another person comes across the sticker, they can text in All three examples reflect a curious, playful, and adventurous desire the same code and immediately receive an SMS with the place- to celebrate the urban, to reclaim it from its sometimes aggressive based story of others, often short poetic fragments or game-like or alienating tendencies and to play a bigger role in its overall prompts to action. In this way, Yellow Arrow’s frisky anonymous evolvement. For renowned scholar Manuel Castells, “cities are an exchange enables residents and travelers to celebrate the often essential raw material in the production of human experiencei,” so it imperceptible value of urban spaces, helping participants reclaim is no surprise to see arts-based interactive projects as increasingly personal narratives from official accounts of what is significant and more popular platforms for public expression and experimentation. noteworthy in a city. More than ever, in fact, finding a way to articulate an alternative
  10. 10. “Parks, streets, and other public spaces provide thevision for our urban centres is a matter of using interactive tools necessary bandwidth for the flow of informationand methodologies to confront the hidden power structures thatinfluence patterns of spatial meaning. A crowd-sourced approach between people; they are where we learn who we liveto place-making thus creates opportunities for innovation with, what they look like and what they do.”that have the potential to connect social change and citizen Melissa Mean & Charlie Tims,aspirations in ways that are truly locally distinctive, enhancing authors, People Make Places: Growing the Public Life of Citiesthe ability of local communities to articulate their own needswhile simultaneously advocating for a renewed understanding ofurban livability. Public Space: The Social Innovator’s PlaygroundAt its simplest, urban livability is about harmony, a heuristic The term ‘public space’ refers to a place that is open and accessibleconcept that is at the heart of sustainable lifestyles, active to everyone, regardless of gender, ethnicity, or socio-economiccitizenship practices, social inclusion, and cultural diversity. The background. Commonly perceived as the unit of measure forrecently published UN-HABITAT World Cities Report for 2008- assessing the health of our democracy, it is in public spaces that we2009 speaks of the creation of harmonious cities as a process negotiate our common interests and express our differences, wherethat is deeply linked to inter-actor collaboration, greater citizen we celebrate creativity and display our dissent. At once a physicalparticipation, and the emergence of collaborative services resource and an ideal, public space is often viewed as a compass forthat harness the power of grassroots imaginationii. In the political action, the anchoring element through which citizens feelreport, the development of partnerships between citizens and free to build community and promote social inclusion.governments is seen as a means of accelerating institutionalinnovation and project scalability, while encouraging effective For Melissa Mean and Charlie Tims, authors of the report Peoplecitizen participation in the urban planning process. Under Make Places: Growing the Public Life of Cities, public spaces act asthis framework, a shift from control to enablement turns self-organizing public services because they form “a shared spatialharmonious cities into platforms for community empowerment resource from which experiences and value are created in ways— holistic, living spaces where people make their voices heard that are not possible in our private lives aloneiii.” What this meansand shape the future of the city by collaborating and interacting is that public space is better understood not as a predeterminedwith others. physical place, but as an experience created by the interaction between people. This interaction, in turn, contributes to creatingThe challenge for cities, then, is to foster a new idea of public life a sense of place in the community, which is of crucial importancethat links communities together and encourages urban social in empowering residents to take ownership over their owninnovations that target all areas of life — from the economy to environment. This encourages them to build community in wayspersonal well-being and beyond. The next section of this chapter that place local issues within a framework that enables people tofocuses on public spaces because of their potential to open up forge partnerships with diverse actors in a multi-scalar fashion. Bynew avenues of participation in ways that emphasize the value participating in the public sphere, civil society can therefore build onof everyday experiences in the social sphere, and highlight their the established identity of a place to reflect upon the role it wantsability to inform social innovations from a crowd-sourced, or user- the public (and its culture) to play in the daily life of a city.led, perspective. 11
  11. 11. Culture, then, is not merely confined to the realm of artistic Unfortunately, over the years, many urban centers have come to expression; it is also inextricably linked with lifestyle choices, neglect or enclose their public spaces in a race to obtain world- value systems, and local traditions, which together form the class or ‘creative city’ status aimed at bolstering their international collective identity of a community. Thus, cultural sustainability reputation as unique cultural destinations. This process, in turn, becomes a process that empowers residents to become decision- has had serious repercussions on both places and the people makers over their own environment, encouraging both the act of living in them, frequently favoring a particular corporate definition reclaiming public spaces for place-making and the advancement of of creativity that too often reinforces patterns of inequality participant-led initiatives that work to make cities innovative social within and between cities. Melissa Mean argues that there is a change hubs.iv As such, a key role of cultural sustainability is to “mismatch between the language of economic innovation — with provide a space for residents to express their values and to satisfy its constant references to openness and distribution — and the their needs in a self-reliant and participatory way. essentially closed nature of much policy making and governance in most of today’s major citiesvi.” For Mean, this mismatch is what“Cities require continuous social and political precludes deliberation and collaboration among groups, presentingcreativity to address the problems that they throw up opportunities to already resource-rich areas and deliberately neglecting undesirable ones. Her essay in Unlocking Innovation:as they grow, mutate and decline.” Why Citizens Hold the Key to Public Service Reform aptly illustratesKhan et al., Breakthrough Cities Report how city-sponsored ‘official futures’ are narratives that often dominate over all others, defining optimism and opportunity A user-led approach to understanding and building public space is a specifically in relation to economic growth instead of citizen well- powerful way to counteract the persistent lack of trust in the public being. Thus, in a ‘creative city’ or ‘world-class city’ setting, public sphere, particularly when it comes to issues of disempowerment places come under threat as they are occupied and rearranged to and community fragmentation. Peter Galison coined the term accommodate market transactions, while vulnerable groups and ‘disruptive spaces’ to describe locations that are at once physical concerned residents are limited in their ability to self-organize and and symbolic, where vision and action converge to redefine our enhance their collective capacity to interact with governmental urban experiences in the public realm. Disruptive or in-between institutions in participatory ways. spaces galvanize the public to get involved in civic initiatives and work on issues of common interest, providing the emotional and Nevertheless, the availability (or lack thereof) of inclusive and intellectual outlets needed to help people form better relationships accessible public spaces inevitably tells us something about a with their communities. Hence, public spaces become a powerful city’s political climate and the values it upholds. Democracy cannot organizing tool, the hotbed of ‘creative community’ social be separated from physical space, and cities, facing increasingly innovation and the starting point for creating places that are open, more diverse demographics, need to find a way to incorporate inclusive, and sustainable. As Mean and Tims eloquently state, “one and encourage diverse uses and perspectives into their public important implication of this shift from a place-based to user-led dimension. In fact, if the traditional approach to public management understanding of public space is that the universe of public spaces was heavily influenced by neoliberal beliefs in market-centric within a city expands — potentially dramatically — as people are development and a minimal role for state governments, today, a able to create public experiences in a variety of settings — civic, new, people-centered approach is emerging, based on the concept public, private and spaces that blend elements of all threev.” of enablement — whereby governments create (or should create) favorable conditions for local actors to mobilize around a cause.
  12. 12. Consequently, without a focused analysis of the intricacies of “What is pragmatically possible is not fixedplace and capital, the distinction between the enablement of themarket — as opposed to the enablement of local communities — is independently of our imaginations, but is itselfinevitably diluted so not to threaten the status quo, keeping places shaped by our visions.”disembedded from the larger decision-making processes that Archon Fung & Erik Olin Wright, authors, Deepening Democracy: Institutionalaffect them. Innovations in Empowered Participatory GovernanceCo-design and co-production, on the other hand, are a powerful In Finland, an innovative approach to cultural planning spearheadedmeans for individuals and institutions to connect and collaborate, by the Greater Helsinki Area led to the launch of an internationalbuilding inviting and vibrant communities that truly reflect the local ideas competition that sought input on its future developmentviii.needs and values at the heart of a city’s character. This way, public Fourteen towns and municipalities solicited ideas for open-mindedexperiences can be transformed into powerful tools for addressing residential, land use, and transportation solutions that wouldneeds, stimulating critical thinking, and forming self-perpetuating address issues of rapid population growth and environmentalnetworks of civic solidarity. For co-design to truly thrive, however, change. One of the winners of the competition was a collectiveit is first necessary for cities to invest in the creation of a culture called “Social Silicon Valley,” which released an incredibly insightfulof ‘publicness,’ whereby the exchange and interaction of diverse three-page manifesto by the title of Towards City 2.0. Theaudiences reflects the different uses they make of the city’s proposal outlined a vision for a city that is open, transparent,infrastructure. To fully uphold the principles of collaborative design people-centered, and responsive to the great challenges facing ourand reap its greater rewards, it is necessary to push for a sort of generation. By declaring that the duopoly of state and businesslocal politics that is less adversarial and more dialogical, making the is over, the collective intended to raise awareness of the potentiallabyrinthine world of governance more accessible and relatable. of user-produced cities to mix ‘innovative incrementalism’ and ‘strategic leadership’ for the creation of problem-solving tools thatImagination is the first step in this direction. It may seem too step away from the ‘NIMBY’ mentality that frequently characterizesabstract of an element to make a difference, yet in Europe and the response to most societal challenges.beyond, calls for the submission of user-generated contributionsto programs designed to reinvent the city make imagination The City 2.0 idea combines a bottom-up approach with systemictheir main ingredient. In Glasgow, British think-tank Demos was leadership primarily by seeing service users not as consumersenlisted in a city-wide collaborative project aimed at harnessing but as participants — thus challenging static conceptions ofthe power of collective thinking with the goal of formulating a professionalism and expertise. At the same time, City 2.0 is a socialcrowd-sourced vision for the city in 2020. Through storytelling innovation platform that encourages a new kind of governance,and arts-based techniques, citizens of Glasgow were invited to supported by what the collective calls ‘social risk capital.’ Underparticipate in an experiment to open up the city and articulate their this model, the city becomes an innovation hub, a place whereown narrative for its future. “If the first step to a better future is social entrepreneurship and its inherent risks are part of a learningimagining one,” the authors explain, “then the next step is about process facilitated by the political will to help people solve problemscollaboration,” making the crucial move from mass imagination to the administration itself is unsure how to solve. Lastly, Citymass collaboration and learning to involve local government and 2.0 is commons-based, infusing elements of social and diversethe voluntary sector in the cultivation of systemic leadership.vii economies into the everyday realm, stepping away from dominant neoliberal practices of competition and private property and 13
  13. 13. 3. Creates an enabling environment by creating conditions for creativeReimagining the City: Characteristics of City 2.0 self-organization. City 2.0 and its Social Innovation Mayor articulate compelling goals that unlock the capacity of others to reach these1. Combines a bottom-up approach with leadership that sees service goals. users not as consumers but as participants, stepping away from traditional paternalistic approaches of professional control and ethics 4. Uses Social Risk Capital to compel political leaders to focus on problems that characterized the post-war period. they themselves are unsure how to solve by mobilizing people to generate long-term solutions via, for example, hubs for innovation and2. Defines a social innovation system for a city by envisioning a new kind periods of political/issue prioritization. of local government that has citizens and their communities at its core. Here, local administrators support grassroots ideas in a hyper-local 5. Employs commons-based production through a model for combining way by providing funding, consulting services, and working spaces, market and social economies to mainstream the importance of thinking and conducting ongoing political discussions on the survival of the about the value of the commons and not, by default, just profitability. commons. The hyper-local is then connected to the larger city fabric through the work of a Social Innovation mayor who conducts foresight Towards City 2.0, Social Silicon Valley Manifesto, available here: work about big structural changes, takes responsibility for long-term http://www.greaterhelsinkivision.fi/files/GHV_j2p_Towards_City_6_boards.pdf risk-investments, and employs open leadership methods to trigger people-powered change. i Castells, M. (1983) The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. Berkeley: encouraging more experimental and sustainable ways of producing and University of California Press, p. 67 exchanging goods. ii For more information, see: United Nations Human Settlements Programme UN-HABITAT (2008) Harmonious Cities: State of the World Cities Report 2008-2009. London, UK: Earthscan. iii Mean, M. and C. Tims. (2005) People make places: Growing the Public Life of Cities. London, UK: Demos, p. 9 iv For more information on the concept of Cultura Sustainability and its benefits, see for example: Duxbury, N. and Examples such as these ones are forming an increasingly richer body of E. Gillette. (2007). Culture as a Key Dimension of Sustainability: Exploring Concepts, Themes and Models. Working Paper 1, Vancouver: Creative Cities Network, p.4 evidence that speaks to the power of creativity to contribute solutions v Ibid., p. 44 to a wide range of complex and intertwined issues. The challenge, then, vi Mean, M. (2007) “Chapter 6: Urban Innovation and the Power of Mass Imagination” in Unlocking Innovation: Why Citizens Hold the Key to Public Service Reform. Parker, S. and S. Parker, eds., London, is to create a common language for actors to communicate across UK: Demos, p. 95 vii Mean, M. (2007) “Chapter 6: Urban Innovation and the Power of Mass Imagination” in fields and cultures. So how do we create enabling frameworks for Unlocking Innovation: Why Citizens Hold the Key to Public Service Reform. Parker, S. and S. Parker, eds., London, UK: Demos, p. 101 harmonious cities to form? How do we balance an emphatic approach viii For more information, see the Greater Helsinki Vision website: to people’s needs with the need to accomplish city-wide goals? http://www.greaterhelsinkivision.fi/ Quotes (in order of appearance) Ettlinger, N. (2009) “Surmounting City Silences: Knowledge Creation and the Design of Urban Democracy in the Everyday Economy.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33.1: 218 We collaborate. Mean, M. and C. Tims (2005) People make places: Growing the Public Life of Cities. London, UK: Demos, p. 16 Khan, L. et al. (2009) Breakthrough Cities: How Cities Can Mobilise Creativity and Knowledge to Tackle Compelling Social Challenges. London, UK: British Council/Young Foundation, p.8 Fung, A. and E. O. Wright, eds. (2003) Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance. London: Verso, p.vii
  14. 14. Sustainable Flatbush • http://www.flickr.com/photos/sustainableflatbush/4154003392/ 15
  15. 15. Collaboration Dialogue and Design for Distributed EnterpriseIf every problem is connected to something or ‘empowerment, efficiency, and engagement,’ See Click Fix is a network that allows anyone to report and track non-emergencysomeone else, then collaboration to solve it is issues anywhere in the world, providing the impetus to improvelogically necessary.” one’s neighborhood and the platform for making connectionsTom Bentley, director of applied learning at ANZSOG, the Australia and New that will lead to change. In Philadelphia alone, the website wasZealand School of Government. used by an engaged citywide advocacy group to mobilize citizens to document instances of vehicle idling, leading to new inter- Just a few years ago, before the advent of ubiquitous web-based stakeholder initiatives to help clean the air. tools, collaboration was more readily associated with volunteering or office teamwork than with surfing the ‘net. In a matter of years, Engaged citizens are finding increasingly more creative ways to however, mobile communication platforms and greater Internet collaborate in physical settings, too. Not Far From the Tree is a access have transformed the very way we conceive of interaction network of residents and local food enthusiasts that together and problem-solving, making collaboration a matter of the help make the most of the natural resources present in the city everyday. Here are some examples of that change in action. of Toronto, connecting fruit tree owners and volunteers through a residential fruit-picking program designed to harvests fruits that The Extraordinaires is a network of online volunteers who, by would otherwise go to waste. At the end of the process, one third donating their time to select micro-tasks, join forces with others of all fruit goes to tree owners, another third to volunteers and the around the world to contribute to a cause they are passionate remaining third is delivered by bike or cart to local organizations, about. Whether it’s translating a website to encourage online who then join forces to make fresh, healthy, local food available to linguistic diversity or helping cultural institutions catalogue and marginalized communities in the city. archive resources, The Extraordinaires platform allows users to turn routine breaks into opportunities for collaboration, transforming the In the age of connectivity, it is no surprise that collaboration is act of waiting for the bus into a socially useful activity and making increasingly seen as a design principle, a style of thinking and acting of chronically busy people potential agents of change. Since its that elevates the practice of problem-solving from a managerial inception, over 29,000 Extraordinaires users have completed more tool to a way of thinking about participation itself. According to than 240,000 micro-tasks, helping with anything from awareness Yochai Benkler, Harvard Law School professor and co-director of campaigns to posting and scanning photos of earthquake victims in the Berkman Center for Internet and Society, this is because social Haiti to help with the humanitarian relief process. cooperation presents an opportunity to introduce greater flexibility in the design of human societies — a chance to carve out a space See Click Fix is an online platform that helps residents signal for civil society to collectively brainstorm solutions to the problem instances of neglect and degradation so that city officials can of how to live together in a just and sustainable fashion.i intervene to rectify them. Operating on the three principles of
  16. 16. “In the past, thinking about democracy focused What makes co-design so appealing and promising is preciselyon issues of formal governance, today it focuses the delivery of public services in a reciprocal relationship betweenon citizenship and issues of participation.” diverse actors and experts, addressing more than just theRichard Sennett, Professor, London School of Economics dominant perspectives and spheres of action that currently characterize mainstream policy- and decision-making. When the community is directly involved in entrepreneurial ventures, in fact, The examples included in this toolkit are all experiments in collaboration often takes on the characteristics of self-development collaborative social design. Its focus on place-based, creative projects- sparking opportunities for local organizations to make problem-solving highlights the many actions that people worldwide substantial investments in resources which then lead to enhanced take every day to build more sustainable cities. User-led projects economic and social vibrancy at the neighborhood level. Therefore, for social change are vital in creating confident, articulate residents by regenerating the social fabric at the (hyper-) local level, actors in who promote the development of a pluralistic and sustainable social economy- creative citizens in particular- effectively facilitate economy that supports and challenges cities to think about and invest in new approaches to social development. Leveraging social cooperation in innovative and inclusive ways. Through their their extensive networks of distributed enterprise, actors in the projects, creative people support the social economy and play a social economy blur the boundaries between production and fundamental role in creating networks of urban solidarity that, consumption, placing an emphasis on long-term durability and care particularly in the age of globalization, ensure our basic public rather than unnecessary consumption. services and civil rights are safeguarded. What emerges, then, is a community where the local and global Collaborative social design is not intended as a substitute for dimension are balanced and mediated by the city at large, and government intervention; it is another way to shed light on what where local resources and know-how are given wider legitimacy it is that government is currently doing — or not doing — for as meaningful problem-solving tools in the quest for urban and its citizenry. According to Peter Bradwell, author of Making the cultural sustainability. The examples of ‘creative community’ Most of Collaboration — An International Survey of Public Service projects included in this toolkit were selected precisely for their Co-Design, collaboration has increasingly been embraced by ability to open up creativity to all demographics and to infuse both policy-makers and practitioners in an effort to reinvigorate innovation into the everyday realm in ways that are more holistic public services burdened by increasing social complexity and a and inclusive. As a whole, they are a clear testament to the power perpetuating lack of resources. It is no coincidence, Bradwell argues, of community in addressing recurring needs and stimulating the that the most innovative and successful examples of co-design kind of creative thinking needed to tackle complex issues ranging have emerged from contexts where problems often appear to be from participatory citizenship to urban livability. intractable, where specialized thinking alone has proven not to be enough to address issues holistically and durably. Whereas Of course, collaboration is not free of frustrations; without a clear engagement often ends at the consultation level, co-design implies process of design and transparent intents, it can be hard, slow, and long-term involvement in the design and delivery of the service ineffective. Empowerment is clearly the goal of collaborative design, itself, allowing participants to have a say in the way questions and but participants need always be wary of whether institutions are projects are shaped. As a result, the end product typically better legitimately invested in sharing their power, or whether they are reflects customer needs, generates useful information, and creates using the participation rhetoric to absorb criticism. Collaboration is a feeling of involvement and ownership.i at its best when there is ‘optimal cognitive distance’ between actors 17
  17. 17. “Change is not driven by systems, but rather bypeople who find themselves trusted. Systems onlyhelp people innovate. The rest is just hard work.”Mette Abrahamsen, Team Manager, Danish Technological Institute — that is, when the distance between participants is large enough to yield novelty, but not so large to block mutual understanding and the ability to cooperate.ii This way, diversity becomes an opportunity to leverage the wide variety of skills, backgrounds, and perspectives present in any given group to reach important breakthroughs and co-create innovative solutions for society. When the conditions are conducive to collaboration, in fact, there is often greater diversification and tolerance in the way a project is carried out, so the dispersal of power can produce transformative shifts: from leading to enabling; from controlling to influencing; and from operating in isolation to working in partnership with / 11 52 others.iii 3 98 42 a/ wr s/ pn For projects to be successful, much ultimately depends on the pho to PNWR om/ immediate and broader context in which collaboration takes place. A • http://www.flickr.c Once under way, however, co-design frequently leads to a rich- get-richer effect where the more citizens do, the more they’ll want to take on. Collaboration, as it turns out, can be highly addictive, and the examples in the next chapter all seem to prove just that. i Benkler, Y. (2007) “Chapter 1: Beyond State and Market: Social Cooperation As a New Domain of Can Transform Public Services. Parker, S. and N. Gallagher, eds. London, UK: Demos, p. 189 Policy” in The Collaborative State: How Working Together Can Transform Public Services. Parker, S. and N. Gallagher, eds., London: UK: Demos Sennett, R. (2006) Housing and Urban Neighborhoods: The Open City. Berlin: Urban Age, p.4 ii Bradwell, P. and S. Marr. (2008) Making the Most of Collaboration: An International Survey of Public Service Co-design. Demos Report 23. London, UK: Demos, p. 10 Benkler, Y. (2007) “Chapter 1: Beyond State and Market: Social Cooperation As a New Domain of Policy” in The Collaborative State: How Working Together Can Transform Public Services. Parker, S. iii Khan et al. (2009) Breakthrough Cities: How Cities Can Mobilise Creativity and Knowledge to Tackle and N. Gallagher, eds. London, UK: Demos, p.36 Compelling Social Challenges. London: British Council/Young Foundation, p. 44 Abrahamsen, M. (2007) “Chapter 8: Twenty-First-Century Civil Servants: The Story of MindLab” in Quotes (in order of appearance) Unlocking Innovation: Why Citizens Hold the Key to Public Service Reform. Parker, S. and S. Parker, Bentley, T. (2007) “Chapter 16: Evolving the Future” in The Collaborative State: How Working Together eds. London, UK: Demos, p.124
  18. 18. The InnovationsSocial innovation thrives on the ideas and efforts As the categories suggest, these examples are diverseof social entrepreneurs and creative individuals and far-ranging, but they all focus- in one waywhose socially conscious work contributes to or another- on values such as collaboration,environmentalism in a variety of ways. The cases transparency, and participation. The purpose of thiscollected in this section are all examples of pioneering section is to stimulate the imagination and hopefullyactivities and services embodying a return to personal encourage you to learn more about these projectsand community-centred participation. Included here either online or offline.is a total of forty examples across six categories:place-making; eating and growing; resource-sharing; So be surprised by how walks have the power to makelearning and socializing; steering and organizing; and neighborhoods more vibrant, or find out how art canfinancing. They were selected based on the level of be used to convert dull city intersections into safecitizen involvement they offer, the degree of inter-actor community spaces. Learn how creative interventionscollaboration they encourage, the collaborative design can disrupt and open up spaces for reflection andof their governance structure, their scalability, and their participation, or witness how online resources can leadpotential for innovation. to offline collaboration, resource-sharing, and, at times, even getting free stuff. See how the values of the Web 2.0 translate into the birth of the open government and open data movement, or what a holistic approach to financing can bring to local communities and cities alike. This is what social innovation looks like in action. 19
  19. 19. Place-Making
  20. 20. PLACE-MAKING The InnovationsJane’s WalkGlobalStarted in 2007 to honor the legacy of urban activist JaneJacobs, Jane’s Walk is a Canadian innovation that bridgessocial and geographic gaps by bringing residents togetherthrough a series of free neighborhood walking tours. Theseevents explore a wide range of urban landscapes andcelebrate walkable neighbourhoods, urban literacy and theidea of people-centered cities. In 2010, walks took place in68 cities and included over 418 tours offered by volunteergroup leaders, sending a strong message that people wantand need opportunities to build community with thosewith whom space is shared.http://janeswalk.net/ 21
  21. 21. PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsCity RepairPortland, Oregon (USA)City Repair is an Oregon-based non-profit driven almostentirely by volunteers and known internationally forIntersection Repair, the citizen-led conversion of an urbanstreet intersection into a public square. Each IntersectionRepair project is the work of neighborhood residentswho join forces to turn anonymous intersections intoplaces where people feel safe and welcome. Operatingunder the assumption that localization - of culture, ofeconomy, of decision-making - is a necessary foundationof sustainability, citizens reclaim urban spaces to plant theseeds of greater neighborhood communication, communityempowerment, and cultural sustainability.http://cityrepair.org/
  22. 22. PLACE-MAKING The InnovationsTransition NetworkGlobalA Transition Initiative is a community-led response tothe pressures of climate change, fossil fuel depletionand economic recession. Working to address communityneeds while rebuilding resilience in the face of peak oiland climate change, initiatives linked to the network seekto reduce carbon emissions by raising awareness of theconcept of resilience; partnering with existing groups toconduct outreach efforts; self-organizing into thematicsub-groups that address key areas such as food andenergy; embarking on an EDAP (Energy Descent ActionPlan); and sharing successes and failures with otherTransition Initiatives across the world.http://www.transitionnetwork.org/ 23
  23. 23. PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsCittaslowGlobalCittaslow, also known as Slow Town, is agrowing international network of over 140 towns in 20countries that have adopted a set of common goals andprinciples to enhance quality of life for both for theirresidents and visitors. Inspired by the Slow Food movement,each Cittaslow town commits to working towards a set of50 goals that provide tangible benchmarks against whicha town can measure its progress. The aim of obtainingan affiliation with Cittaslow is to act as a mechanism forbringing locals together to work collectively for the good oftheir town, with results ranging from greater support forlocal businesses, to a stronger emphasis on local traditions,increased environmental protection, and enhancedparticipation in community life.http://cittaslow.net/
  24. 24. PLACE-MAKING The InnovationsNeglected SpacesLondon, UKNeglected Spaces is an innovative digital platform forsignaling underused spaces in London’s 32 differentneighborhoods. Anyone can nominate a neglected spaceand suggest activities to revitalize it. Spaces in the citycan be transformed through temporary events such assmall concerts, art installations, poetry readings, cookingclasses, and more. Born out of the MA program in Designat Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design in London,Neglected Spaces is currently part of an ongoing campaignto highlight the beauty of London’s urban environment andwill continue over time with city-wide workshops, events,and talks.http://www.neglectedspaces.com/ 25
  25. 25. PLACE-MAKINGThe InnovationsStorefront ResidenciesWindsor, Ontario (Canada)Broken City Lab is an artist-led interdisciplinary creativeresearch group that operates to re-imagine the potentialfor action in Windsor, Ontario. The lab attempts togenerate a new dialogue surrounding public participationand community engagement by focusing on the city asboth a research site and a workspace. SRSI is a project thatcalls on over 25 different actors ranging from artists torestauranteurs to occupy a space in downtown Windsor forup to one month in June and July 2010. The goal is to planan intervention in the everyday realities of skyrocketingvacancy rates, failing economic strategies, and a place inneed of new imagination.http://www.brokencitylab.org/srsi/
  26. 26. Eating & Growing
  27. 27. EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsNot Far From the TreeToronto, Ontario (Canada)Not Far From the Tree is a network of residents andlocal food enthusiasts who together help make the mostof the natural resources present in the city of Toronto,connecting fruit tree owners and volunteers through aresidential fruit-picking program designed to harvestsfruits that would otherwise go to waste. In 2008, over3000 pounds of local fruit was picked from a handful ofneighborhoods, while just a year later that number grewto over 8000 pounds, with fruit such as sweet cherries,apricots, pears, and apples collected and donated acrossthe city. At the end of the process, one third of all fruitgoes to tree owners, another third to volunteers, andthe remaining third is delivered by bike or cart to localorganizations in the neighborhood.http://www.notfarfromthetree.org/ Free Form Katia • http://www.flickr.com/photos/freeformkatia/4003232036/
  28. 28. EATING & GROWING The InnovationsThe Stop’s Green BarnToronto, Ontario (Canada)The Green Barn is a 10,000 square foot sustainable foodproduction and education centre that engages peopleto grow, eat, learn about, celebrate, and advocate forhealthy, local food. A satellite of Toronto’s The Stoporganization, the Green Barn facility includes a year-roundgreenhouse, a sheltered garden, a bake oven and compostdemonstration site, as well as a community kitchen andclassroom. Here, neighbours come together to shop at thelocal farmers’ market; schoolchildren learn about the valueof healthy food; visitors learn about gardening and cooking;and volunteers and community members pitch in to growhealthy, fresh food for low-income people.http://thestop.org/green-barn 29
  29. 29. EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsYum ShareU.K.YumShare is a dynamic web tool that helps users findorganic and specialty food via local clubs that interfacewith wholesalers and local producers directly. Each month,club leaders place group orders through Yum Share, thenmeet with the group to coordinate delivery efforts. Thisway, club members enjoy food produced by local growersand save money while supporting local businesses.http://yumshare.co.uk/ A. Roberts • http://www.flickr.com/photos/aroberts/4331821479/
  30. 30. EATING & GROWING The InnovationsWindowfarmsGlobalStarted by artists Britta Riley and Rebecca Bray, theWindowfarms project approaches environmentalinnovation through Web 2.0 crowd-sourcing and a methodcalled R&D-I-Y (research & develop it yourself). Manyneighbourhoods around the world (particularly low-income ones) are considered food deserts, meaning littlefresh food is easily accessible there. With Windowfarms,however, urbanites can now grow food from theirapartments or office windows by means of inexpensive,vertical, hydroponic vegetable gardens made from recycledmaterials. The first system alone produced 25 plants and asalad a week in mid-winter in a dimly lit 4x6 New York Citywindow and is now available for pre-sale online.http://www.windowfarms.org/ 31
  31. 31. EATING &GROWINGThe InnovationsPatch MatchLondon, U.K.Patch Match is a free service for people who live in or nearWestcombe Park in south east London. In the city, demandfor food-growing space is booming, with grow-your-ownundergoing a huge resurgence in popularity. Patch Matchconnects urban gardeners with residents who have anunderused patch of land, then lets the two parties cometo a shared agreement on the use of the space. Thisway, gardeners have a chance to grow food locally- thusreducing their overall food miles- and more room is openedup for growing food outside of municipal communitygardens.http://patchmatch.blogspot.com/ Flatbush Gardner • http://www.flickr.com/photos/flatbushgardener/2669248981/
  32. 32. EATING & GROWING The InnovationsReplateGlobalReplate.org is the brainchild of San Franciscans JoshKamler and Axel Albin, two designers who noticed thatpeople in West Coast cities were leaving their leftoverson top of (or next to) garbage cans when they couldn’tfind someone to give them to. As a result, they gave thisbehavior a name, created a website, and a logo, and startedadvocating packing up leftover restaurant food and leavingcontainers of it on top of sidewalk ash containers toshare with the hungry. Today, Replate has grown into aninternational movement and a practice for reducing foodwaste across neighborhoods and cities.www.replate.org 33
  33. 33. Resource Sharing
  34. 34. RESOURCE SHARING The InnovationsCenter for Social InnovationToronto, Ontario (Canada)The Centre for Social Innovation (CSI) is a social enterprisewith a mission to catalyze social innovation in its homebase of Toronto and around the globe. CSI’s sharedworkspace model offers office amenities to initiatives thatare typically under-resourced, increasing social capital andconnecting members with a powerful network of localchange makers. CSI is also home to hundreds of meetings,capacity-building workshops, information sessions, andcommunity events every year, typically hosting over 10,000people annually.http://socialinnovation.ca/ 35
  35. 35. RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsTool-Lending LibrariesBerkeley, CaliforniaA tool-lending library is a service that allows librarypatrons to borrow tools, equipment, and “how-to”instructional materials for a small fee or free of charge.One of the first tool libraries was started in Berkeley,California in 1979 with only $30,000 in community blockgrants. Today, Berkeley’s Tool Lending Library offersthousands of tools free of charge to registered residentsand property owners-enhancing use of local resources,lowering unnecessary consumption rates, and fostering asense of community among its patrons.http://tinyurl.com/55zrzl/
  36. 36. RESOURCE SHARING The InnovationsKollektivhus NUSwedenKollektivhus NU (Co-housing Now) is an associationworking to promote collaborative housing and otheralternative ways of living in Sweden. Started in 1981, theassociation supports existing co-housing units by raisingawareness on the benefits of co-housing and lobbyingauthorities to facilitate the creation of more sharedunits. Today, Kollektivhus NU has 32 out of Sweden’s40 co-housing units as full members, and three localorganizations working to raise awareness on the benefitsof shared community living.http://www.kollektivhus.nu/english/index_eng.html 37
  37. 37. RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsFreecycleGlobalThe Freecycle Network™ is a grassroots and entirelynonprofit movement that promotes worldwide giftingas a way to reduce waste, save resources, and ease theburden on landfills. Since its inception in 2003, Freecyclehas grown into a network of 4,810 groups with 7,245,000members across the globe. Users find their community byentering it into the site’s search engine, then begin offeringor receiving free goods in their towns via email. Each localgroup is moderated by a local volunteer and membershipis free.http://www.freecycle.org/
  38. 38. RESOURCE SHARING The InnovationsShare Some SugarU.S.A.Share Some Sugar is a Web 2.0 inventory of communitytools that is the equivalent of the old-fashioned knockon a neighbour’s door. Registered users can browsefor items to borrow or rent by neighbourhood, with thepossibility of registering their own street or building formore geographically specific search options. Users thensend in a request to borrow a neighbour’s item and if therequest is accepted by the lender, the two parties meetin person for the hand-off. Small deposits and contractsexist as options to ensure extra security in the transactionand, similar to eBay, users can leave feedback on theirneighbour’s profile so that others can learn more abouttheir sharing history prior to initiating a request with them.http://www.sharesomesugar.com/ 39
  39. 39. RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsBright NeighborU.S.A.Bright Neighbor combines community involvement withsocial tools that help local governments, communities,and businesses increase livability, sustainability, andrelocalization while simultaneously improving localeconomies. Users can map important resources in thecommunity, schedule private and public events there,start an inventory of skills and items available for hire orexchange, and more. The aim is to promote communitycohesiveness, maximize resource use, and lower thecarbon footprint of residents through an online hub thatfacilitates offline connections.http://www.brightneighbor.com/
  40. 40. RESOURCE SHARING The InnovationsWhere Does My Money Go?U.K.“Open knowledge” is any content, information, or data thatpeople are free to use, re-use and redistribute withoutlegal, technological, or social restrictions. Where Does MyMoney Go? aims to promote transparency and citizenengagement through the analysis and visualization ofinformation about UK public spending. A free, politicallyneutral, online tool to find out about where publicmoney in the UK is spent, the site is a program of theOpen Knowledge Foundation, a community-driven andvolunteer-led organization.http://www.wheredoesmymoneygo.org/ 41
  41. 41. RESOURCESHARINGThe InnovationsMaison des InitiativesEtudiantesParis, France.The Maison des initiatives étudiantes (MIE) is a multi-purpose facility that provides conference rooms, audio-visual equipment, shared office space, computers, archives,and an art gallery to student organizations based in Paris,France. Located in the heart of the city, resources areavailable free of charge to help students carry out sociallyconscious initiatives, ranging from international fairtrade projects, to arts-based anti-racism campaigns andsustainable development work. Known as a meeting place,an incubator, and an innovation hub, the MIE also offersa mentorship program to help students learn more aboutproject management and financial sustainability.www.mie.paris.fr
  42. 42. Learning & Socializing
  43. 43. LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsHuman LibraryGlobalThe Human Library is an innovative concept designedto promote dialogue, reduce prejudices, and encourageunderstanding in the form of a mobile space thatgives visitors the opportunity to speak informally with“people on loan,” a group widely varied in age, sex, andcultural background. The model enables groups to breakstereotypes by challenging the most common prejudicesin a positive and humorous manner. It is a concrete, easilytransferable, and affordable way of promoting toleranceand understanding that since its inception in Copenhagen,Denmark has spread to over 27 countries.http://humanlibrary.org
  44. 44. LEARNING & SOCIALIZING The InnovationsToronto Design NerdsToronto, Ontario (Canada)The Toronto Design Nerds is a group that was initiatedto foster multidisciplinary collaboration between creativepeople of all persuasions. Modeled after the VancouverDesign Nerds, the concept is to organize public ‘ideapotlucks’ that create and nurture a network of creativepeople who meet to discuss projects and ideas forsustainability and innovation. Diversity in the groupenriches the design process and propels discussion farbeyond the prescribed parameters of a project, revealingopportunities and unanticipated, often surprising results.http://torontodesignnerds.wikispaces.com/ 45
  45. 45. LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsSpiritus MundiMalmö, SwedenSpiritus Mundi is an intercultural dialogue organizationworking in the fields of youth empowerment and culturaldiplomacy. Through its arts-based, video, and musicprograms ,the organization creates unique meeting spacesthat facilitate cross-cultural communication and bridgesocial, cultural, and geographic gaps in the city of Malmo,one of Sweden’s most multicultural urban centers. Itspedagogical models are used as a reference by othercities and countries looking to create programs that tieculture, education, and economics together and havecontributed to raising awareness of the benefits of cultureand dialogue provide in creating peaceful and inclusivecommunities.http://www.spiritusmundi.nu
  46. 46. LEARNING & SOCIALIZING The InnovationsDrommarnas HusMalmö, SwedenDrommarnas Hus (House of Dreams) is a holisticorganization working for community change. Theorganization’s art studios, youth courses, workshops, andcity-wide partnership with educators and pedagoguesacross the city make Drommarnas Hus a centre foreducation and innovation for the empowerment ofmarginalized/at-risk youth. Located in Rosengard, thecommunity it services is one of the most underprivilegedin the country, populated mostly by immigrant familieswhere kids face the double burden of having to integrateinto society while acting as interpreters/cultural mediatorsfor their parents.http://www.drommarnashus.se/ 47
  47. 47. LEARNING &SOCIALIZINGThe InnovationsLaundromat CaféCopenhagen, DenmarkThe Laundromat Café is part of what are called “fusioncafes,” spaces that provide a secondary service (in thiscase, laundry) to turn typically mundane tasks into moresocial activities. Here, individuals in the communitymaximize the use of their time and make connectionswith others instead of being isolated while waiting forthe washer to finish the spin cycle. Young artists exhibittheir artwork in the space, café staff cook homemademeals, patrons can borrow from over 4000 books for free,and chess, backgammon, and free WiFi are offered toencourage socialization and community-building.http://thelaundromatcafe.com/
  48. 48. LEARNING & SOCIALIZING The InnovationsSchool of EverythingGlobalSchool of Everything is a web platform that helps userslearn new skills by facilitating a connection betweenstudents and teachers. A database of teachers andlessons allows users to find relevant support anywhere inthe world, either in the form of paid lessons or by the formof a free knowledge exchange that happens locally directlybetween interested parties.http://schoolofeverything.com/ Tentenuk • http://www.flickr.com/photos/tentenuk/4417934993/ 49
  49. 49. Steering & Organizing
  50. 50. STEERING & ORGANIZING The InnovationsChange CampCanadaChangeCamp is an event, an open community, and a set oftools and ideas designed to give citizens and governmentsthe ability to work collaboratively in ways that addressreal-world challenges in local communities. A ChangeCampevent is a creative face-to-face gathering that is citizen-led, non-partisan, and social web-enabled. The program isfocused on two goals: helping governments become moreopen, transparent, participatory, innovative, efficient, andeffective; and helping citizens become more connected toeach other around their civic passions in the place they callhome.http://changecamp.ca/ 51
  51. 51. STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsRaging GranniesGlobalRaging Grannies is an activist organization born in Victoria,British Columbia, over the winter of 1986-87. Membersof the group are women who mock stereotypes of olderwomen by dressing up in old-fashioned grandmotherclothes and singing songs at protests and communitygatherings. Lyrics are typically written by membersthemselves, putting their political messages to thetunes of well known songs. The Raging Grannies, nowan international movement, advocate for social justice ina humorous manner. Their activism includes peace andenvironmental causes.http://raginggrannies.org/
  52. 52. STEERING & ORGANIZING The InnovationsRebootCopenhagen, DenmarkReboot is a two-day participatory conference for youngactivists and creative types looking to act for a moresustainable world using technology, creativity, design,and whatever else comes to mind. It is a participatoryconference where everyone has the chance to proposeand run a workshop, lecture, or seminar. Started in 1998with a Danish focus, the event is now a truly Europeanphenomenon, with 400 participants attending from over22 countries each year. During the conference, everythingexcept the keynotes is open to change and the scheduleis constantly evolving, allowing users to follow the flow ofthe event through a website that also doubles as a socialnetwork and online community.http://reboot.dk/english/index_eng.html 53
  53. 53. STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsMindLabCopenhagen, DenmarkMindLab was established in 2002 as an in-house growthfacility for innovation at the Ministry of Economic andBusiness Affairs in Denmark. Now working with twoadditional ministries, MindLab’s strategy is to act as anin-between body creating neutral spaces in which radicalinnovation can take place in. MindLab’s main function is tofacilitate the meeting of different cultures in the ministries,and to encourage civil servants to use their creativecompetencies in the development of policy initiatives thatmeet the needs of citizens or businesses in participatory,and co-designed ways.http://mind-lab.dk/en
  54. 54. STEERING & ORGANIZING The InnovationsWIMPSBelfast, Northern IrelandWIMPS stands for “Where Is My Public Servant?” andis a web platform and project run by youth for youth.The platform’s main feature is a database of publicrepresentatives that serve at the local council or EuropeanParliament level. Youth across Northern Ireland use thedatabase to connect with their representatives and accessadvice on how to take action on community issues thataffect them, while WIMPS volunteers update the site ona daily basis with information on social change issues ofinterest to young people.http://www.wimps.tv Labour Youth • http://www.flickr.com/photos/labouryouth/3831035620/ 55
  55. 55. STEERING &ORGANIZINGThe InnovationsToronto Cyclists UnionToronto, Ontario (Canada)The Toronto Cyclists Union is a membership-basedorganization that works alongside citizens, communitygroups, bike shops, and the City towards the commongoals of ensuring that cycling remains a legitimate,accessible, and safe means of transportation for allTorontonians. In particular, the organization encouragesnewcomers to learn about cycling via the uniqueNewcomer Cycling Outreach program, a partnership withOntario’s CultureLink Settlement Services. The projectpromotes the integration of newcomers in the GreaterToronto Area by fostering cycling transportation as anaffordable, healthy, and convenient option-- and connectsnewcomers to the wider cycling community in the city.http://bikeunion.to/ Swanksalot • http://www.flickr.com/photos/swanksalot/2926199438/
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