Year programing 2011 5º de primaria
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Year programing 2011 5º de primaria



It is a plannig for Primary Education in Navarra, Spain.

It is a plannig for Primary Education in Navarra, Spain.



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Year programing 2011 5º de primaria Year programing 2011 5º de primaria Document Transcript

  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolINDEX1. JUSTIFICATION AND CONTEXTUALISATION......................................................1 1.2. CONTEXTUALISATION…………………………………………………………………….. 4 1.2.1. ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF SCHOOL. ………………………………………….. 4 1.2.2. HUMAN RESOURCES. ………………………………………………………………………… 5 1.2.3. PARENTS PARTICIPATION AND INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS. ……………………….. 62. ANNULA PROGRAMMING CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASICSCOMPETENCES. ………………………………………………………………………….… 63. GENERAL OBJETIVES IN THE AREA OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE. ……………. 94. CONTENTS FOR THE 3rd CYCLE. …………………………………………………. 105. METHODOLOGY. ……………………………………………………………………… 17 5.1. ITC (INTEGRATE TREATMENT OF LANGUAGE)……………………………………… 18 5.2. ETC. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 5.3. DIDACTIC SEQUENCE. …………………………………………………………………… 18 5.4. CLASSROOM ARRANGEMENT. ………………………………………………………….19 5.5. STUDENTS GROUPING. ………………………………………………………………… . 20 5.6. TIME ORGANISATION. ……………………………………………………………………. 21 5.7. THE ROLE OF THE LEARNER. ………………………………………………………….. 21 5.8. THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER. ………………………………………………………….. 22 5.9. MATERIALS AND DIDACTIC RESOURCES. ……………………………………………226. ASSESSMENT. …………………………………………………………………………23 6.1. INICIAL ASSESSMENT. …………………………………………………………………...24 6.2. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT. ……………………………………………………………..24 6.2.1. META- EVALUATION. ……………………………………………………………………25 6.3. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT. …………………………………………………………….25 6.4. INSTRUMENTS OF EVALUATIONS. …………………………………………………… 25 6.5. EVALUATION CRITERIA. ………………………………………………………………….26 6.6. ASSESSMENT CONSEQUENCES. …………………………………………………..… 277. ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY. ………………………………………………………...28 7.1. ATTENTION TO STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL NEEDS. …… ……..29 7.2. DIVERSITY TREATAMENT. …………………………… …………………………….298. EDUCATION ON VALUES. ………………… ………………………………………..309. DIDACTIC UNITS. ………………… …………………………………………………..3410. BIBLIOGRAPHY. …………… ………………………………………………………...35 1
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School1. – JUSTIFICATION AND CONTEXTUALISATION.This Syllabus is planned for whole School year (annual term) for the stage of PrimaryEducation, in the area as English as a Foreign Language. It is centred on students of 3rdCycle, and focused on 5th grade. It follows an inductive perspective since it is elaboratedfrom theatrical aspects by using the instruments and techniques that are explained asfollows. On the one hand, it is developed in accordance to the general objectives,curriculum contents and evaluation criteria presented in the Foral Decree 24/2007.This Syllabus is adapted to the special characteristics of a particular social and culturalenvironment. In relation to this, it responds to the students’ educational necessities, whichinclude attention to diversity of which there is clear evidence in our schools nowadays.Taking into account that not all students learn alike and neither at the same pace or somehave skills that others lock, this Syllabus includes reinforcement and widening activitiesthat will be appropriate at specific moments, depending on the needs that our studentsshow during their learning processes. It attends to the differences of learning styles: oral,visual, movement. The use of a wide variety of activities and attractive materials willcapture and maintain children’s interest.The Syllabus developed here considers of primary importance some principles thatguarantee a successful educational process. First: Constructivism. We bear in mind thatlearning takes place when new knowledge is integrated into previous knowledgeschemes. Consequently, through the elements of this Syllabus we will facilitate the meansfor our students to establish significant relations between the new knowledge andprevious experiences.Secondly, the present Syllabus deals with aspects of reality that connects with students’interests and needs, taking into account their own way of conceiving the world. Becauseof this, our students will show a greater management of the new contents since they seemmore attractive and motivating.Next, in the Stage of Primary Education, regarding the organisation of School contents, itis essential to point out the principle of globalisation. 2
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolLearning must be organised focusing our attention on the characteristics of the waychildren think. And this idea should rule the approaching to knowledge from a scientificperspective at the same time he/she learns through discovering and imitation. Along thisSyllabus the ideas presented above are aimed to favour integrated and global leaningprocesses on our students. The procedure to achieve this is to include cross curricularconnections (interdisciplinary content) from the area of English to approach the otherareas of the curriculum. This will be carried throughout our didactic unit by means of tasksand projects which also deal with other social requirement (Education in values) such as:civic and moral education, health education, education for peace, attention toenvironment, education for the equality of fenders, consumer education, newtechnologies…The main objective for this project is that our students acquire communicative competencein English. Therefore, this Syllabus is based on the Communicative Approach: anapproach that requires the use of English as a vehicle of communication in the classroom.In order to achieve the objective mentioned above some guidelines are followed by thisapproach. For instance, the centre of our planning is the activities where objectives,contents and evaluation are integrated.In fact, the didactic units included our Syllabus are structured under a task basedapproach in which a final task in each unit is what gives logic to the performance of theentire unit.It is also important to mention that the skills of comprehension and production, both oraland written will be worked out in an integrated way. Moreover, these skills will bedeveloped in contexts that are presented with authentic activities and with the use ofauthentic material so the situations and the intentions of communication are real. Inrelation to the context where children are learning the language, errors occur as somethingnatural. In this case teachers have to deal with students’ errors as a process toimprovement and not a process of failure.Motivation is an important aspect pointed out through this Syllabus. Motivation needs to bearisen from an active participation of children who are guided to the reflection of their ownprogress. Their contact whit the foreign language by means of activities will createsignificant experiences. 3
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolThe justification of this Syllabus keeps relation with characteristics of the school socialcontext and the school identity in which it is developed. Therefore, it is important to provideenough and meaningful information so as to contextualize our educational intervention.Legal frame:These are the Legislative sources I have taken into account when planning this annualprogramming:• The Organic Law of Education (L.O.E) 2 / 2006, 3rd May 2006.• Real Decree 1513/2006 Minimum contents• Official Curriculum, that is, Foral Decree 24/2007 of 19th March (which gives special attention to CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning, Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and The European Language Portfolio (ELP).• Foral Order 93/2008, 13th June, from the Counsellor of Education by which the attention to diversity in Infant and Primary Schools is regulated.• Foral Order 216/2007, 18th December, from the Counsellor of Education, by which the Evaluation and Promotion of students in Primary Education are regulated.1.2. – CONTEXTUALISATION.The school is located in a town with an approximate population of 4.600 inhabitants in thesouth of our Foral Community. It is situated in an active farming and canning industry area.Therefore, the social background of students is that of middle-class and high mediumeconomic level.We have many foreign students too so we must adapt our teaching process to theirlearning process. We have Moroccan, Chinese and South American students in the class.1.2.1. - ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE SCHOOLThe School consists of a single building for the Primary Education and it stage isconnected with the Nursery units on the first floor. There are two models of language,model G (subjects within Basque Language) and model A (Basque Language as asubject in the curriculum). 4
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolThe spaces available are the following: Gym with theatre and athletic facilities with restrooms. Front playground and restrooms. Back playground with sports area. Computer room. Library and audiovisual room. Entrance and hall (used in different celebrations) Restrooms Upstairs and downstairs.Apart from this, there are different departments. They are useful to organise materialresources for teachers and students. The 3rd Cycle department is also used asreinforcement to give further space and it is provided with a computer and a blackboard.There are, however, concerns as to the excess of heat in the classroom: they are orientedforcing south to gain better light and hest; in this perspective, the oil heaters in the corridorusually provide too much heat.1.2.2. - HUMAN RESOURCES.Regarding the staff, the teachers’ board is composed by those assigned: - NURSERY EDUCATION - FOREING LANGUAGE: ENGLISH - BASQUE LANGUAGE - PHYSICAL EDUCATION - MUSICAL AND ARTISTIC EDUCATION - PRIMARY EDUCATION - ITYNERARANT TEACHER (SPECIAL EDUCATION, LISTENING AND LANGUAGE) FREE DISPOSITION (ACADEMIC REINFORCEMENT) - SOCIAL EDUCATIONAdministrative and service staff: administration activities are carried out by a SchoolMonitor who also helps out with the Secretary functions.The School counts with a janitor who depends on the Town Hall and occupies a schoolespecially adequate. Cleaning and security service are also competence of the Town Hall. 5
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School1.2.3. - PARENTS PARTICIPATION AND INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS.There is an optimal Parents collaboration in the school project and they are represented inthe School Council (APYMA in Spain). They maintain a good relation with the School.However, their worries should be increased in relation to their children learning process.Parents are always welcome to observe or participate in their child’s educational process.On the other hand, meeting with parents are frequently organised in order to inform themabout our teaching work and children educational respond.It is important to mention the Town Hall participation together with the PA (ParentsAssociation) and Teachers’ Board. This is canalised not only through the School Councilbut also by means of meetings programmed in the School Annual Plan.The services that the school offers are: Canteen services. School transport. Extracurricular activities: English, Computer skills, karate…2. –CONTRIBUTION ANNUAL PROGRAMMING TO THE EVELOPMENTOF BASIC COMPETENCES.Competences are defined here as a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudesappropriate to the class context. Many of the competences overlap and interlock: aspectsessential to one domain will support competence in another.Competence in the fundamental basic skills of language, literacy, innumeracy and ICT isan essential foundation for learning, and learning to learn supports all learning activities.There are a number of themes that are applied throughout the framework: critical thinking,creativity, initiative taking, problem solving, risk assessment, decision making, all of themaim to develop constructive learning and are connected with each other. 6
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolAccording Foral Decree 24/ 2007 Annex I, under the proposal by the European Union, thebasic competences must be reflected in our planning:1. - Linguistic competence.2. - Math competence.3. - Knowledge of the physical environment.4. - Treatment of digital information competence.5. - Social and civic competence.6. - Cultural and artistic competence.7. - Learn to learn.8. - Authonomy.But in Navarra in "Plan to improve basic competences of students in Primary Education”has established as priority items:1. - Linguistic competence.2. - Math competence.3. - Knowledge of the physical environment.4. - Treatment of digital information competence.5. - Education in values. PROPOSAL COMPETENCE IN COMPETENCE IN LOE AND FORAL NAVARRA DECREE 24/ 2007 1. - Linguistic competence. 1. - Linguistic competence. 2. - Math competence. 2. - Math competence. 3. - Knowledge of the physical 3. -Knowledge of the physical environment. environment. 4. -Treatment of digital information 4. -Treatment of digital information competence. competence. 5.- Education in values 5. - Social and civic competence. 6. - Cultural and artistic competence. 7. - Learn to learn. 8. - Authonomy. 7
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolThe design of the curriculum in this area, placing emphasis on the social use of languagein different communicative contexts, makes clear its direct contribution to the developmentof all aspects that make up the linguistic communicative competence.It should also be noted that the strategies for communicative competence are acquiredfrom a specific language, but do not relate solely to know how to use this language, butthe use of language in general.Access to knowledge and knowledge construction through language is directly related tobasic skills of learning to learn, and the autonomy and personal initiative. The language,as a communication tool, is a means of representing the world and is the basis of thoughtand knowledge, to communicate with one self, analyse problems, develop plans andinitiate decision making processes. In short, it regulates and guides our own activity withincreasing autonomy.The processing of information and digital literacy, is the area which contributes in that itprovides knowledge and skills for searching, sorting, processing of information andcommunication, in particular, to understand information in its structure and textorganization, and for use in oral and written production.Language contributes greatly to the development of social and civic competence,understood as skills and abilities for coexistence, respect and understanding amongpeople, since its acquisition necessarily requires the use of language as a basis forcommunication. Learning language is, above all, learning to communicate with others, tounderstand what they convey, to make contact with different realities and take on theirown expression as a fundamental mode of openness to others.Moreover, language education as a value satisfying all languages as equally capable ofperforming the functions of communication and representation, discusses the ways bywhich the language conveys and sanctions prejudices and stereotyped images of theworld, with a view contribute to the eradication of discriminatory use of language is,increases to the development of this competence.In addition to recognizing the language itself as a leading cultural, in the area of reading,understanding and appreciation of literary works contribute to the development of culturaland artistic competence. 8
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School3. – GENERAL OBJETIVES IN THE AREA OF FOREING LANGUAGE.According Foral Degree 24/2007, 19th March, the teaching of the English language at thisstage will have, as an objective, the development of the basic communicative competencethat involves/includes the following capacities:1. - Listen and understand messages in a variety of interactions, in standard languageusing the language transmitted by those texts in order to carry out specific and diversetasks related to experience.2. - Express and interact orally in simple and day to day situations which contain familiarcontent and development, using verbal and non-verbal procedures and adopting arespectful and cooperative attitude: express likes, desires, opinions, feelings, or simpleinformation on the topic.3. - Read a variety of texts comprehensively and adequately, extracting general andspecific information according to its purpose. Read as a value for acquiring of information.4. - Write a variety of texts with different aims previously elaborated in class with the helpof models.5. - Acquire the precise vocabulary in order to obtain proper expressions, by using thedictionary, additional techniques, and the library as a basic resource.6. - Identify phonetic aspects, rhythm, accentuation, and intonation, as well as linguisticstructures and lexical aspects of the foreign language and use them as elements for basiccommunication.7. - Understand and deal with the socio-cultural dimension.8. - Learn to use, with progressive autonomy, every means available, including newtechnologies to obtain information and to communicate in the foreign language. 9
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School9. - Value language as a means of communication and understanding among people fromdifferent backgrounds and diverse cultures.10. - Manifest an attitude which is receptive, shows interest and self-confidence, in theability of learning and using the language.11. - Use the knowledge and previous experience gained with other languages for a moreeffective, rapid, and autonomous acquisition of the language.12. - Acquire practical skills and abilities in order to learn, and transfer knowledge andcommunication strategies to other languages. Use this language progressively as ameans of learning the contents in the areas.4. - CONTENTS FOR THE 3rd CYCLE.BLOCK 1. LISTENING AND COMPREHENDING, SPEAKING AND CONVERSING.The comprehension, speaking and conversation, is knowledge included in thephonological system, essential for articulate comprehension and oral expression.Students learn to use the oral language through basic tasks: talking about themselves,having others pay attention to and understand them, solving problems, giving and askingfor information that they need… both within the school context, as well as within the socialcontext. Given their possibilities, students must be able to give a description, anexplanation, relate information, give reasons, ideas, predict, ask for something, andexpress an opinion. The texts that appear in bold type are what students should know howto produce. The rest would be, above all, receptive. • They begin to listening and comprehending of oral messages with gradual complexity, such as instructions or explanations, directed oral interactions or audiovisual and computer recordings, in order to obtain global and specific information. • They have an oral interaction in real or simulated situations, with progressive autonomy, efficiency and complexity of expressions used. 10
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School • The production of oral texts with gradual autonomy, efficiency and complexity based on previously known models and linguistic structures and they begin to showing interest in oral expression in individual and group activities. • The development of basic strategies in order to aid in comprehension and oral expression: the use of visual and non-verbal contexts and the previous knowledge on the topic or situation, transferred from their own languages to this language. • Show interest in expressing oneself orally, individually or in group activities (songs, dramatizations, working as a team, etc.) with gradual autonomy. • They are prepared to overcome the difficulties that usually emerge in communication because of an imperfect mastery, using the communicative strategies of their own languages.Texts:From the ones mentioned in the previous stage principally: poems, dialogues. Payingspecial attention to: 1. Narrative texts (chronological order, progression of content): tales, news, accounts, experiences. 2. Explanatory texts (contents of other subjects) 3. Listening and comprehending. Skills and strategies: 4. Pull out the general meaning and the relevant information for a task. 5. Grasp the specific information of oral texts in order to be carry out the in-class activities, by understanding the ideas expressed characteristic of communicative situations: number, type of addresser and addressee, moment and place of communication), as well as the communicative purpose (informative, connotative, humoristic…) 6. The application of the main strategies for comprehension: prediction, anticipation, inference. 11
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolThey begin to have an oral expression and interaction. Skills and strategies: 1. Maintaining conversations, about every day, familiar topics or those frequently reviewed in class. 2. Inventing dialogues under established guidelines 3. Expressing: certainty, possibility. Facts, opinions. 4. Agree, disagree. Allow, forbid, and give orders… 5. Express, in past/future tense. 6. Give reasons, explain. 7. Carry out simple descriptions (of persons, animals, objects and places). Short presentations of knowledge. 8. Relate stories and events with visual and verbal supports, following the models, previously done in class. 9. Interview classmates about their likes and hobbies with the help of guidelines.BLOCK 2. READING AND WRITING.The acquisition of the necessary reading skills, decoding of a text and functional reading,are carried out in the first cycle if they are done in coordination with the previous stage. Inthe following cycles, knowledge and skills that allow for progressive mastery ofcomprehension of the written language (location of specific information, inferences,interpretations, assessment of narratives and explanatory texts) are developed andacquired. It is very important to encourage a love for reading as source of enjoyment andlearning.The complexity of the written expression requires a close connection between the worksdone in oral skills with their native language. This reinforces and internalizes learning.Based on a description and sentence mastery, students are able to create short texts(explanations, narrations) and acquire the basic procedures to gain coherence, cohesion,adequacy and richness in their texts. The knowledge included in Block 4 is especiallynecessary in order to reach the desired maturity for written expression, in the case that theaims are for practical application. The texts that appear in bold are what the studentsshould know how to do. The rest would be, above all, receptive. 12
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School • Reading and comprehension of different types of texts, adapted to the students´ linguistic competence, in order to use global and specific information, in the development of a task or to enjoy reading. • Gradual autonomy of reading strategies: use of visual contextual elements and previous knowledge related to the topic or situation, transferred from their own languages, identifying the most important information, finding the meaning of unknown words and expressions, using dictionaries. • Value reading. Read texts, suitable to their abilities and interests, for the joy of reading. • Reading and writing of typical texts related to daily situations within a social context, mass media and texts for learning and finding out information. • Composition of typical texts of different communicative situations, progressively more extensive and richer in lexis and structures, in order to transmit and share information, within a variety of communicative intentions. • Use of basic strategies to write texts (select addressee, purpose, planning, write a draft, revise the text and final revision) based on models. • Use information and communication technologies in order to write texts and prepare presentations, and transmit information. • Show interest in caring for and presenting written texts, and value its role in satisfying communicative needs. • Value the second language as tool for communication and learning.- Texts:From the ones mentioned in the previous stage principally: poems, dialogues. Payingspecial attention to: 1. Narrative texts (chronological order, progression of content): tales, news, accounts, experiences, letters. 2. Explanatory texts (contents of other subjects) 3. Skills and strategies: 4. Read texts that are done in class, read out loud, with appropriate fluency, pronunciation and intonation. 5. Read to learn (comprehensive learning) 6. Grasp the meaning of significant written texts, by identifying specific information, with the help of dictionary. 13
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School 7. Use reading strategies transferred from their own languages, such as with the use of contextual visual elements, ( interpret illustrations in order to form hypothesis about the topic, verify or refute these hypothesis…) of the previous knowledge on the topic or situation 8. To carry out complete and suitable summaries of the read texts. 9. Written expression. Strategies and skills: 10. Use the basic strategies for the writing of texts, based on structured models. 11. Plan the writing of a text: ideas, necessary vocabulary, required structures, and the ordering of ideas. Choose the addressee, purpose. Write the draft. Use elements which give cohesion to the text (linkers, verb tense, suitable basic punctuation, etc) 12. Review the text and revision of the final version. 13. Be concerned about the presentation and legibility 14. Understand and use the basic elements of narrative, descriptive, instructive and explanatory texts. 15. Correct texts before final revision, ensuring coherence, appropriateness, whether it can be improved with changes in expression or vocabulary (references), orthography, basic signs of punctuation.BLOCK 3. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGEStudent language acquisition continues by promoting language use which builds into agreater dominium over their possibilities, which enhances reflexive thought, throughprogressive analysis, observation activities, and control over their output. This favours theconceptualization and successful acquisition of linguistic knowledge and basicterminology. From a perspective aimed at improving communicative competence, reflexiveattitudes towards grammatical considerations are justified within this age group.They begin to have careful pronunciation, suitable rhythm, intonation and stress, bothwithin interactions and oral expression, as in the case of reciting, using dramatization orreading out loud. • Spelling, pronunciation and meaning, from written models of known oral expressions, the establishment of safe analytical spelling-sound relationships, and the understanding of certain relevant irregularities. • Recognise and reproduce the stress of polysyllabic words. • Differentiate the endings of past tenses ending in –ed /d/, /t/, /id/ (phoned; cooked; landed). 14
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School • Distinguish rhymes, similarities (homophones: our/hour), and contrasts of sounds in initial, medium and final position. • Identify the silent letters of frequently used words: know, knee, hour, lamb, palm, comb… • Understanding of the use and functions of certain basic forms and structures of the foreign language, previously used by students.Poetic language: repetitions, metaphors, rhyme, to address the reader.Direct styleMaintain coherence of verb tenses (present, past and future) in oral and writtenproduction. 1. Rewriting of statements expressing actions in different tenses. 2. Use complement pronouns. 3. Combine orations in order to form others. The discovery of basic linguistic resources to ensure cohesion. Detect mistakes regarding coherence, cohesion and appropriateness. 4. Use dictionaries in order to comprehend different meanings of unknown words which appear in a text. Select, from the given definitions in the dictionary, the most suitable meaning for the context. 5. Show interest in using the language correctly in a variety of situations, taking both correction and progressive expansion and adequacy of expression into account.BLOCK 4. SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS AND INTERCULTURAL CONSCIENCENESSTexts done in class have a multitude of implicit socio-cultural elements which determinethe meaning of the text, as well as reflect on other ways of seeing, understanding andappreciating life, societies and cultures. Students will become aware of the differencesand similarities, comprehend them, as well as respect and appreciate them. The ease withwhich communication is facilitated today allows for more frequent and varied contact withother language speakers. Through communication, certain cultural criteria are essential.More and more, our society requires a higher regard for intercultural considerations andmulticulturalism. • Value language as tool for communication and interacting with mates from other countries, as a means of accessing new information, as a tool for understanding cultures, as well as different and enriching ways of life. 15
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School • Valuing their own culture through understanding and valuing other cultures. • Knowledge of daily customs and social relationships of those countries where the foreign language is spoken. • Show a receptive positive attitude towards people who speak another language and have a different culture. • Show interest in establishing contact and communicating with foreign language speakers through communication technologies. • Learn about certain cultural elements of the communities of foreign language speakers: geography, history, art…BLOCK 5. REFLECTING ON THE LANGUAGE LEARNINGStudents should be able to develop an effective personal style for learning and working,which allows them to constantly improve their comprehension and expression strategies.The aim is for students to be more conscious of how and when they learn more and workmore efficiently. Evidently, the reflection, discussion, exemplification, etc, of how to workand learn have to be developed in close connection with the tasks and activitiesmentioned in the other content blocks. • Comparing and reflecting on the workings of the foreign language in relation to their own languages. • Use of skills and procedures, such as repetition, memorization, word association and expressions related to gestures and visual elements, text observation, reading models, and using the media, to acquire new lexis, forms and language structures. • Learning awareness and gradual autonomy. • Reflecting on their own learning, organizing their work, acceptance of errors as a part of the learning process, self-correction and self-evaluation. • Progressive utilization of consulting and attaining information, and the possibilities which the new technologies offer. • Have confidence in their self capacity to learn languages and value working cooperatively. • Value the language as learning tool, organize oneself and as a means of transmitting knowledge. • Use the Internet as an information source and begin using electronic mail. • Make progress and internalize strategies for successful team-work. 16
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School5. METHODOLOGY.To achieve the goal which is proposed for English language learning at Primary level,which is to gain Communicative Competence, we have decided to focus our methodologymainly on the Communicative Approach, without leaving other techniques and methodsbehind at certain moments of the learning-teaching process.Therefore the methodology we are going to apply will be flexible, choosing any resource,strategy or task that can be considered valuable for the learning-teaching process. Thesestrategies will be selected according to the objectives the teacher wants pupils to reachand the interests and needs of the pupils.The methodological principles we are going to follow are: • Start from the knowledge the students have already acquired. At the beginning of the course we will make an initial assessment. This knowledge will be applied to a number of increasingly complicated situations but at the same time facilitated by contextual support. • Assure that meaningful learning is constructed. This will happen when the students are motivated, new knowledge is connected to previous knowledge and when language items studied can be related to the previous knowledge of the students. Error will be considered an integral part of the learning-process, as it shows us that the student is reorganising the new information with the one that she/he had before. • The four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) will be integrated from the beginning. • Autonomous learning takes place when students learn to learn. Therefore it is necessary for them to memorise meaningfully. • Difficulty of the tasks. The tasks the students are asked to fulfil must neither be too easy nor too difficult because then the pupils will not be able to apply their newly acquired knowledge. • Provide interaction. In order to acquire meaningful learning is convenient to provide interaction between the student and the teacher and among the students themselves. • Communication strategies which compensate for language deficiencies should be developed. 17
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School5.1. – ITC (INTEGRATE TREATMENT OF LANGUAGE)Besides all the aspects mentioned up to now we must keep in mind that our approachmust be global. Coordination with other teachers is very important. And the teaching-learning of all the languages from the curriculum will be coordinated and integrated to getthe most out of it. Many of the skills that we have in our own native language aretransferable to a foreign language. Therefore, we have decided the best approach is towork the new concepts in the student’s mother tongue and when we work the sameconcepts in the foreign language they can refer to the skills they have already learnt andat the same time reinforce them.5.2. - ETC (ENGLISH THROUGH CONTENTS)This programme is related with other areas of learning at primary education such as socialscience and geography, including new technologies and multi media.It is also vital to have a special coordination with the tutor regarding the running of theclass and the contents in other areas that are going to be taught in English. Thosecontents can in some cases serve as a starting point for a subject, complement thesubject in others, and some other times strengthen a part of the studied content, in such away that they are never a repetition of activities.5.3. - DIDACTIC SEQUENCEThe criteria we will follow when sequencing activities will be the following:• Students´ previous knowledge will be the starting point for the new contents.• Procedural contents will be central points when organising the activities because contents and attitudes can be learnt through the procedures development.• Attitudinal contents have an important influence in the learning process.• It would be good to treat abstract, conceptual contents in a contextualized way in order to acquire them better. At the same time, we will go from easy to more complicated contents.• The four linguistic skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) will be integrated in each lesson. 18
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School5.4. - CLASSROOM ARRANGEMENTWe will organise our classroom with the aim to create an organised and motivatingatmosphere which will favour communication.Desks will be organised in U-shape and the teacher will be at the front of the U. This kindof organisation facilitates interaction among students and is a good way to present newmaterial. It is also very useful for group work and discussion.The blackboard, one of the most used resources, will be located in front of the U. Thespace inside the U can be used when we work on activities that require movement suchas games, dramatisations, role-plays etc.In our classroom there will be an English corner where some of the material is kept(DVDs, videos, CDs, games, etc) and a classroom library.We will use one of the walls to display student’s wall charts, posters, pictures and othermaterials that can be motivating for our pupils.Students´ location will be organised according to the different situations that will ariseduring the course such as the relationship among them, contents, learning pace, etc.However, we will always try to sit weaker pupils near us or near those students with abetter English level. These students will help the others to achieve the objectives,motivating them and creating a good atmosphere in the classroom.Although this kind of organisation will be the main one, we will also organise space andstudents in relation to the type of activity to be developed by our pupils. Among thedifferent kinds of organisation that we will use we can point out the following:• Class in circle: the teacher as an equal in the group. Facilitates peer communication in a whole class discussion activity. Provides an informal setting for feedback on an activity or task.• Class in rows: the teacher sits in front of the class and it is very useful for formal testing. 19
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School• Class in horseshoe-shape: desks are against the wall. Makes it easy to attract all the children’s attention easily. Facilitates a wide range of communicative activities and demonstration of new visual aids such as flashcards.5.5. - STUDENTS GROUPINGSStudents’ groupings will change depending on the type of activity we are going to carryout.• Lockstep: all the students are working with the teacher, working at the same activity, rhythm and pace. Pupils work as one group and the teacher as controller and advisor. This grouping can be used with a lot of activities.• Pair work: students work in pairs with a great variety of chores including writing and reading, for question and answer practice, information gap exercises, etc. Pair work is a good idea because it increases the amount of student practice and it also encourages students´ cooperation, which is an important factor for creating a good atmosphere in the classroom and for the motivation it gives learning with others. We act as an advisor, prompter or resource.• Group work: The number of students in each group will not be more than five. This grouping increases the amount of student talking time and gives opportunities to use language to communicate with each other. It is more dynamic than pair work and there is a greater possibility for discussion. This type of students grouping has the great advantage of allowing for different groups of students to be doing different things in the same classroom. It can be used for oral work, tasks where decisions have to be taken, joint reading tasks, listening tasks, co-operative writing and many other things.5.6. - TIME ORGANISATIONTeaching-learning time organisation is an important factor that we have to take intoaccount when planning our lessons. Time will be organised in order to facilitate theachievement of students´ autonomy and attention to diversity by means of individual workand group work. Time organisation will not be forced, but feel natural. 20
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolWe will establish some routines that may facilitate our teaching action. Routines offerstudents stability and security and keeps them from being disorientated. We will usuallyinclude them at the beginning of the lesson.Flexibility is a very important factor when dealing with time. The clock to follow will be therhythm of the class and not the syllabus or lesson plans. However, we can’t forget that ineach session we have to let time to work each one of the four linguistic skills.When programming time we will also think of the amount of time that will be spent onstudents groupings, on activities of action or relaxation, on rigidly directed activities or onother freer ones.5.7. - THE ROLE OF THE LEARNERThe main role of the learner in order to acquire communicative competence, the mainobjective of this programme, will be that of active participant in his/her own learningprocess. At the same time, it is very important to keep a positive attitude towards foreignlanguage, its learning and its culture. And finally, it is essential to communicate andinteract with each other.5.8. - THE ROLE OF THE TEACHERThe teacher’s role is to help students to develop their natural communicative competencein English. To do this he/she has to create appropriate conditions for learning, through aseries of specific activities, and a relaxed atmosphere in which the student can activelyparticipate.The teacher is a source of linguistic information, either directly, speaking the targetlanguage, or indirectly through the selection of oral or written texts. In both cases,subconscious acquisition of the language is being favoured. He/she also aids learning byencouraging a positive attitude towards English and its culture.Finally, the teacher has to organize all the group activities, so that the pupils can use mostof the resources available and satisfactory learning situations are created in theclassroom. 21
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School5.9. - MATERIALS AND DIDACTIC RESOURCESThe characteristics that we have taken into account when selecting materials are thefollowing:• It must be adaptable to our curricular context that is, to objectives, contents, methodology, etc.• It must be adapted to the context of the school environment.• It must be motivating, attractive, formative, imagination stimulating...• It must be varied and authentic or simulated authentic.The materials we are going to use are:Printed materials:• Books.• Tales.• Comics.• Magazines.• Flashcards.• Street plans.• Posters and wall charts.Audiovisual resources:• Films.• Cassettes and CD-s.• Blackboard.• Photographs.• CD player.• Television and video.• Computer• CD-ROM-s.Other materials:• Pencils.• Sheets.• Chalks.• Photocopies. 22
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School• Notebooks.Human resources:• The teacher.• Pupils themselves.Possibility of an auxiliary of conversation6. – ASSESSMENT.We can’t forget that assessment is an essential part in the teaching-learning process. It isa reflection of our practice and it also can be used as an instrument which guides us in ourtask, detecting progress and learning difficulties, planning the educative intervention,helping to find appropriate ways to deal with the specific needs of each student.The aims of the evaluation are: • To value if students develop their learning-process according to their abilities and the objectives proposed. • To find out difficulties in the learning process and analyse their causes, especially those that arise in the school context. • To take the correct decisions to improve the students´ learning process. • To share with other teachers reflections about our teaching practice, our curricular proposal, and to value its suitability to our students` needs. • To inform students and their families about the learning situation and facilitate orientations in order to help them in their improvement.Assessment of the pupil’s learning processes will be continuous and comprehensive and itwill be done in three different moments:6.1- INITIAL ASSESMENTWe will make an evaluation at the beginning of each course, in order to know thecompetences and necessities of each pupil and to be able to adapt the planning of thecourse to the specific needs of the group we are going to work with.We will also evaluate our pupils at the beginning of each programmed teaching unit toadjust it to their level of knowledge. 23
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School6.2-FORMATIVE ASSESMENTDuring the teaching-learning process we will make a formative assessment. This allows usto modify, adapt and improve our processes. In order to make the formative assessment,we will consider the general evaluation criteria for the whole group and the specificcondition of each pupil.At the end of a programmed learning sequence and at the end of each evaluation periodwe will value the process and the achieved objectives. 6.2.1Meta-evaluationWe assume, as the team responsible of a common project, the necessity to evaluate ourown practice with the objective of understanding, transforming and improving our action.Each teacher or group of teachers will analyze the results of the procedures used duringthe programme. We will use the following techniques:-Analyse the development of the activities of the learning process and students´evaluation.-Observation of students´ behaviour and opinions.-Opinions obtained from questionnaires or interviews with families and students.-Students´ assessment –self-assessmentIt is very important our pupils to make their own evaluation, knowing how to assess theirown progress and also evaluate other elements such as materials, activities… Thisevaluation should not take a complex form.6.3- SUMMATIVE ASSESMENTAt the end of the course we will do an assessment in progress evaluation to identify thelevel achieved.6.4 – INSTRUMENTS OF EVALUATIONWhen carrying out the assessment we will use mainly the following techniques, althoughat specific moments we can use other ones:- Systematic observation. We will use direct observation and other instruments such as, control lists, teacher’s diary etc. 24
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School- Analysis of productions. We will use notebooks, individual and group works among others.- Oral and written questionnaires.- Self-assessment.- Teacher’s evaluation of the units.6.5 -EVALUATION CRITERIAEvaluation criteria indicate the basic global objectives for each stage. Each of thesecriteria assumes the acquisition of a series of skills and strategies needed in order toreach objectives. 1. Understand the global sense and identify specific information in oral texts about familiar topics for children.This criterion evaluates whether children are capable of understanding the global sense ofan oral message with the help of linguistic and non-linguistic elements present in thecommunicative situation. It also refers to the capacity of recognising and extractingpreviously known words and expressions which form part of longer expressions, even ifthey do not understand the text in its totality. 2. Take part in controlled oral interaction about familiar topics in predictable communicative situations, with respect for the basic communication rules, such as listen to and look at the person who is speaking.This criterion evaluates the capacity of expressing immediate necessities, like asking forpermission, asking for every day objects, locating objects or persons, talking about theweather or about likes or abilities. Children’s participation in everyday situations, such asroutines, habits and classroom language, and in simulations, performances, songs andrecitations will be positively valued. Children’s attitude when participating, as well as theinterest shown when their partners are participating, is evaluated.The use of simple forms and structures from the foreign language, including aspectsrelated to sound, rhythm, accentuation and intonation when they take an active role bylistening, repeating and anticipating expressions in reading aloud activities, through theguidance of models. 25
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School 3. Read and understand the global meaning, as well as certain pieces of specific information in simple texts about familiar topics, with a specific purposeThis criterion evaluates if children are able to read different texts aloud which are withintheir communicative competence, such as taking notes, classroom rules, letters, postersor tales, with vocabulary and expressions previously known to students, in order to extractglobal and specific information, with the help of fundamental written comprehensionstrategies, like the use of elements from the linguistic and non-linguistic contexts and thetransfer of knowledge from the language or languages they know. 4. Write short sentences and texts with the help of models, with a specific purpose and an established format; both in paper and through digital media.This criterion evaluates children’s capacity to write diverse texts, such as notes,instructions, rules, letters, posters, leaflets, comics or simple descriptions. The capacity ofusing models in the production of texts with a degree of autonomy, the orthographiccorrection acquired from the observation of models and the knowledge about therelationships between sounds and graphemes will be evaluated.6.5 - ASSESSMENT CONSEQUENCESConsidering the information we will get making the assessment, we can find the necessityto adjust the level of difficulty of the activities.We will provide reinforcement activities to all the pupils that during the formativeevaluation haven’t acquired the objectives proposed. They have the right to have accessto alternatives that will help them to get over their difficulties.Prior to any decision we will analyse why the student has difficulties. The causes of theselearning difficulties can be:- Conflictive situation in the group class.- An individual difficulty detected during the assessment.- Lack of base to follow the learning process. 26
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School- Inadequate programme or activities.Our basic strategies will be:- Special attention to these pupils during individual activities.- Group work in order to work with those contents that haven’t been correctly acquired.- Special group organization in which those pupils that have difficulties will join others that is very efficient in English.We will also provide extended activities to those pupils who achieve the proposedobjectives easily. These pupils have lost interest because they finish the activities in ashort time, they find them easy etc. In order to maintain them motivated we will preparespecial activities in which they will go on working with the contents proposed but moredeeply, with other applications etc.7. - ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY.The diversity of interests, abilities and motivations and, in short, educational needs are afact. Therefore, the fact of providing an educational response appropriate to this reality willhave to be an essential foundation principle.The need of catering for diversity is regulated in terms of two different parameters. Thecharacteristics of the curriculum guarantees its own reformulation according to thedifferent contexts in which the curriculum is going to be developed; that is, the curriculummust always be adapted to the specific educational needs.More precisely, the educational response to the need of catering for diversity isestablished in the School and the classroom. As Rue (1993) points out, the abovementioned need must be sorted it out “in terms of each context and a three-fold scope: thecurricular, the methodological and the organisational one”.General measures to cater for diversity taken in the School. Both the organisation ofthe School and the development of the curriculum in the School are in charge of layingdown the necessary measures to take: 27
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolThe Organisation of the School: the organisational characteristics of a school that favourthe attention to diversity are the following: flexibility, functionality, participation andcommunication.The development of the School: different possible measures will be considered: curricularmeasures (these include methodological aspects, objective suitability, contents andevaluation); and organisational measures (flexibility).7.1. ATEENTION TO STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL NEEDS.In what follows, the groups of population that require specific educational attention: Students with special educational needs.Those students suffering from some physical, mental sensory disability or from personalityor behaviour disorders will have some special educational attention (mainly related toevaluation, specific support) at any point in their schooling period. The main aim is toavoid discrimination, promote educational standardization and achieve their integration.Therefore, Education Authorities will provide these students with the necessary supportsince they start attending classes or once the specific need has been detected. Gifted studentsGifted students will be subjected to specific attention and they will have the possibility ofmaking the length of their schooling more flexible.Therefore, the specific measures for gifted students are the learning intensificationprogrammes and the flexibility of the length of the different levels and stages in theEducational System. Students who join late the courseWhen a new student is incorporated to the Educational System, he/she will be placed atthe year which is best suited to his/her knowledge, ability and age.Regarding language problems, we would carry out necessary adaptations of curricularmaterials to improve their learning of the subject, as well as of the language. We wouldalso participate in the actions promoted by the Department of Orientation, by the staffteachers or by the Pedagogic Co-ordination Committee. 28
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School7.2- DIVERSITY TREATAMENT.This is one of the most important aspects to consider when doing the different planningunits. Diversity is a reality in any class, which requires a concrete pedagogicalperformance, avoiding equalised or unified teacher acts.Nowadays, attending to diversity means attending to our students’ needs, whatever theyare.We could establish two different ways of attending to diversity in the English class. - In general terms: reinforcement, orientation, flexible methodology… - Specifically: MCAS (ACIS, in Spanish).With reference to the Meaningful Curricular Adaptations, we could say that at this stageof the learning process and due to the fact that the English language is taught through aglobal method rather than an analytical one, it would be very difficult to find a student whorequires a MCA.Thus, we will concentrate on how to treat diversity in class with some methodologicalcriteria related to it.The activities used for dealing with diversity in this syllabus are: bingo, guessing game,draw, guessing games. Besides, weaker students will be given worksheets thatcorrespond to 3rd of Primary, while the advantaged students will be given worksheets thatcorrespond to 5th of Primary.8. - EDUCATION IN VALUES.In the curriculum there is a general concept that is called cross-curricular themes. Thesemust appear constantly during educational practice and they are treated in different areasand subjects. Their inclusion is an attempt to reduce some social shortcomings that springfrom traditional culture and try to change them using education.Their inclusion in the programme means formalising an education in values and attitudesthat is constant throughout the teaching-learning process. We will not impose these valuesin an authoritarian way but as a continuous set of attitudes.I will treat at least one cross-curricular topic in each unit although there will be other unitsthat give us a good opportunity to work on more than one of them. 29
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolCross curricular themes proposed by the Ministry of Education are:1. - Environmental education.2. - Education for peace.3. - Consumer education.4. - Traffic education.5. - Education for equality of opportunity between sexes.6. - Health education.7. - Moral and civic education.ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATIONOur students need to understand the relationships with the surroundings we are immersedin and get to know environmental problems and solutions to improve our environment.Personal solidarity and participation are necessary in environmental issues that aredegrading our planet at a worrying speed.Some of the activities I will include in my programming will be: Environment protection. Domestic animal respect. Defence of nature and animals. Recycling any kind of material at school.EDUCATION FOR PEACE: COEDUCATIONWe will create activities that stimulate and develop positive attitudes of respect andcomprehension of the English language and the socio-cultural aspects of the Anglo-Saxoncountries. We will also work with basic coexistence attitudes: solidarity, tolerance, respectfor diversity and capacity for dialogue and social participation.Some activities I will include: To know and respect society’s rules. To avoid discrimination at school. To avoid xenophobic attitudes. To foster communication. To help people in need. 30
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolCONSUMER EDUCATIONConsumerism is present in our society and has reached the point of buying products onedoes not need in an almost automatic and unthinking way. It is necessary to give ourstudents instruments for analysis towards excessive consumerism of unnecessaryproducts.Some activities I will include: To think before buying any kind of product. To show a critical attitude against any kind of exaggerated shopping. To think about receiving a lot of presents when many have nothing.TRAFFIC EDUCATIONI will help them with the knowledge and use of public roads, especially in large cities. Myschool is a town school and so, it is important for the pupils to know the different trafficsigns they can find in other places.I will include some activities that will help them: To know the basic rules of road communication. To respect any kind of road signs as a way to avoid accidents.EDUCATION FOR EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY BETWEEN THE SEXESEducation in sexuality is becoming familiar in relation with the biological aspects ofsexuality, but we also must inform, orient and educate their affective, emotional and socialaspects, understanding it as an activity for full communication between people.In the first place I will make sure the materials I use in class are not sexist and try to avoidany aspect considered discriminatory. I will not use any role specially indicated for girls orboys.Some activities I will include: Rejection of any kind of sex prejudice. To accept people as they are. 31
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School To accept and respect our body. To be always tolerant with people. Dramatisations where changes of identity are involved.HEALTH EDUCATIONIt is very important that our students know physical hygiene habits. Mental and socialhabits must be created to develop self-esteem and improve life quality.Some activities: To avoid fast food. To foster balanced food. To show interest in good habits and behaviour. To respect other people’s opinions.MORAL AND CIVIC EDUCATIONThis is the cross curricular theme around which the rest of the cross subjects arearticulated. The moral dimension makes ethical judgments according to solidarity,democratic and participatory values.I will consider the class group as a small community where everyone must be respected. Iwill invite my students to learn to cooperate with others in group and pair activities in orderto develop a moral and civic behaviour as well as a shared responsibility which contributesto a better functioning of the group and a better integration in society.Some activities: To foster politeness everywhere at school. Dialogue, tolerance, humour and cooperation. To cooperate with friends. To respect society and family rules. To value teamwork. 32
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School9. - DIDACTIC UNITS.There are 12 didactic units, four for each term. In the school year there are, roughly 34 to35 weeks, about 170-175 days. Therefore, one didactic unit will be covered every twoweeks; this is to say within 8 to 10 sessions more or less of 50 minutes each. Didactic Unit Number of number Title Sessions TermU.D. Nº 1 What I know 8 1st TermU.D. Nº 2 My house 10 1st TermU.D. Nº 3 My hobbies 10 1st TermU.D. Nº 4 Winter 10 1st Term WonderlandU.D. Nº 5 Go shopping! 8 2nd TermU.D. Nº 6 Animals 10 2nd TermU.D. Nº 7 New York City 10 2nd TermU.D. Nº8 At work 10 2nd TermU.D. Nº9 Celebrations 8 3rd Term around the worldU.D. Nº 10 The Lion King 10 3rd TermU.D. Nº 11 Sports and 10 3rd Term GamesU.D. Nº 12 English Cultural Week 10 3rd Term 33
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary School10. - BIBLIOGRAPHY • Álvarez, L y Soler, E. (1990): Necesidades educativas especiales y aprendizaje escolar. Alianza, Psicología. Madrid. • Ariza, Eileen N. W. (2006): Not for ESOL Teachers. What Every Classroom Teacher Needs to Know about the Linguistically, Culturally, and Ethnically Diverse Student, Pearson, Boston (MA). • Bernardo Carrasco, J. (1991): Técnicas y recursos para el desarrollo de las clases. Ediciones: Rialp, Madrid. • Carmen Martín, K. et al. (1995): El currículo en el Centro Educativo, Longman. • Coll, C. (1987): Psicología y currículo, Laia, Barcelona. • Del Carmen, L.M; Antúnez, S.; y otros. (1993): Del proyecto Educativo a la Programación de Aula. Editorial Graó. Barcelona. • Escamilla, A. (2008): Competencias básicas: claves y propuestas para su desarrollo en los centros. Graó, Barcelona. • Harmer, J., (1991) The practice of English Teaching, Longman. • Krashen, S.D. y Terrell, T.D. (1988): The Natural Approach. Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Prentice Hall, Londres. • McDonough, K., et al. (1993), Materials and Methods in ETL. Blackwell. • Moreno, J.A, (1992), El diseño curricular del centro educativo, Pearson, Alambra. • Read, Carol (2007). 500 Activities for the Primary classroom. Oxford: MacMillan. • Vidal, J.; Manjón, D.G y Herrera, J.A (2005): Guía para elaborar programaciones y unidades didácticas en educación infantil y primaria. EOS, Gabinete de Orientación Psicológica. Madrid. • Vigotsky, L.S (1979): El desarrollo de los procesos superiores. Critica, Barcelona. • Williams, M; Burden, R.L. (1997): Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge University Press. 34
  • ANNUAL DIDACTIC PLANNING: 3rd Cycle Primary SchoolWeb- bibliography 35