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negation

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Negation powerpoint made for an English class at Córdoba's University . Development of the Plurilingual and Pluricultural Competence.

Negation powerpoint made for an English class at Córdoba's University . Development of the Plurilingual and Pluricultural Competence.

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  • 1. OBS E RV I NG AND RE COGNI S I NG L I NGUI S T I C DI VERSI T Y Clause negation in English and other languages
  • 2. 1. Classification of Negative Sentences in English Language 1.a. Grammatically incorrect sentences 1.b. All grammatically correct sentences express negative meaning? Any problem classifying? 2. Grammatical rules concerning clause negation in English 3. Comparison of a set of negative sentences in both English and French Languages. 4. English rules of negation apply to French Language? 5. Rules of clause negation in French.
  • 3. Together with your partner analyse the following sentences carefully, illustrating the clause negation rules in English. 1. „I don‟t like your new haircut.‟ 2. „We met not our old friends at a party yesterday.‟ 3. „You mustn‟t show this document to anybody.‟ 4. „He won‟t help me.‟ 5. „I fail to see any further consequences of her behaviour.‟ 6. „None of them were ready.‟ 7. „Neither of us has ever heard about it.‟ 8. „No dogs are permitted inside this shop, aren‟t they?‟ 9. „The place had scarcely changed in ten years.‟ 10. „None of us have never told lies.‟ 11. „You must never do that.‟ 12.„They haven‟t told him the truth.‟ 13.„It‟s not a secret.‟ 14.„Hardly anyone saw him there.‟ 15.„No one helped us.‟
  • 4. Negative sentences Sentences from Sample 1 Type C: by using a word negative in meaning It’s not a secret.  Type B: by using a word negative in form and meaning I don‟t like your new haircut. ‘We met not our old friends at a party yesterday.’ You mustn‟t show this document to anybody. He won‟t help me. They haven‟t told him the truth.  Type A: though verb negation      ‘No dogs are permitted inside this shop, aren‟t they?’    None of them were ready. Neither of us has ever heard about it. You must never do that.  No one helped us.   „No dogs are permitted inside this shop, aren’t they?’ None of us have never told lies.’   I fail to see any further consequences of her behaviour. The place had scarcely changed in 10 years.  Hardly anyone saw him there.
  • 5. Write the numbers of the grammatically incorrect sentences. Explain why you think they are grammatically incorrect? In sentence number 2 it is necessary the auxiliary verb, when we make the negation, so instead of „We met not our old friends at a party yesterday.‟ the correct is `we didn t meet our friends at a party yesterday . Sentences number 8 is also incorrect because if we use a questions tag in the sentence, we must haven into account the following rules: A) When the main clause is affirmative, the questions tag is negative B ) When the main clause is negative , the questions tag is affirmative.
  • 6. Can all grammatically correct sentences from Sample 1 be classified as sentences that express negative meaning? Are there any sentences in Sample 1 that you have a problem classifying? No, it can´t. Because the sentence ”None of us have never told lies” is completely positive in meaning; in this sentence there are two negation elements and in English language it means that the sentence has positive meaning, in this case this sentence means that everyone has told a lie at some time. Yes, there is. Only one sentence has been problematic to classify: “No dogs are permitted inside this shop, aren‟t they?” We have had a doubt when we were classifying the sentences of sample 1 because we weren ´t sure to which type of negation it belongs to; on one other hand, “No dogs” could be classified as type b; by using a word negative in form and meaning, but on the other hand, “aren´t” could be classified as type A: through verb negation.
  • 7. Discuss your observations and with the teacher‟s help (if necessary) try to formulate the grammatical rules concerning clause negation in English. •Type A: through verb negation. When we negate something in present simple we must add the auxiliary verb “do” plus “not” after the subject and before the main verb. When we negate in others tenses we must respect the structure and the order and the only one change it will be the corresponding auxiliary verb that we are going to use depending on the tense. With the verb “to be”, negation always will be after the “to be” verb. •Type B: by using a word negative in form and meaning. Another type of negation in English is by using words or expressions negative in form and meaning as neither of us, none, no one, never. Others examples: nothing, nowhere, no, nobody, neither…nor, not only, etc. Type C: by using a word negative in meaning. These words are negative in meaning and suggest a negative attitude; they are not negative in form just in meaning. Some examples of the previous activities are: fail, scarcely, hardly. Others examples are: rarely, seldom, barely, ratter, completely, utterly, avoid, Two negation elements make a sentence with positive meaning
  • 8. Clause negation in others languages Activity 2b, Part 2  Compare the set of negative sentences in the language chosen with the set of corresponding negative sentences in English. English French 1.None of them was without sorrow in his heart for having to 1.Aucuns d’eux ne cachaient son regret, de devoir abandonner cet leave the beautiful place, endroit magnifique, 2.but they knew well that this fertile land, forests full of game 2.néanmoins ils savaient que même une terre si fertile et les forêts and lakes full of fish could not feed them all…. pleines de bêtes ainsi que les lacs et les rivières remplis de poissons ne nourriront pas tout le monde ..... 3.Lech and Czech looked at each other with sadness because they felt they would never see him again, 3.Lech et Czech se regardèrent avec tristesse, dans leurs yeux se lisait la crainte de ne plus le revoir, 4.We shall not travel any further. 4.Nous ne voyagerons pas plus loin. 1. In this example in English, negation happens through a 1. Negation through verb negation. negative word “None”. 2 . = English version 2. Both English and French versions make negative 3. Negation adverb “ne plus”. sentences by verb negation. 4. =English version 3. Negation  adverb “never”. 4. Negation  through verb negation.
  • 9. Activity 2b, Part 2  Check to see if the rules concerning clause negation in English apply to the language which you analysed. Rules concerning clause negation in English apply to the French language that we have analysed; as we can see, in French also there are various ways of negation: by using verb negation, by using a word negative in meaning, negative preffixes forming words , etc.
  • 10. Activity 2b, part 3  Try to define (with the help of the teacher) the rules of clause negation in the language analysed and discussed. Making negative sentences in French is a bit more complicated than in English. Summary of the different kinds of negation and negation-related grammatical structures which should help us: Ne + verb + PAS :No… Ne + verb + PLUS : no more, not again Ne + verb + RIEN : Nothing Ne + verb + PERSONNE : Nobody Ne + verb + JAMAIS : Never Ne + verb + AUCUN/E: anyone, anybody
  • 11. Fail = décevoir Scarcely = à peine Hardly = difficilment
  • 12. French English 2 negative elements in a clause = emphasizing negative meaning of a clause 2 negative elements in a clause = positive meaning clause
  • 13. Our findings:  It is possible to develop our plurilingual competence working with English and French grammar, as comparing any others.  As English teachers we must be aware that in English we can have only one negative element in one clause to make the clause negative or we will be doing sentences with a positive meaning . That is not true about all languages!  We have chosen French Language to establish the comparison with English because it is a language known by us. We think that to choose French has permitted us to feel sure about our work.