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Supportive and motivating environments in schools


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The conference Developing Strength and Resilience in Children, 1-2 Nov. 2010 in Oslo.

The conference Developing Strength and Resilience in Children, 1-2 Nov. 2010 in Oslo.

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  • 1. Main factors to make wellbeing and learning a reality Anne G. Danielsen (PhD) Oslo, 2010
  • 2. 1. Background 2. Outcomes: Wellbeing and learning 3. Aim 4. Theoretical perspective 5. Previous research 6. Research questions 7. Methods 8. Results 9. Conclusions 10. Implications Anne G. Danielsen
  • 3. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 4. a risk or resource for students’ wellbeing (Samdal, 1999) Anne G. Danielsen
  • 5.  Subjective wellbeing  Positive development in children and youth  Focus on ◦ Developing strengths ◦ Positive responses to adversity ◦ Strenghtening important institutions  Complements, does not replace, risk behaviour- and disability-approaches  Main purpose: Identitfying supportive and motivating factors that may relate to  wellbeing and learning of students (Danielsen, 2010). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 6.  (a) positive subjective experiences, ◦ like subjective wellbeing , self-determination, self- efficacy and self-regulated learning (academic initiative)  (b) positive personality – a perspective on human beings as self-organizing, self-directed, adaptive entities, ◦ e.g. self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997), and  (c) positive institutions ◦ e.g. schools, bringing out the best in positive character and subjective experiences (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). ◦ School setting: the major extra-familial environment Anne G. Danielsen
  • 7.  Belonging at school: ◦ economic or educational success as adults ◦ long-term health and wellbeing (OECD, 2004)  Success in education: ◦ individuals’ opportunities to live a successful life (Ottawa Charter to Health Promotion, 1986; Masten & Coatsworth, 1998; OECD, 2004).  Individuals’ wellbeing and learning ◦ prerequisite for societies to achieve sustainable socio-economic and democratic development (OECD, 2004) Anne G. Danielsen
  • 8.  Chapter 9a. The pupils’ school environment  Section 9a-1. General requirements  All pupils attending primary and secondary schools are entitled to a good physical and psychosocial environment conducive to health, wellbeing and learning. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 9. Subjective Wellbeing  Quality of life or “happiness”  people’s own evaluations of their lives, both affective and cognitive Anne G. Danielsen
  • 10.  life satisfaction, as for school students in Norway, and  school satisfaction, considering school as one of the important life domains of wellbeing ◦ such as work, family, friends, or community (Huebner, Suldo, Smith, & McKnight, 2004a; Huebner, Valois, Suldo, Smith, McKnight, Seligson et al., 2004b). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 11.  an important cognitive aspect of subjective wellbeing (Huebner, Valois, Paxton, & Drane, 2005)  views of life conditions and wellbeing experienced and assessed by the individuals themselves (Huebner et al., 2004)  global, cognitive judgments of one’s life (Pavot, Diener, Colvin, & Sandvik, 1991)  a person’s evaluation of various areas of his or her life (such as the school context) Anne G. Danielsen
  • 12.  A right to feel good about themselves and the institutions in which they function (Verkuyten & Thijs, 2002)  An important outcome of schooling in itself  An affective variable, students’ enjoyment and evaluation of their school experiences (Huebner & Gilman, 2006)  Social belonging and inclusion (PISA-studies; educational policy documents)  Liking school: (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children-studies)  Disaffection with school may reflect alienation or disconnection from school and withdrawal from school activities Anne G. Danielsen
  • 13.  Engagement in challenging, task oriented behaviour (Larson, 2000)  Self-regulated learning; motivational processes ◦ Goal setting, effort, positive beliefs, valuing learning (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997)  Obtain better results (more likely)  Become lifelong learners (more likely)  Major new goal of education (OECD, 2004)  Contribution to creating a good life (Report No. 16 [2006-2007] to the Norwegian Parliament) Anne G. Danielsen
  • 14.  a critical developmental period in shaping patterns of mental health (WHO, 2000) and  health enhancing-behaviors (Larson, Wilson, Mortimer, 2002).  Both growth and problems are potential outcomes of the adolescent period, depending on the kind of care and opportunities that adults and institutions afford (Roeser, Eccles, Sameroff, 1998).  improving a student’s school initiative may prevent student boredom, disaffection, and drop-out from school (cf. Finn, 1989; Fredricks et al.).Anne G. Danielsen
  • 15. Apply a positive psychological perspective School-related factors Lower secondary schools, i.e. grade 8-10 relate positively to students’ Life satisfaction, School satisfaction and Academic initiative Anne G. Danielsen
  • 16.  Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000)  What are  supportive and motivating environments in schools  according to self-determination theory? Anne G. Danielsen
  • 17. Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Caos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion Self- determined Motivation - Engagement Life satisfaction School satisfaction Academic initiative Relatedness Competence Autonomy Supportive and Motivating Environments Active en- couragement Student needs Student motivation Outcomes Anne G. Danielsen Figure 1
  • 18.  Relatedness; belonging and feeling connected to others  Competence; to control outcomes and to experience effectance, such as having a sense of mastery over one’s capacity to act in the environment  Autonomy; to be agentic, to feel like the “origin” of one’s actions, and to have a voice, initiative, input or choice in determining our own behavior (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 19.  Interpersonal involvement  Competence-involving structure  Autonomy-support Reeve (2002); Reeve et al. (2008) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Chaos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion
  • 20.  Interpersonal involvement (Reeve, 2005)  The creation of social bonds ◦ a) the other person cares about my welfare ◦ b) the other person likes me (Baumeister & Leary, 1995)  Support for relatedness provided by teachers ◦ a sense of being close to students, ◦ a sense of warmth, affection, and acceptance of students (Reeve, 2006; Reeve et al., 2008) ◦ pedagogical caring (Goldstein, 1999; Wentzel, 1997; Noddings, 2005). ◦ can be important to students’ development of secure relations to adults (Furrer & Skinner, 2003) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility
  • 21.  Competence-involving structure  Continued feed-back provided by teachers:  clear expectations, optimal challenges, and timely, informative, consistent, sensitive, and responsive feedback (in contrast to chaos or laissez-faire)  suggestions for how future performance can be improved, may ◦ reduce perceptions of uncertainty ◦ help the student in developing a sense of perceived control over possible stressful circumstances (Rosenfeld et al., 2000, Hattie, 2009; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; OECD, 2005; Reeve, 2002). Anne G. Danielsen Structure vs Chaos
  • 22.  Autonomy-supportive teachers ◦ help students develop a sense of congruence between their classroom behavior and their inner motivational resources ◦ provide students with high-quality interpersonal relationships (Reeve, 2002).  Responsive, supportive, motivate through interest, asking students what they want (Reeve; Reeve & Jang, 2006). ◦ enhanced motivation, engagement, learning, and psychological wellbeing (Reeve & Halusic, 2009) Anne G. Danielsen Autonomy- Support vs Coercion
  • 23.  two independent contextual variables ◦ can be complementary and mutually supportive  Teachers can ◦ provide little or much competence-involving structure  Teachers can ◦ be controlling or autonomy-supportive  “A lack of structure yields not an autonomy-supportive environment but instead one that is permissive, indulgent, or laissez-faire” (Reeve, 2006, p. 231). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 24. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 25.  Most young adolescents report  relatively high levels of life satisfaction (Currie, Gabhainn, Godeau, Roberts, Smith, Currie et al., 2008).  11, 13 and 15-year-old school-students in 41 countries and regions across Europe and North America.  social support from family, teachers, and peers is associated with perceived life satisfaction (Diener & Fujita, 1995). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 26.  School may be one of the life domains with the largest impact on students’ life satisfaction (Huebner, Laughlin, Ash & Gilman, 1998)  Literature in this area is scant (Suldo, Riley, & Shaffer, 2006).  Knowledge about the impact of school satisfaction on students’ life satisfaction:  important for understanding how school- related resources influence (and change) health and well-being. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 27.  if the school context  provides social support for  relatedness,  competence and  autonomy (Baker et al., 2003).  Associated with increased school satisfaction  In accordance with self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Anne G. Danielsen
  • 28.  Large cross-country differences in the prevalence of students reporting to like school (Currie, et al., 2008).  Female students tend to report higher levels of school satisfaction than males do, but  this gender gap narrows between ages 11 and 15.  Compared with other countries; ◦ Norwegian students tend to report very high levels of liking school (Currie et al.) and also a very high sense of belonging to their school (ILS, 2006). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 29.  -such as  perceived teacher support  care, understanding, fairness, and friendliness,  appear very influential on  students’ school satisfaction (Rosenfeld et al., 2000; Reddy, Rhodes, & Mulhall, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006; Skinner et al., 2008). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 30.  Youth initiative  studied in different social contexts,  structured voluntary activities, but also in  school, family, and when students spend time with peers in more unstructured ways  during schoolwork, students report low intrinsic motivation. (Larson, 2000; Hansen et al., 2003; Larson et al., 2005) .  academic initiative was not previously examined Anne G. Danielsen
  • 31. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 32. Psycho- social support from parents, teachers and classmates Students’ Life Satisfaction Support in the school environment School satisfaction Perceived competence General Self-Efficacy Student outcomes S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e o r y Academic Initiative Figure 2
  • 33.  1. To what extent is support in the school environment related to students’ perceived life satisfaction, school satisfaction and academic initiative?  2. To what extent do perceived teacher support, perceived classmate support, and perceived student autonomy relate to students’ self-reported academic initiative at the individual and at the school class levels? Anne G. Danielsen
  • 34. 1: Danielsen, Samdal, Hetland, & Wold, 2009; The Journal of Educational Research, 102, 303–318. 2: Danielsen, Wiium, Wilhelmsen, & Wold, 2010; Journal of School Psychology, 48, 247-267. 3: Danielsen, Breivik, & Wold, in press; Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 35.  nationally representative samples of 13 and 15 year-olds,  the sixth and seventh World Health Organization (WHO) survey of  Health Behavior in School-aged Children (Currie et. al., 2004; Currie, et al., 2008). rriet Anne G. Danielsen
  • 36.  National ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics (REK). Data collection  Teachers, or other specially trained personnel, supervised the students’ self-completion of the questionnaires in the school classrooms Anne G. Danielsen
  • 37.  Descriptive analysis  Structural equation modeling (SEM)  Two-level modeling  Multiple-group analysis Anne G. Danielsen
  • 38.  The sample sizes were large  The samples were nationally representative (Currie et al., 2001).  The results can be generalized to the Norwegian populations that were studied Anne G. Danielsen
  • 39. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 40. Anne G. Danielsen Preliminary results
  • 41. Classmate support Teacher support Parent support School satisfaction Perceived competence General Self- efficacy - Life- satisfaction .14 .23 .55 .19 .05 .27 .18 .43 . .25 . .47 . .43 .37 .16 .16 . Figur 2. Structural model of relationships between support in the school environment and students’ perceived life satisfaction (paper 1) Anne G. Danielsen .68
  • 42. (a) Student level (b) Class level Teacher support Classmate support Student autonomi Teacher support Classmate support Academic Initiative Academic Initiative Figure 3. Two level analysis. Dependent variabel: “Academic Initiative”. PCAS: Combined Teacher support and Student autonomy (paper 2) .86** * .32*** .13**.43*** .75*** .47*** R2=.88*** .37 .18 .83*** .85*** PCAS Student autonomi R2=.16*** Note: ***p < .001 **p < .01 Anne G. Danielsen PCAS
  • 43. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 44.  pedagogical caring and  perceived competence are related to  academic initiative and  life satisfaction  in 13- and 15-year old students. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 45.  - in consistency with previous US studies (Rosenfeld et al. 2000; Reddy, Rhodes, & Mulhall, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006)  This result is in accordance with self-determination theory;  social contexts that support the needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy are associated with psychological well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Anne G. Danielsen
  • 46.  The students’ perceptions of  pedagogical caring and autonomy support (PCAS) from their teachers were  strongly related (.86) to self-reported academic initiative at the class level.  Students’ perceptions of teacher support  varied considerably between school classes.  Some school classes provide more favourable environments for the development of academic initiative than do others. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 47.  the findings furthermore support  the existence of a relational zone (Goldstein, 1999), and the importance of  pedagogical caring (Wentzel, 1997; Noddings, 2005),  relatedness (e.g. Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Skinner, Furrer, Marchand, & Kinderman, 2008), and  emotional support (Malecki & Demaray, 2003) in the learning environment. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 48.  crucial to human life, both to nurture a global need to belong and to provide more situational or task specific support (cf. Baumeister & Leary, 1995).  Because relatedness is likely to facilitate  internalization of the value of schoolwork,  relatedness may facilitate students’ engagement with school and  have a positive influence on students’  initiative for those school tasks that initially are not intrinsically motivated. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 49. Anne G. Danielsen
  • 50.  By supporting students’ experiences of relatedness, competence, and autonomy in schools,  a developmental pathway to psychological wellbeing and increasing learning may open.  Self-determination theory:  interpersonal involvement,  competence-involving structure, and  autonomy-support  are crucial and mutually supportive factors Anne G. Danielsen
  • 51. Anne G. Danielsen