The prominent religions of southwest asia
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The prominent religions of southwest asia

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The prominent religions of southwest asia The prominent religions of southwest asia Presentation Transcript

  • The Prominent ReligionsThe Prominent Religions of Southwest Asiaof Southwest Asia Ingrid Gero’s World Studies ClassIngrid Gero’s World Studies Class
  • The Three Monotheistic ReligionsThe Three Monotheistic Religions Three major world religions originated in theThree major world religions originated in the Middle East.Middle East. JudaismJudaism ChristianityChristianity IslamIslam
  • The First MonotheistThe First Monotheist  The first person to introduce the belief in oneThe first person to introduce the belief in one god was a man named Abraham.god was a man named Abraham.  He began the religion known as Judaism,He began the religion known as Judaism, somewhere between 2000-1500 BCEsomewhere between 2000-1500 BCE  He originally lived in the Sumerian city of Ur,He originally lived in the Sumerian city of Ur, but later moved to Canaan, which is nowbut later moved to Canaan, which is now modern-day Israel.modern-day Israel.  According to Jews, the land of Canaan wasAccording to Jews, the land of Canaan was promised to Abraham and his descendants.promised to Abraham and his descendants.
  • Life in ExileLife in Exile  Jews have been living, for most of their historyJews have been living, for most of their history in exile.in exile.  The Jews were originally expelled from Israel byThe Jews were originally expelled from Israel by the Babylonians in 586 BCE with thethe Babylonians in 586 BCE with the destruction of the First Temple, but returneddestruction of the First Temple, but returned after 50 years.after 50 years.  The second exile was forced by the Romans inThe second exile was forced by the Romans in 70 CE after the destruction of the Second70 CE after the destruction of the Second Temple.Temple.
  • The next religion to emergeThe next religion to emerge  The religion of Christianity began approximatelyThe religion of Christianity began approximately 30 CE when a man named Jesus began teaching30 CE when a man named Jesus began teaching ideas about Judaism in Judea.ideas about Judaism in Judea.  Jesus’ ideas gained him many faithful followers.Jesus’ ideas gained him many faithful followers.  Jesus was crucified by the Romans in 33 CE,Jesus was crucified by the Romans in 33 CE, after preaching for only three years.after preaching for only three years.
  • The religion spreadThe religion spread  Jesus had 12 followers or disciples, that spreadJesus had 12 followers or disciples, that spread his message after his death.his message after his death.  The story of Jesus was carried on through 4The story of Jesus was carried on through 4 books known as the Gospels (Matthew, Mark,books known as the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and a series of letters known asLuke, and John) and a series of letters known as epistles, written by Paul of Tarsus.epistles, written by Paul of Tarsus.  Jesus was later referred to as Jesus ChristJesus was later referred to as Jesus Christ because the word Christos in Greek meansbecause the word Christos in Greek means “messiah”.“messiah”.
  • Out of Mecca…Out of Mecca…  The last of the three prominent religions toThe last of the three prominent religions to emerge was Islam.emerge was Islam.  Islam was started by a man named MuhammadIslam was started by a man named Muhammad in 610 CE.in 610 CE.  According to the Qur’an, he was visited by theAccording to the Qur’an, he was visited by the angel, Gabriel, and was given messages directlyangel, Gabriel, and was given messages directly from G-d, known as Allah in Arabic.from G-d, known as Allah in Arabic.
  • Forced to fleeForced to flee  Muhammad’s messages were not completelyMuhammad’s messages were not completely well received in the city of Mecca.well received in the city of Mecca.  He was forced to flee to neighboring Medina inHe was forced to flee to neighboring Medina in 622 CE. This event is what marks the beginning622 CE. This event is what marks the beginning of the Islamic Calendar.of the Islamic Calendar.  Muhammad and his followers eventuallyMuhammad and his followers eventually returned to Mecca after several battles, and it isreturned to Mecca after several battles, and it is considered to be Islam’s holiest city.considered to be Islam’s holiest city.
  • The Great DivideThe Great Divide  When Muhammad died, he had not chosen aWhen Muhammad died, he had not chosen a successor.successor.  One group of people believed that theOne group of people believed that the leadership should be dynastic, and thatleadership should be dynastic, and that Muhammad wanted his cousin and son-in law,Muhammad wanted his cousin and son-in law, Ali to become the next caliph.Ali to become the next caliph.  People who believe that Ali was the rightfulPeople who believe that Ali was the rightful successor belong to the group known as Shia.successor belong to the group known as Shia.
  • Differing OpinionDiffering Opinion  Many of the elders felt that Muhammad left noMany of the elders felt that Muhammad left no successor and that it was up to them to decide whosuccessor and that it was up to them to decide who would take over after his death.would take over after his death.  Abu Bakr, the first convert to Islam outside ofAbu Bakr, the first convert to Islam outside of Muhammad’s family and his closest advisor, wasMuhammad’s family and his closest advisor, was chosen as the first caliph.chosen as the first caliph.  People who believe that he was the rightful successorPeople who believe that he was the rightful successor are known as Sunni Muslims.are known as Sunni Muslims.  85-90% of the world’s Muslims today are Sunni85-90% of the world’s Muslims today are Sunni Muslims.Muslims.
  • So, where are the similarities?So, where are the similarities?  All three of these religions have things inAll three of these religions have things in common.common.  They are all monotheistic, meaning that they believeThey are all monotheistic, meaning that they believe in only one G-d.in only one G-d.  Jews and Muslims consider Abraham to be theJews and Muslims consider Abraham to be the patriarch of their faith. Christians also believepatriarch of their faith. Christians also believe Abraham to be the first prophet.Abraham to be the first prophet.  They all have religious ties to the land of Israel, andThey all have religious ties to the land of Israel, and in particular, the city of Jerusalem.in particular, the city of Jerusalem.
  • This gets a little complicated…This gets a little complicated…  Both Jews and Muslims believe that AbrahamBoth Jews and Muslims believe that Abraham was the father to their people.was the father to their people.  Abraham had two sons.Abraham had two sons.  The first born was Ishmael, who was born to hisThe first born was Ishmael, who was born to his handmaiden Hagar. Ishmael is considered to be thehandmaiden Hagar. Ishmael is considered to be the ancestor of the Arab people.ancestor of the Arab people.  Isaac was born to Abraham’s wife, Sarah, 14 yearsIsaac was born to Abraham’s wife, Sarah, 14 years later. Isaac is considered to be the ancestor of thelater. Isaac is considered to be the ancestor of the Jewish people.Jewish people.
  • The Torah and the Qur’anThe Torah and the Qur’an  According to both holy books, Abraham wasAccording to both holy books, Abraham was told by G-d that his descendants would be astold by G-d that his descendants would be as “numerous as the stars”, and that the land of“numerous as the stars”, and that the land of Canaan was promised to them.Canaan was promised to them.  Is it any wonder that both Jews and MuslimsIs it any wonder that both Jews and Muslims feel that the land of Israel belongs to them?feel that the land of Israel belongs to them?
  • The City of JerusalemThe City of Jerusalem  Each of the three monotheistic religions have a holyEach of the three monotheistic religions have a holy site within the old city of Jerusalem.site within the old city of Jerusalem.  Jews worship at the Western Wall, which is all that is left ofJews worship at the Western Wall, which is all that is left of the Second Holy Temple. It is also referred to as the Wailingthe Second Holy Temple. It is also referred to as the Wailing Wall.Wall.  Christians visit a site known as The Church of the HolyChristians visit a site known as The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is the site where Jesus is believed to haveSepulchre. This is the site where Jesus is believed to have been buried and resurrected.been buried and resurrected.  The Dome of The Rock is a mosque that has been built onThe Dome of The Rock is a mosque that has been built on top of the Temple Mount. It is believed that Muhammadtop of the Temple Mount. It is believed that Muhammad ascended to heaven at that site to meet with the angel,ascended to heaven at that site to meet with the angel, Gabriel.Gabriel.
  • What are some of the keyWhat are some of the key differences?differences?  Each of the three religions has a distinct holy book.Each of the three religions has a distinct holy book.  Judaism’s holy book is the Torah. It is the first 5 books ofJudaism’s holy book is the Torah. It is the first 5 books of Moses, also referred to as the Old Testament.Moses, also referred to as the Old Testament.  Christianity accepts the Old Testament, but adds on the NewChristianity accepts the Old Testament, but adds on the New Testament, which includes the Gospels and the Epistles ofTestament, which includes the Gospels and the Epistles of PaulPaul  Islam’s holiest book is the Qur’an. It is believed to be theIslam’s holiest book is the Qur’an. It is believed to be the word of G-d, revealed to Muhammad by Gabriel.word of G-d, revealed to Muhammad by Gabriel.
  • Houses of Worship and ReligiousHouses of Worship and Religious LeadersLeaders  A Jewish house of worship is referred to as a synagogueA Jewish house of worship is referred to as a synagogue and the religious leader is called a rabbi.and the religious leader is called a rabbi.  A Christian house of worship is called a church, and theA Christian house of worship is called a church, and the religious leader is referred to as either a priest or areligious leader is referred to as either a priest or a minister, depending on the denomination ofminister, depending on the denomination of Christianity.Christianity.  A Muslim house of worship is known as a mosque, andA Muslim house of worship is known as a mosque, and the religious leader is known as an imam.the religious leader is known as an imam.
  • Holy DaysHoly Days  In Judaism, two of the holiest days are Rosh HashanahIn Judaism, two of the holiest days are Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (the day of(the Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (the day of atonement).atonement).  In Christianity, two of the holiest days are ChristmasIn Christianity, two of the holiest days are Christmas (marking the birth of Jesus) and Easter (the celebration(marking the birth of Jesus) and Easter (the celebration of the resurrection)of the resurrection)  Islam has two holy days. Eid al-Fitr, marks the end ofIslam has two holy days. Eid al-Fitr, marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. Eid al-Adha coincidesthe fasting month of Ramadan. Eid al-Adha coincides with the dates of the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca.with the dates of the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Each Religion’s View on JesusEach Religion’s View on Jesus  One concept that is taught in the Torah is thatOne concept that is taught in the Torah is that one day a Messiah will come and bring a worldone day a Messiah will come and bring a world of peace to all. According to Jews, that Messiahof peace to all. According to Jews, that Messiah has not come yet.has not come yet.  Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah,Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah, and that the time of peace will be here when heand that the time of peace will be here when he returns again. This is the concept of “the secondreturns again. This is the concept of “the second coming”.coming”.
  • The Islamic ViewThe Islamic View  According to the Qur’an, Jesus is considered toAccording to the Qur’an, Jesus is considered to be a prophet, along with others discussed in thebe a prophet, along with others discussed in the Old Testament, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham,Old Testament, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses.and Moses.  However, Islam considers Muhammad to be theHowever, Islam considers Muhammad to be the final prophet, and the religion is based on hisfinal prophet, and the religion is based on his revelations.revelations.
  • In conclusion…In conclusion…  All three of these religions have theirAll three of these religions have their foundations in Southwest Asia. Despite theirfoundations in Southwest Asia. Despite their differences, it is important to see the similaritiesdifferences, it is important to see the similarities that each of these religions share.that each of these religions share.  These religions are all part of what shapes theThese religions are all part of what shapes the culture of the Middle East.culture of the Middle East.