Spacecraft Power Systems: Chapter 3. Power System Options
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Spacecraft Power Systems: Chapter 3. Power System Options

on

  • 2,581 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,581
Views on SlideShare
2,398
Embed Views
183

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
57
Comments
0

9 Embeds 183

http://ingesaerospace.blogspot.com 161
http://ingesaerospace.blogspot.com.es 8
http://ingesaerospace.blogspot.mx 4
http://www.blogger.com 3
http://www.ingesaerospace.blogspot.com 2
http://ingesaerospace.blogspot.com.ar 2
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1
http://www.ingesaerospace.blogspot.mx 1
http://ingesaerospace.blogspot.jp 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Spacecraft Power Systems: Chapter 3. Power System Options Spacecraft Power Systems: Chapter 3. Power System Options Document Transcript

    • Chapter 3 Power System Options 3.1 Introduction Power requirements in very early satellites were several watts. In today’s communications satellites, it is several kilowatts and is growing. Some strategic defense spacecraft power requirements are estimated to be in hundreds of kilowatts and some concepts require hundreds of megawatts of burst power. Solar radiation is the only external source of energy available in space. Any power system not using solar energy must carry its own source of energy on board, such as the primary battery, fuel cell, nuclear or chemical fuel. The basic components of the spacecraft power system are shown in Figure 3.1. They are the primary energy source, energy conversion, power regulator, rechargeable energy storage, power distribution and protection, and power utilization by the user’s equipment (loads). Candidates for the primary energy source include solar radiation, radioisotopes, nuclear reactors, and electrochemical and/or chemical fuel. The energy conversion may be photovoltaic, thermoelectric, dynamic alternator, fuel cell, or thermionic. The energy storage has been primarily electrochemical, although flywheel technology is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). From the available options that are compatible with a given mission and its environment, the satellite level optimization study is conducted to select the best combination of energy source, energy conversion, and energy storage technologies. Final selection must meet multiple criteria, but the FIGURE 3.1 Basic components of a spacecraft power system. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 40 1-132
    • Power System Options 41 FIGURE 3.2 Optimum energy sources for various power levels and mission durations. primary criteria are always low mass and low life-cycle cost. Such selection is largely influenced by the product of the power level and the mission duration as shown in Figure 3.2. The dividing lines among various options are only approximate and have large overlaps. The following sections briefly describe these options with their optimum application ranges. The detailed description and performance of often-used options are covered in separate chapters. 3.2 Primary Battery A primary battery can economically power a small elementary spacecraft requiring only several watts over several days. Early short mission space- craft flew with primary batteries such as AgZn and NaS. Even today, low power short life satellites carrying instruments with low duty ratio may be designed using a primary battery such as LiCFx as the only power source, thus eliminating the solar panel and battery charge electronics. The battery cell consists of two electrode plates submersed in an electrolyte as shown in Figure 3.3(a). The electrochemistry of the cell generates an electrical potential difference between the electrodes, which can drive electrical current through an external load circuit. Thus, the battery converts the stored chemical energy between the electrode plates into direct current electricity. The cell can deliver only a certain amount of charge, measured in ampere-hours (Ah), before all of its energy is depleted. The cell voltage decays with the Ah discharged as shown in Figure 3.3(b). The primary battery has nonreversible electrochemistry. It cannot be © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 41 1-132
    • 42 Spacecraft Power Systems FIGURE 3.3 Battery cell construction and voltage characteristics. recharged once its Ah capacity has been drained. It is then discarded, often jettisoned from the spacecraft to shed mass. 3.3 Fuel Cell Powering loads greater than several watts for more than a few days or a few weeks is not practical using a battery, but is easily done with a fuel cell. The fuel cell, developed as an intermediate-term power source for space applications, was first used in a moon buggy and continues being used to power NASA’s space shuttles. It also finds other niche applications at present. A fuel cell converts chemical energy in the fuel, such as hydrogen and oxygen, into electricity (Figure 3.4(a)). Since the fuel continuously FIGURE 3.4 Fuel cell construction and voltage characteristics. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 42 1-132
    • Power System Options 43 refurbishes the energy, the cell does not run out of energy. Hence, the fuel cell is not rated in terms of the Ah capacity, but in terms of the power generation rate. The cell voltage remains constant (Figure 3.4(b)) as long as the fuel is supplied at the required rate. Therefore, the fuel cell can be an optimum choice for supplying hundreds or thousands of watts over a few weeks using the on-board fuel. A fuel cell is a static electrochemical device that generates direct current electricity by a chemical reaction without altering the electrodes or the electrolyte materials. In concept, hydrogen and oxygen are combined to produce electricity and water, which is the reverse of the electrolysis of water. The crew in manned missions can use this water. The fuel does not burn as in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Thus, the fuel cell operates differently from both the electrochemical battery and the IC engine. The conversion efficiency of the fuel cell is not limited to that of the Carnot cycle, because the fuel cell bypasses the thermal-to-mechanical conversion and its operation is isothermal. That is why its efficiency can be, in principle, much greater than that of the IC engine. The efficiencies of some commercial fuel cells approach 70 to 80%, about twice the combustion engine efficiency. The space qualified fuel cell efficiency, however, is around 10% at present, but has a potential for a significant increase. 3.4 Solar PV–Battery One of the most valuable breakthroughs in the space industry was probably the photovoltaic (PV) cell used to convert sunlight into electricity for Earth- orbiting satellites. Today, it is the most widely used energy conversion technology in the industry that has fueled the information revolution using high-power communications satellites. Power requirements in tens of watts to several kilowatts over a life ranging from a few months to 15 to 20 years can be met with an array of photovoltaic cells. Satellites requiring continuous load power even during an eclipse must use a rechargeable battery along with the PV array. The battery is charged during sunlight and discharged to power the load during an eclipse. A power regulator and control circuits are used as required for the mission. The general layout of the PV–battery power system is shown in Figure 3.5. All components other than the solar array are generally located inside the satellite body. The orientations of the core body and the solar array are maintained relative to the sun and the Earth. The core body is normally maintained in a near constant orientation relative to the Earth, while the drive and the
    • gimbals orient the solar array to the sun. The drive rotates 360 once per orbit as the satellite revolves around the Earth. The
    • gimbals rotate Æ
    •  to compensate for the variation in the solar
    • angle and also to prevent array shadowing if applicable. Not all satellites have
    • gimbals, but almost all using the solar energy for power generation have an drive. The © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 43 1-132
    • 44 Spacecraft Power Systems FIGURE 3.5 Solar photovoltaic–battery power system configuration. most common form of drive is a slip ring assembly with a solar array drive in 3-axis stabilized satellites, and a rotary power transfer assembly in gyrostats. Angular errors induced by the structural distortions are often compensated by the and/or
    • drive settings. The seasonal variations of the
    • angle and the eclipse duration over 1 year for the International Space Station in 400-km (220-n.m.) altitude and 51.6 inclination orbit are shown in Figure 3.6.1 For a given system design, the FIGURE 3.6 Beta angle and eclipse duration variation with season for the International Space Station. (Source: NASA Glenn SPACE Team/J. Hojnicki.) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 44 1-132
    • Power System Options 45 FIGURE 3.7 Degradation in I–V characteristics of a typical PV cell under radiation. power available to the load varies over the year due to seasonal variation in the
    • angle. At high Æ
    • when the eclipse duration is zero, the load capability of the electrical power system would be the greatest, as no battery charge power is required. For the ISS, there would be no eclipse at all for
    • > 71 , making the orbit sun-synchronous. The PV cell has been a building block of space power systems since the beginning. The cell is a diode-type junction of two crystalline semiconduc- tors, which generates electricity under sunlight. Its performance at the beginning of life (BOL) is characterized by the output voltage and current at its terminals as shown by the heavy line in Figure 3.7. The two extreme points on this curve, namely the open circuit voltage, Voc, and the short circuit current, Isc, are often used as the performance indicators. The maximum power a cell can generate is the product of Voc, Isc, and a factor that is approximately constant for a given junction. The I–V characteristic of the PV cell degrades as shown by thin lines with the increasing fluence of charged particles on the solar array in the space environment. Such degradation results in decreasing power generation with time. With the combination of seasonal variations of
    • angle and yearly degradation of charged particles, the power generation of the solar array over the mission life varies as shown in Figure 3.8. 3.5 Solar Concentrator–Dynamic Power System Solar energy can be used in systems other than photovoltaic cells. For example, the sun’s energy is collected in the form of heat using a concentrator. The heat, in turn, is used to generate steam and drive a rotating turbo-generator or a reciprocating alternator: either way uses a thermodynamic energy converter. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 45 1-132
    • 46 Spacecraft Power Systems FIGURE 3.8 Degradation of solar array output power versus service years. The dynamic power system was a primary candidate for early space station design, having an estimated power requirement of 300 kW. The system configuration is shown in Figure 3.9. A parabolic concentrator focuses the sun’s heat on to a receiver, which boils a fluid. The fluid can be a suitable liquid or even a liquid metal, such as potassium chloride. High- pressure steam produced in the receiver drives a steam turbine based on the Rankine cycle. The fluid can also be a gas, such as a mixture of helium and FIGURE 3.9 Solar concentrator–dynamic system. (Source: NASA Glenn Research Center.) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 46 1-132
    • Power System Options 47 xenon, having a molecular weight around 40. The heated gas drives a turbine working on the Brayton cycle. The gas-based system, however, minimizes erosion and the problem of sloshing when transporting a liquid. In either case, the high-pressure high-temperature fluid drives the turbine, which in turn drives an electrical generator. The energy conversion efficiency is about twice that of the photovoltaic system. This minimizes the deployed collector area and the aerodynamic drag in the low Earth orbit. An indirect advantage is that the energy storage is interwoven in the system at no extra cost. It primarily resides in the form of latent heat with the phase change at high temperature around 1000 K. The usable energy extracted during a thermal cycle depends on the working temperatures. The maximum thermodynamic conversion effi- ciency that can be theoretically achieved with the hot side temperature, Thot, and the cold side temperature, Tcold, is given by the Carnot cycle efficiency, which is Thot À Tcold Carnot ¼ ð3:1Þ Thot where the temperatures are in degrees absolute. The higher the hot side working temperature and lower the cold side exhaust temperature, the higher the efficiency of converting the captured solar energy into electricity. The hot side temperature, Thot, however, is limited by properties of the working medium. The cold side temperature, Tcold, is largely determined by the cooling method and the environment available to dissipate the exhaust heat. The dynamic power system incorporates the thermal energy storage for hours with no degradation in performance, or for longer duration with some degradation. This feature makes the technology capable of producing high-value electricity for meeting peak demands. Moreover, compared to the solar–photovoltaic system, the solar–thermal system is economical, as it eliminates the costly PV cells and battery. The solar concentrator–dynamic system with a turbo-alternator also offers significant advantage in efficiency and weight, and hence the overall cost over solar PV technology. The efficiency advantage comes from the higher efficiency of the engine (about 30%) as compared to silicon solar cells (about 15%), and higher efficiency of thermal energy storage of the receiver (about 90%) as compared to the battery efficiency (about 75%). The concept is sufficiently developed for use in the future, particularly in high-power LEO missions. It may also find applications in high-power defense spacecraft where large solar arrays can make the mission nonmaneuverable and vulnerable to enemy detection and attacks. The higher efficiency requiring less solar collection area results in reduced drag and less concern regarding station dynamics, approach corridors, and experimental viewing angles. The reduced drag is particularly important © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 47 1-132
    • 48 Spacecraft Power Systems because it allows lower flight altitudes within given constraints of drag- makeup fuel and orbit decay time. At high power approaching the 100-kW range for space-based radar (SBR), the solar array collector area becomes prohibitive. The solar dynamic system can be extremely cost effective over a wide range of power between a few kilowatts and hundreds of kilowatts. It was considered for the dynamic isotopes power system (DIPS) in the 5 to 10 kW power range, and the space station in the 200 to 500 kW power range. 3.6 Nuclear–Thermoelectric Interplanetary and deep space missions far away from the sun cannot be effectively designed using photovoltaic power generation because of weak solar flux. The spacecraft must therefore carry on board a primary energy source, such as a radioactive isotope or a nuclear reactor. In the first alternative, the radioisotope heats a thermoelectric (TE) material such as lead telluride, which generates electrical potential (Figure 3.10). The principle is similar to that in a thermocouple, only with higher conversion efficiency. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is being routinely used for interplanetary missions requiring power levels of several hundred watts. The reactor, on the other hand, has been considered for high power in the 30 to 300 kW range. Both power sources have the advantage of supplying power all the time, thus eliminating the need for a battery in base load systems having no peak power requirement. The obvious disadvan- tage is the heavy radiation shielding required around the electronic components. Also the nuclear fuels that are safe and easy to handle with little shielding, such as curium-244 and plutonium, are expensive. Inexpensive easily available fuels, such as strontium-90, are unsafe. High-energy particles emitted from the radioactive isotope material are the primary energy source, which heats the absorbing material. The thermal power radiation decreases proportionally with the remaining mass. The mass of the isotope material decay exponentially at a rate characterized by the half-life, T1=2 , which is long. Therefore, the power generation essentially remains constant for decades. This makes the nuclear energy source ideal FIGURE 3.10 Thermoelectric converter. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 48 1-132
    • Power System Options 49 for long-life interplanetary missions; many of them require several hundred watts power. However, it has also been used for some defense missions requiring a high degree of radiation hardness under nuclear threat, such as in the Space Power-100 (SP-100) program having power requirements ranging from 30 to 300 kW. Fairly advanced development has been carried out under the SP-100 funding, which is described in detail in Chapter 22. 3.7 Nuclear or Chemical–Dynamic Hundreds of kilowatts or multi-megawatts of electrical power require a chemical or nuclear reactor as the primary energy source and rotating a.c. generator. A short-life burst power mission may consider carrying on-board chemical fuel. On the other hand, a long-life mission may require a nuclear reactor. The primary source of power in such a reactor is nuclear fission, just like that in a ground-based nuclear power plant, only much smaller in scale. A fissile material such as uranium-235 works as the heat source to vaporize a fluid, typically liquid metal such as mercury or sodium potassium. The vapor then drives a turbine-generator using the Brayton or the Rankine cycle. The Stirling cycle is suitable in the 50 W to 50 kW power range for long life space missions, while the Brayton cycle is suitable in the 50 kW to 10 MW power range for advanced electric propulsion. A variety of concepts using a nuclear–dynamic system was considered for the strategic defense initiative (SDI) programs in the late 1980’s and the early 1990s. The SDI conceptual design power levels were in the multi-megawatt range between 30 and 300 MW. The basic requirement for such missions is to generate high power in the pulse or burst mode for a short duration of time, such as engagement at full power for about 15 min for a few times over the mission life. For the remaining time during the entire mission, the system must coast consuming minimum quiescent power. The design driver for such a power system is large-scale energy storage with a slow charge rate, and energy discharge at a high rate. For energy storage, both the flywheel and the superconducting magnet have been considered along with other options. The multi-megawatt nuclear dynamic systems are further discussed in Chapter 22. A nuclear–dynamic system for a few hundreds watts of power for interplanetary and space defense missions has been developed by NASA GRC, and is being space qualified. It uses a radioisotope as the heat source, a Stirling thermodynamic engine, a reciprocating electrical alternator, and a.c.–d.c. power converters if needed for d.c. loads. It is intended to replace the presently used RTGs. It works at temperatures of 1000  C on the hot side and 500  C on the cold side of the fluid. Compared to RTGs, it has a higher system efficiency (20%), higher specific power, and is scalable to higher power levels. The space-worthy technology has been demonstrated on a NASA test bed for applications up to 10 kW by building and testing a 2 kW unit. The technology is similar to[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 49 1-132
    • 50 Spacecraft Power Systems that used for balloon flights where a parabolic solar concentrator at the top of the balloon collects the energy, boils a liquid, and drives a Stirling engine at the base of the balloon. 3.8 Other Systems There are other power system options under various stages of development. They may find applications in some special niche missions. In evaluating potential applications of any new technology, the prime considerations are always the mass, cost, reliability, and the technology risk. For example, a system using any fluid has a potential for leakage and sloshing. On the other hand, a system having no moving parts have three inherent advantages: high reliability, no vibration, and no torque on the platform. 3.8.1 Thermo-Photovoltaic In the thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) scheme, the radioisotope or solar heat is directed at the PV cells as opposed to the present use of RTGs for generating electricity. It has a significantly higher conversion efficiency. Therefore, it may find applications as the mission-enabling technology where its high cost may be acceptable. The system can have a cylindrical or a flat configuration as shown in Figure 3.11. A heated surface radiates infrared heat onto an array of photovoltaic cells sensitive in the infrared range. A part of the energy is converted into d.c. electricity; and some is reflected back and dissipated as heat. The energy conversion process is different to that in the conventional PV cell. The efficiency varies with the radiator temperature. It ranges from 10% at 800  C to 12% at 1100  C based on the absorbed heat, but is only 3 to 4% based on the total incident energy. Most current TPVs use low bandgap PV cells such as 0.55 eV InGaAs or 0.73 eV GaSb to optimize the cell response to energy sources in the 1 to 2 mm range. The low bandgap of these cells leads to low open circuit voltage (about 0.25 to 0.45 V) and poor fill factor caused by high intrinsic carrier FIGURE 3.11 Thermo-photovoltaic converter. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 50 1-132
    • Power System Options 51 concentration. Thus, the cell must be operated at low temperatures, generally below 60  C to have adequate output voltage. As a result, a large radiator area is required. The temperature has considerable influence on the PV cell performance. The bandgap decreases with increasing temperature and the photocurrent increases with temperature by absorbing extra longer wavelength photons from the emitter. However, the open circuit voltage of the cell decreases linearly with increasing cell temperature due to the exponential increase in the saturation current. The TPV concept has recently seen renewed interest with new develop- ments in semiconductor technology. Recent advances have produced low bandgap (0.50 to 0.55 eV) material that is lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. These developments enable TPV systems to achieve reasonable efficiency and power density with radiators operating at about 1000  C. At relatively low radiator temperatures, there are many viable options for the heat source and a number of applications become attractive. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% has been reported2 at a radiator temperature of 1076  C and a module temperature of 30  C. This is the highest achieved efficiency for an integrated TPV system. It is the ratio of the peak (load-matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. The TPV cell degrades like the GaAs cell, hence it is suitable for application in Earth orbits passing through high radiation belts. 3.8.2 Solar–Thermoelectric The power system for a near-sun probe operating at high temperature cannot effectively use PV cells because of severe temperature degradation in performance. In such a mission, the collected solar heat can be directed at a pile of thermo-electric converters (TECs). The energy conversion details in such systems are common with the RTGs covered in Chapter 20. The only difference between the RTG and the solar–TE is the source of heat. The RTG heat source is the nuclear reaction in a suitable radioisotope, while heat in the solar–TE scheme comes from the sun. 3.8.3 Thermionic In this conversion process, the thermal energy is converted into electricity by using the electrons released from a hot body, known as thermionic emission, or the Edison effect. The electrons released from the cathode are collected at the anode, and a closed path through a load is established to complete the circuit back to the cathode. It has no moving parts. The concept is an old one, but is attracting new interest due to advances made in high-temperature materials. The thermionic converter is basically a heat engine with electrons as the working fluid, and is subject to the Carnot efficiency limitation. For this reason, it operates at much higher tempera- tures with a hot side around 1800 to 2000 K and heat rejection around 800 to[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 51 1-132
    • 52 Spacecraft Power Systems 1000 K. This imposes limits on candidate materials and life. Also, the thermionic converter produce a very low voltage requiring extensive power conversion and large power conditioning loss. Further developments are under way with the DoD funding at present. A typical example of development is the thermionic fuel element that integrates the converter and nuclear fuel for space power in the kilowatts to megawatts range for long missions. Converters filled with ionized gas, such as cesium vapor, in the inter-electrode space, yield higher specific power due to space charge neutralization. A 100-kW thermionic power system with a nuclear reactor has been built and tested in Russia, which is believed to be scalable to 300 kW and perhaps to a megawatts power level. A solar concentrator–thermionic power system may be practical up to 100 kW. This technology is not suitable for power levels lower than several kilowatts. General Atomic has designed a 50 kW unit in which solar heat is concentrated directly on the cathode, thus eliminating a working fluid. The conversion efficiency is around 10% using a high-side temperature of 1800  K, and 5% using the high-side temperature just below 1000  K. The specific power can approach 700 to 1000 W/kg. 3.8.4 Alkaline Metal Thermal to Electric Converter The alkaline metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) is a direct thermal to electric energy conversion system. It operates at temperatures around 1000 K on the high side and 600 K on the low side, and yield efficiency of 18 to 20%. It is a static system suitable for power levels below 100 W. It uses a unique characteristic of the alkali metal conducting ceramic
    • -alumina.3 It is a solid electrolyte that conducts sodium ions, but is an electron insulator. An electrochemical potential is generated when sodium is present at two different pressures separated by an electrolyte. The sodium is circulated through the converter using a porous stainless steel wick that uses capillary forces to transport the sodium from the low-pressure region to the high- pressure region. It has no moving parts and develops low voltage requiring a high level of power conditioning. A commercial version of this technology with titanium nitride electrodes is used for small down-hole instruments in the oil industry. Developments are under way for space-worthy AMTEC using a radioisotope as the heat source for interplanetary and deep space missions requiring power in the few hundred watts range. 3.9 Technology Options Compared The practical limit and performance characteristics of major power system options are summarized in Table 3.1. Although the PV–battery power system is the most widely used system for satellites, a variety of alternative power system technologies have been flown, developed, and are being © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 52 1-132
    • Power System Options 53 Table 3.1 Practical limit and performance comparison of various power system options Specific Power system Practical power limit Net system efficiency power option (kW) (%) (W/kg) Solar–PV 20 15–30 5–10 Isotope–TEC 1 7–15 7–15 Nuclear–TEC 100 7–15 – developed for various missions. Table 3.2 summarizes the present state of the spacecraft technology options4 along with current development work that has promising applications in the near future. It also includes some concepts that potentially may find beneficial applications in the future. Development engineers continuously evaluate new technologies for possible incorporation into new designs as they become available from research laboratories. Many times, these changes bring incremental benefits. Quantum benefits can be achieved by incorporating several changes simultaneously into a new design. For example, DoD and NASA have funded development and testing of protoflight solar array designs which could yield specific power over 100 W/kg, a factor of 3 greater than the state of the art, and a factor of 5 greater than the state of the practice. The design under consideration integrates three promising technologies: a flexible copper indium diselenide thin-film PV cell, smart mechanisms using shape memory metal, and a multifunctional lightweight structure.5 An important criterion in the application of a new technology is the development and flight qualification status. New components must be subjected to time- consuming and expensive testing to prove their ability to withstand launch and space environments. 3.10 System Voltage Options Early spacecraft with loads of a few hundred watts used 28 V d.c., primarily based on the product specifications readily available for the aircraft power system at the time. Since then, the power levels have increased significantly. As power is the product of voltage and current, high power requires a high- voltage bus in order to keep the current at a reasonable level. Otherwise, the excessive power loss in switching devices and the I2R loss in conductors reduce the system efficiency considerably. Today’s spacecraft bus voltages, somewhat standardized by the product lines of various manufacturers and government agencies, are 28 V, 50 V, 70 V, 100 V, 120 V, and 160 V, as shown in Figure 3.12. The 160-V limit comes primarily from the bare conductor interaction with space plasma, particularly in the low Earth orbit. Above © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 53 1-132
    • 54 Spacecraft Power Systems Table 3.2 Technology options and status of various power system components Technology option Technology status PV cell: converts sunlight into electricity Used in most long-mission spacecraft for power generation. The mission design life is generally limited to about 15 years due to degradation in the Van Allen radiation belts. TE cell: converts radioisotope heat into Well developed and flight-proven for a few electricity hundred watts. It is expensive. Solar heated TE may be considered in regions of intense Van Allen radiation belts and/or missions with nuclear threats. AMTEC: converts isotope heat into Under development. Suitable up to a few electricity using an alkali metal TE hundred watts systems for interplanetary and converter deep-space missions, rovers, etc. Thermionic: converts heat into electricity Solar and nuclear heated thermionic converters have been built and tested in the laboratory. Suitable for hundreds of kilowatts. Have high specific power. Nuclear reactor: converts heat into US prototype designs have been developed, but electricity not proven in space. Russian space programs have flown many such units. Scalable to the megawatt power range. Fuel cell: converts a fuel’s chemical Used routinely for the space shuttles. Was energy into electricity considered for the ISS. May find more applications in the future. Battery energy storage Most spacecraft use secondary batteries, and some short mission spacecraft use primary battery. Fully developed. Flywheel energy storage Under active development for installation on ISS in 2006–2007 time frame. Targeted to replace the battery. Thermo–PV: converts heat into electricity Under development. Low specific power, but using PV type cells may find niche application. 160 V, the solar array current leakage to plasma increases exponentially with potential sparking above 180 to 200 V. The plasma current is collected at exposed conductors having a bias voltage. With an insulated conductor, parasitic power loss due to plasma current at pinholes or coating defects have been shown to be small in ground plasma chamber testing at NASA GRC. Tests on several cable- insulating materials have shown that the collected plasma current remains negligible below a few hundred volts positive. However, at voltages of 200 V and above, insulation pinholes showed snap-over effects. If con- ductors are at high positive potentials relative to the plasma, snap-over may greatly increase the electron current and the resulting power drain. Still, regardless of the spacecraft grounding scheme, it is unlikely that more spacecraft will be at potentials greater than þ100 V above the plasma potential, so snap-over is unlikely to occur. An exception is the 160-V ISS © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 54 1-132
    • Power System Options 55 FIGURE 3.12 Optimum voltage for various power levels. solar array, where the plasma contactor keeps the structure close to the plasma potential. However, the most positive end of the solar array being more than 100 V positive, the solar cell edges would collect more current than otherwise, essentially increasing the power drain and demanding a high current capacity for the plasma contactor. For other high-voltage LEO spacecraft, such as the 200-V SP-100, analysis has shown that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is small compared to the total delivered current, and thus the percentage efficiency loss is also small. A rule of thumb is that for every square meter of exposed conductor in LEO at 100 V positive, a parasitic structure current of about 1 mA may be expected. Thus, for a payload of about 100 m2 surface area on a 100-V bus, for instance, only 100 mA of structure current may drain from the power system capacity. This is negligible compared to 100 A that a 10-kW power system would deliver at 100 V. Voltages higher than 160 V can be used in low Earth orbit with insulated cables covered in a shielded enclosure as shown in Figure 3.13, and by FIGURE 3.13 Covered cable tray protection against voltage breakdown. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 55 1-132
    • 56 Spacecraft Power Systems encapsulating all connectors and circuit boards. NASA has selected a 120-V distribution system for the ISS with necessary step-down converters for existing 28-V hardware. Early in the ISS design, 270 V d.c. and 440 V 20 kHz a.c. were considered, but, finally, a 160-V solar array voltage and 120-V distribution voltage were selected. Alternating current was seriously considered for the space station design in the 1980s for multiple benefits, but was dropped as the power requirement was significantly scaled down and high development costs were projected. High-voltage design, however, impacts upon the component selection. Moreover, the space environment considerations also limit the voltage to a certain level for a given mission. The factors that influence the voltage selections are:  Power level being the primary driver  Space environment and space plasma  Paschen minimum breakdown voltage between bare conductors  Human safety  Availability of components, such as semiconductor devices, power distribution and protection devices, tantalum capacitors, etc. Design issues at much higher voltages up to several hundred kilovolts are discussed in Chapter 22. 3.11 Scaling for Power Level Selecting the bus voltage from available options is a matter of the technical factors discussed above and in Chapter 22, taking into consideration the corporation’s in-house design heritage. In the case of a new development characterized by an absence of the heritage design, the following guideline may be used: optimum voltage ¼ 0.025 Â power requirement (3.1) For example, a 5000-W payload power system would have a mass- optimized design at 0.025 Â 5000 ¼ 125 V. This voltage is then shifted to the nearest standard voltage. If the voltage falls in the bands given in Table 3.3, the design engineer would have a good availability of parts which have been widely used in other spacecraft design, both commercial and government. For top level screening of various power system options for a given mission, the mass of a previously built similar design can be scaled to estimate the mass of a new system design with a different power level. The following is a rough empirical scaling law:[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 56 1-132
    • Power System Options 57 Table 3.3 Voltage bands High voltage Low voltage Medium voltage (V) (V) (V) Distribution voltage 28 70 120 Solar array output 38 80 160   new power requirement 0:7 mass of new design ¼ mass of similar design  power in similar design ð3:2Þ For example, the mass of a new system with 10 times the power requirement is 5 times the similarly built system using the same technology. This equation suggests that specific power doubles for every 10-fold increase in the power level. For a.c. systems, the power system mass depends both on the power level and also on the frequency. The design and fabrication experience of commercial and aircraft industry suggest the following rule of thumb.   kW mass of a:c: system ¼ ð3:3Þ f where the exponent is equal to 0.5 for small systems in hundreds of watts, and 0.75 for large systems in hundreds of kilowatts. References 1. Hojnicki, J.S. et al. ‘‘Space Station Freedom Electrical Performance Model,’’ NASA Glenn Research Center, Report No. TM-106395, 1993. 2. Brown, E.J. et al. ‘‘Measurements of conversion efficiency for a flat plate thermo-photovoltaic system using a photonic cavity test system,’’ in Proceedings of the 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, AIAA, 2000, Paper No. 3029. 3. Pantalin, J.E. et al. ‘‘Advanced AMTEC converter development,’’ Proceedings of the 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, ASME, 2001, pp. 519–524. 4. Hyder, A.K. et al. ‘‘Spacecraft Power Technologies,’’ Imperial College Press/ World Scientific Publishing Co, London, 2003. 5. Marshall, C.G. et al. ‘‘Example of a prototype lightweight solar array and the three promising technologies it incorporates,’’ Proceedings of the 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, SAE, 1999, Paper No. 01-2550. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC[10:15 27/10/04 T:/4382 PATEL.751 (2786)/4382-Text 01-07.3d] Ref: 4382 PATEL Ch01-07 Page: 57 1-132