* CELTS They were the first group of Indo-European speakers to move across Europe.Their homeland was in central Europe, north of the Alps.
They reached the Black Sea, south-west Spain and central Italy, and the whole Britain and Ireland.
* ROMANS INVADED BRITAIN- STAYED FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
(Introduced new way of life and new language. Some British Celts learnt to speak and write Latin)
* GERMANS TRIBES ATTACKED ROMANS LEFT BRITAIN IN AD 410
* THE SAXONS, THE ANGLES AND JUTES CAME FROM GERMANY AND DENMARK IN THE MIDDLE OF 5TH C. AD All these people spoke dialects of a language they called ENGLISC . They called the British Celts “wealas” meaning : foreigners. From this comes de word Welsh.
*By the end of 5th c. the ENGLISH LANGUAGE BEGAN TO DEVELOP WITH THE CONTRIBUTION OF GERMANIC AND THE ANGLO-SAXONS TRIBES,
*Other invaders were THE VIKINGS (called DANES by Anglo-Saxons). They came from Denmark and Norway. Influence in language: words beginning with sk-: skin, skirt, sky. Some pronouns and adjectives :they, their, them
* THE NORMANDS- French invaders (1066).
French became the lg for two hundred years, until 13th century. Used mainly by the upper class, ordinary people used English.
In 15th c. English completed replaced French in the home, in education and in government.
* The dialects of the first Anglo-Saxons became what we now call Old English ( OE ). There were four main dialects: West Saxon, Kentish, Mercian, Northumbrian. Old English was almost completed Germanic. The dialects had very few Celtic words. However, they borrowed some Celtic words, for example, some English cities and and rivers: London, Leeds and Thames.
*Monks from Rome to teach the Anglo-Saxons about Christianity,left latin words in education and some connected to the Church.
*Eighty-five per cent of the OE vocabulary has been replaced in ModerEnglish (ME) with words from Latin and Greek. However, the hundred most common words in ME all come from the language used at that time.
sleep slaepa eat etan drink drincan house hus child cild wife wif ME OE
In the four hundred years that followed the Norman Conquest, the English language changed more than in any other time in history. Thousands of words from French came into the language, and many Old English ones left.
At the same time Middle English changed grammatically, mainly by becoming simpler.
OE: climb- past- clomb
ME: climb past climbed
Between 1100 and 1500, about 10,000 French words were taken into English, three-quarters of which are still in use. French words came into every part of life: for example, chair, city, crime, fashion, fruit,…