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History of Przedmiescie Odrzańskie - Nadodrze
History of Przedmiescie Odrzańskie - Nadodrze
History of Przedmiescie Odrzańskie - Nadodrze
History of Przedmiescie Odrzańskie - Nadodrze
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History of Przedmiescie Odrzańskie - Nadodrze

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The residential district of Nadodrze has been separated from Wroclaw's historical Przedmieście Odrzańskie. We present a brief historical sketch of the development of this part of town, from the time …

The residential district of Nadodrze has been separated from Wroclaw's historical Przedmieście Odrzańskie. We present a brief historical sketch of the development of this part of town, from the time of separation to the beginning of the twentieth century.

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  • 1. History of Przedmieście OdrzańskieThe western part of todays downtown of Wroclaw (Śródmieście) included the old PrzedmieścieOdrzańskie (Oder Vorstadt) which covered a large territory lying between the Oder and the OldOder, which is limited from the east today by Jedności Narodowej street (Matthiasstrasse).THE MIDDLE AGESIn the Middle Ages, the suburb wascompletely different from the currenthousing in Nadodrze. Even in thesixteenth-century maps of Wroclaw (for example the Barthel Weihner of1562 year) the upper part of Wroclawsituated on the Oder River was a vastfield of green smoothly running alongthe paths, which later paved mainarteries of the suburbs. As in othersuch settlements, building was looseand chaotic. The XVI century maps of Wroclaw - Barthel Weihner, 1562 Abbey St. Vincent on Ołbin An important buildings complex on the west side of Wroclaw in the Middle Ages was St. Vincents Abbey on Ołbin. The monastery was founded in the 30s of XII c., and demolished in 1529. To this day, there are fragments of architectural details from the defunct buildings. Graphics of St. Vincent Abbey on Ołbin - F.B.Werner, 1755rSo we know that in the abbey were three churches:St. Vincent, St. Archangel Michael and All Saints,and numerous monastic buildings grouped aroundseveral courtyards. With this entire complexsurvived only a few architectural details, but theyare among the most precious monuments ofRomanesque sculpture in Poland. Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Szewska st. - Portal Ołbiński, moved in 1546
  • 2. CON CONSTRUCTION OF FORTIFICATIONS in the middle of XVIII c. A breakthrough in the spatial layout of the suburbs occurred only in the eighteenth century. Then the Prussian King Frederick the Great changed the layout of land, thrusting a little wedge of fortifications at the beginning what is today called Sienkiewicza Street, exposing the gate and bastion of the “Star returned to the north”. At the end of this century the first non-durable workshops started to work too. Soon around the today’s Dubois street and Cybulskiego street, appeared bonded of carbon and salt, but actually Plan of Wroclaw with visible fortifications – 1800 the industrial side of suburb developed in the next century. DEMOLITION OF FORTIFICATIONS - DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUBURBS - the beginning of the XIX. c. In the early nineteenth century, almost all the buildings of Przedmieście Odrzańskie had been burned. In 1806 the town was severely damaged. At the turn of 1806 and 1807 years the Prussian garrison burned buildings of suburbs, in order to destroy the refuge for besieging the city Napoleons troops. Fire in the suburbs in front of The Odrzańska Gate A turning point for the town planning of the city was ordered in 1807 by Prince Jerome Bonaparte, commander of French troops occupying the city. This called for the demolition of the town’s fortifications. The decision of the Emperor Napoleon Is brother helped to expand the boundaries of Wroclaw and include five suburbs: Przedmieście Mikołajskie, Świdnickie, Oławskie, Piaskowe and Odrzańskie. After connecting the suburbs area of Wroclaw , the area increased almost sixteenfold (from 133 to 2046 ha). Plan of Wroclaw after the destruction of the city walls - Formally, suburbs in Wroclaw were merged with around 1807 the city on November 19th 1808, but, in fact, that process was longer.
  • 3. A slow expansion of the suburbs began after thedestruction of the fortifications, while stillretaining their half-rustic character, a smallnumber of buildings were non-paved andsurrounded by wooden fences streets.On the map of Wroclaw in 1843, we can see theoutline of todays main downtowns streets. It wasa time of development for new factories (chicory,brewing alum, labels, buttons, mirrors, glass,soda water) and commercial centers located onthe street. Houses on Jedności Narowowej st.CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAYSThe development of Wrocławss suburbs accelerated the introduction of railways to the city in 1842.Nadodrze Railway Station - Main Railway Station to covering the needs of the local and nationalpopulation. Nadodrze Railway Station Narrow-gauge railway station at Staszica squareUnfortunately, the expansion of Wroclaw suburbs proceeded rapidly and sometimes haphazardly.Especially in Przedmieście Odrzańskie and Oławskie with its chaotically distributed architecture oftenement houses, which led to intense, faulty building, and decidedly poor housing conditions.There was overpopulation, crowding, lack of sunlight and sanitation. In addition to new buildings,on these sites mainly semi-rural houses covered with straw were built. August Semrau called thedistrict the ghetto of porters, carpenters and laundressses.In the second half of the century began theconstruction of big houses on the Trzebnickisquare, Łokietka street, Pomorska street,Obrońców Pokoju street, featuring a gianthuman crowds.Closer to the city center, the area was maintainedin much better condition. Further, however, evenin 1850 the area of present Nadodrze lookedmore like bottomless puddle rather than aresidential city street. View on Dubois st.
  • 4. Even worse are the present side streets, where the majority of Naododrze’s poorest live. In 1850 itwas written that in times of rainfall, there is a suburb the is best avoided. Sais suburb was alsoimpaired in terms of public utility, and there were no developments plans for wholeneighbourhoods. The municipality tried to keep most of the streets an appropriate width and toleave open spaces for squares. They operated in the maintenance of adequate roads, provision ofwater supply, etc. But with regard to the roads, there was still much to be desired.DEVELOPMENT IN THE 70s. of XIX c.After 1871, an unprecedented constructionboom took place in Wroclaw. It was causedby political events (Frankfurt Peaceconcluded between Prussia and France in1871 and ended the war between the twocountries), numerous legislative changesand new economic measures in Germany,and the rapid repayment of contributionsimposed on France - 5 billion francs ingold.Further development of housing onPrzedmieście Odrzańskie was possible in1873 - Guido von Drabitziusa and OttoBauers created the conception of landmanagement on the field of St. Matthias. St. Matthias squareAfter 1877 there was a clear decrease in the number of construction projects undertaken, whichcaused the stock market crash of 1873.Hostilities of the 20th century had a mild affect around the Nadodrze train station. Today, themajority of buildings date from the years 1860-1880, which have a characteristic form, usuallyknown tenement houses.According to original text:Marta Swoboda, Dzieje wrocławskiego Przedmieścia Odrzańskiegowww.skarbykultury.plTranslated and supplemented:Infopunkt Nadodrze - Łokietka5Anna Siemieniec

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