Aguas
Subterráneas el la
Cordillera Blanca,
Peru
Jeffrey McKenzie (McGill University)
Daniel Chavez (McGill University)
Ry...
Importance of Groundwater in
the Proglacial Zone
Baseflow to Rivers and Streams,
Sustaining Dry Season Flows
Temporal Stor...
Groundwater Questions
1) After peak-water, is groundwater
contribution to water resources
significant?
2) What is the sour...
Pampas – An Important Landform
for groundwater in the Cordillera
Blanca?
(Knox, 2009)
Quilcayhuanca
Yanamarey
Downstream Confluence
Hydrochemical mixing models
GlacierizedNon- glacierized
Glacier
No Glacier
YAN
Q3
Q2
Q1
YAN
Q1
Q3
Q2...
Hydrochemical Basin
Characterization Method
(HBCM; Baraer et al., 2007)
Yanamarey Watershed
HBCM
Dry Season Groundwater in Other Valleys
(1) Llanganuco
(2) Quilcay
(3) Querococha
Baraer et al., 2009
(4) Pachacoto
Rain Fed Groundwater Systems
Chavez et al., 2012
Talus
Bedrock
Glaciolacustrine
GPR Results
Mixed-Source Groundwater Systems
Llanganuco Upper Pampa, Viewed from Laguna 69
Debris
Fan
Talus
Meadow
Moraines
Laguna
69
Lag.
Broggi
Llanganuco Upper Pampa
Big spring
82.1 L/s
Flow
from fan
22.8 L/s total
Flow from
Moraine
5.2 L/s
Outflow from
Lag. 69
21.8 L/s
Outflow from
Lag....
Groundwater Travel Time
Geochemical Results
 Travel time is ~ 1.5 to 3 years
Darcy Velocity Calculations
 Groundwater ve...
Threats to Groundwater
• Receding glaciers may impact
groundwater recharge in mixed-sourced
aquifers
• Changes in precipit...
Conclusions
RECHARGE
Groundwater is
recharged from
precipitation
and glacier melt
STORAGE
Groundwater is
stored over
years...
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Aguas subterráneas el la Cordillera Blanca, Perú

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Aguas subterráneas el la Cordillera Blanca, Perú

  1. 1. Aguas Subterráneas el la Cordillera Blanca, Peru Jeffrey McKenzie (McGill University) Daniel Chavez (McGill University) Ryan Gordon (Syracuse University) Laura Maharaj (McGill University) Michel Baraer (École de technologie supérieure) Bryan Mark (The Ohio State University) Laura Lautz (Syracuse University)
  2. 2. Importance of Groundwater in the Proglacial Zone Baseflow to Rivers and Streams, Sustaining Dry Season Flows Temporal Storage and Release of Water Potential Impacts on Water Quality Water for Ecological Systems, such as wetlands
  3. 3. Groundwater Questions 1) After peak-water, is groundwater contribution to water resources significant? 2) What is the source and flow paths of groundwater? 3) Can we assess the groundwater ‘residence time’? 4) Is groundwater vulnerable?
  4. 4. Pampas – An Important Landform for groundwater in the Cordillera Blanca? (Knox, 2009) Quilcayhuanca Yanamarey
  5. 5. Downstream Confluence Hydrochemical mixing models GlacierizedNon- glacierized Glacier No Glacier YAN Q3 Q2 Q1 YAN Q1 Q3 Q2 mixingline 1999 Mix (Q3) = 70% Non-Glacier Water Q3 Q1 Q2 YAN Mix 2004 Mix (Q3) = 50% Non-Glacier Water Mark et al., 2004
  6. 6. Hydrochemical Basin Characterization Method (HBCM; Baraer et al., 2007) Yanamarey Watershed
  7. 7. HBCM Dry Season Groundwater in Other Valleys (1) Llanganuco (2) Quilcay (3) Querococha Baraer et al., 2009 (4) Pachacoto
  8. 8. Rain Fed Groundwater Systems Chavez et al., 2012 Talus Bedrock Glaciolacustrine GPR Results
  9. 9. Mixed-Source Groundwater Systems Llanganuco Upper Pampa, Viewed from Laguna 69
  10. 10. Debris Fan Talus Meadow Moraines Laguna 69 Lag. Broggi Llanganuco Upper Pampa
  11. 11. Big spring 82.1 L/s Flow from fan 22.8 L/s total Flow from Moraine 5.2 L/s Outflow from Lag. 69 21.8 L/s Outflow from Lag. Broggi 35.8 L/s Outlet 115 L/s Discharge and net changes METHOD - Double-slug dilution gauging method which provides:  discharge (Q)  net change in discharge (∆Q)  gross gains and losses (Qgain and Qloss ) Laura Lautz & Ryan Gordon Syracuse University
  12. 12. Groundwater Travel Time Geochemical Results  Travel time is ~ 1.5 to 3 years Darcy Velocity Calculations  Groundwater velocity through talus is ~ 3 mm/d  Minimum travel time is greater than 1 year
  13. 13. Threats to Groundwater • Receding glaciers may impact groundwater recharge in mixed-sourced aquifers • Changes in precipitation regime due to climate change will affect recharge • Human contamination of groundwater  Very Difficult to Fix • Increased ET due to warmer temperatures
  14. 14. Conclusions RECHARGE Groundwater is recharged from precipitation and glacier melt STORAGE Groundwater is stored over years in coarse grained aquifers RESOURCE Groundwater is an important contributor to dry season flows THREATS Groundwater is Vulnerable to Climate Change and Contamination jeffrey.mckenzie@mcgill.ca

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