The Ganges Basin Development Challenge: Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta
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The Ganges Basin Development Challenge: Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta

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Presentation of Larry Harrington, Ganges Basin, as part of the "Simposio Internacional: El Desafío del Agua y la Alimentación en el Mundo" organized by National Authority of Water (ANA) in Peru and ...

Presentation of Larry Harrington, Ganges Basin, as part of the "Simposio Internacional: El Desafío del Agua y la Alimentación en el Mundo" organized by National Authority of Water (ANA) in Peru and the Consorcio para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Ecorregión Andina (CONDESAN). June 3, 2013.

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  • Need a better slide to geographic location.
  • Polders in the southern region on Bangladesh and India were built in the 60’s and 70’s to control storm surges and create freshwater flood plains. 2-3 crops a year, however…………..There are no polders in W.Bengal (India). The polders were built to prevent flooding at high tide during the rainy season, and to prevent saline water intrusion during the dry season. In most of the polders of SW Bangladesh there is only 1 rice crop per year (aman, grown during the rainy season). Farmers grow a low yielding, tall traditional variety, sometimes followed by a low yielding legume. In the polders in the more saline areas, aman rice is sometimes grown in rotation with brackish water shrimp, which is a risky practice, but can be highly profitable. However, because of poor management of the shrimp ghers, farmers are currently unable to grow aman rice in many locations.
  • Working in 4 locations in Bangladesh & 2 in India representing 3 situations
  • Structured into 5 inter-related projects addressing the single challenge

The Ganges Basin Development Challenge: Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Ganges Basin DevelopmentChallenge (GBDC)Increasing the resilience of agriculturaland aquaculture systems in the coastalareas of the Ganges Delta
  • 2. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaWater for a food-secure worldThe short, short version• Coastal Bangladesh, seasonal salinity, “polders”• Low productivity farm systems• Enormous potential to intensify systems if better water control• But infrastructure for water control needs improvement• Multiple institutions working on water infrastructure –coordination problems• CPWF projects working with National Planning Commission andother local institutions on practical steps to upgrade infrastructure– could involve up to USD1b of investment
  • 3. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaWater for a food-secure worldLOCATION OF GANGES RIVER BASIN
  • 4. Polder 31Polder 30RiverInlet tosluicegateSluicegate onriver sideSluicegateinside theFocal study areas in Bangladesh
  • 5. West Bengal, IndiaSouth West BangladeshPatuakhali STUPolder 43/2/FPolder 30Polder 3North 24 ParganasSouth 24 ParganasAndy Nelson“LOW SALINITY”•Water “stagnation” 30-50 cmseveral weeks in aman•River water fresh 10-11 months•Mild soil salinity in dry season“MEDIUM SALINITY”•Water “stagnation” 30-50 cmseveral weeks in aman•River water saline mid-Feb-Jun•Medium soil salinity in dryseason“HIGH SALINITY”•Water “stagnation” 30-50 cmseveral weeks in aman•River water saline Dec-Jul•High soil salinity in dryseason
  • 6. Increasing area affected by soil salinitySoil salinityNoneVery slightSlightStrongVery strong3/12
  • 7. Study sites for improved technologiesPolder 3Rice/Aquaculture &Shrimp/ShrimpPolder 30Intensification from one totwo cropsPolder 43/2fIntensification fromone/two to three crops2/12
  • 8. 10 Apr30 June10 July15 Nov 05AprRabi (130-140 d)1 DecT. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d)A M J J A S O N D J F M ALow salinity areas: Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System
  • 9. 15 July15 Nov 30 AprRabi (120-140 d)Dec/JanAman (140 d)M J J A S O N D J F M A MTerminal DrainageModerate salinity areas: Aman-Rabi Cropping System
  • 10. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecWet seasonDry seasonGherpreparationSeedlingBagda Rice+FishHigh salinity areas: Improved aquaculture-riceDrain out saline water,expose gher soil torainfall to leach downsoil salinityPoorly-drained gher in polder 3 Well-drained gher
  • 11. Average of Peak water level during kharif-2
  • 12. • In the low saline zone freshwater is available for the whole year at presentand future and three crops can be established instead of one crop atpresent;• Gravity irrigation is feasible during Aman Crop;• Costal polder needs improved water management with additional drainageand flushing sluices and ensuring proper operation of gates;• Internal road network needs adequate number of cross-drainage structurefor drainage improvement;• Excavation of internal drainage khal for drainage improvement and waterstorage for agriculture;• In the high saline zone, unauthorized pipes/structure are used for salinewater supply can be replaced by few number of flushing sluices for betterwater and conflict management and safety of the embankment ;• The effects of external drivers on water resources is significant and needs tobe considered in future plannning.Details: What “water control” means in this case
  • 13. Re-defining the roles of polders• Each polder needs to be considered as anintegrated water management unit• The original role of the polders was to enable onecrop of tall, long duration traditional aman rice• HYVs & improved cropping system technologiesnow available, but require better water control
  • 14. Effective water management at polder level requireseparation of lands on the basis of land topography toform a small water management unit by about 50 cmhigh farm levee
  • 15. How to reduce drainage problems and conflicts?Divide polders intosmaller hydrologicalunits (SHU).Use LGED rural roadsas hydrologicalboundariesFor even smallerboundaries, use UPsocial safety funds forail construction
  • 16. Why are water infrastructures not maintained?• WMOs were created forsolving ‘deferredmaintenance’• Why communities don’tmaintain?– Public goods dilemma– Even so called ‘minor’repair and maintenancemay be beyond the capacityof communities– Incentive problems: ifcommunities don’t fix it intime, government or donorwill in a few years time
  • 17. Solutions beyond community levels• Use existing social safetynet funds of UP, like 40days work, KABHIKA forpolder maintenance• Twin benefits ofemployment creation(LCS) and infrastructuremaintenance• Coordination between UP,BWDB, LGED and CentralGovernment
  • 18. Solutions by donors and central government• Create of Donor-Government Trust Fundfor Maintenance ofWater relatedinfrastructure inBangladesh• All polder/sub-projectsget allocations for repairand maintenance everyyear from interestamount of Trust FundGoBDevelopment partnerDonor Government Trust Fund
  • 19. Trust fund money is allocated to every poldereach year for Repair and Maintenance
  • 20. Polder 31Polder 30RiverInlet to sluice gateSluice gate on river sideSluice gate inside thepolder5 research projects - expected outcomesUse of suitability domain maps as a decisionsupport toolsDevelop, evaluate, and adapt new and improvedcropping and aquaculture systemsBetter polder governance through reduced conflictbetween fishermen and farmersUnderstanding of the key external drivers of changein water resourcesEstablish a policy framework for scaling up/out oftechnologies to enable changes in HH of Gangescoastal zone (team effort)
  • 21. Thank you