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Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta
 

Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta

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  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
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Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta Presentation Transcript

    • Bert De Bievre, Miguel Saravia, Luis Acosta
    • Chiang Mai, september 2011
    Drivers in the Andes
  • Relevant conditions in Andes
  •  
  • Relevant conditions in Andes (1)
    • (very) high mountains with a lot of people in them
    • Extremely variable conditions
    Altitude range 0 - 6746 (masl) Bolivia 252 - 6542 Colombia 0 - 5750 Ecuador 0 - 6267 Perú 0 - 6746 Precipitation range 31 – 9000 (mm/year) Bolivia 200 - 5000 Colombia 300 – 9000 Ecuador 125 - 6000 Perú 31 – 3838 Source: Principales indicadores de la Unión de Naciones Suramericanas1998 – 2007 (SGCA, 2008c), (PNUMA & SGCA, 2003), Fondo Mundial para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (WWF). INDICATOR BOLIVIA COLOMBIA ECUADOR PERÚ CAN (2005) Population (millions) 9,4 44,9 13,2 27,3 94,8 Urban (%) 64 77 63 73 72 Rural (%) 36 23 37 27 28 Data from CEPALSTAT (CEPAL, 2008)
  • Relevant conditions in Andes (2)
    • Mountain rivers with limited regulation capacity
    • Very high temporal variability of water availability in sources:
      • Small catchments in case of high altitude offtakes
      • High dependence on few regulation mechanisms: peatlands, glaciers
      • Little regulation infrastructure
  • Relevant conditions in Andes (3)
    • Water demand at high altitudes
    Dependent on regulation mechanisms at even higher altitude, where groundwater regulation is almost unexistent
  • Relevant conditions in Andes (4)
    • Water demand in lower river reach very variable (Peru’s coastal desert: very high, Amazon tributaries: very low)
    Source: ANA Perú 2010 Atlántico Pacífico Titicaca
  • Relevant conditions in Andes (5)
    • Traditional knowledge and technologies to manage natural resources
  • Important drivers in Andes
  • Important drivers in Andes (1)
    • Urbanization: drastic increase in urban population, rural population more or less stable. Causes geographical concentration of water demand
    Source: Presentation “Water Management and Climate Change”, by Axel Dourojeanni, Lima 2010. Source: Estrategia Andina para GIRH, CAN 2010.
  • Important drivers in Andes (2)
    • Free trade agreements boost agroindustry for export, but large differences between countries
  • Important drivers in Andes (3)
    • Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments
    • Some spontaneous recuperation in abandoned land (migration)
    • Doubts on reversibility
  • Important drivers in Andes (3)
    • Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments
    Source: Wouter Buytaert, 2010.
  • Important drivers in Andes (3)
  • Important drivers in Andes (3)
  • Important drivers in Andes (4)
    • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain
  • Important drivers in Andes (4)
    • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain
    Projected changes in ecosystems area: the higher ecosystems only loose, the lower ones loose and gain (Cuesta et al., 2010)
  • Important drivers in Andes (4)
    • Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain
    Range of projected annual rainfall
  • Responses for Andes
  • Responses (1)
    • Urbanization: focus on catchments supplying water to large cities (e.g. water funds), campaigning for reduction of demand, large infrastructure to bring in water from further away.
  • Responses (2)
    • Agroindustry: Interest for catchment, very recent (!), especially Peru
    • Example: Design of PES in Rio Ca ñete basin
  • Responses (3)
    • Land degradation: conservation of critical ecosystems (paramo, puna wetlands), in lower areas little response
  • Responses (4)
    • Climate change: adaptation actions
    • Whole lot of projects, governmental at national and local scale, and non-governmental
    • Nothing really new:
      • Integrated Water Resources Management
      • Integrated Catchment Management
      • Typically reforestation with low positive hydrological impact or even negative impact
  • Responses (5)
    • From Payment for Environmental Services to Benefit Sharing:
      • Inventory shows that few cases in Andes meet criteria to be Payment for Environmental Services
      • Large variety of Benefit Sharing Mechanisms
      • Strong resistance to PES in countries like Ecuador and Bolivia, now almost forbidden by law
  • Responses (6)
    • Integrated Water Resources Management
    • Efforts to update legislation and institutional framework
      • New Water Law, without success in most countries
      • Framework for basin organizations/authorities
    • In absence of legal framework, Municipalities establish partnerships to manage catchments
  • Contacts : [email_address] [email_address] www.condesan.org