Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta

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  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
  • Free trade agreements: the clearest case is the export agriculture in the deserts of Peruvian coast. Climate change: vertical moves clearest driver, much clearer than changes in total rainfall, or precipitation patterns
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  • Drivers in the Andes. Por De Bievre, Saravia y Acosta

    1. 1. <ul><li>Bert De Bievre, Miguel Saravia, Luis Acosta </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Mai, september 2011 </li></ul>Drivers in the Andes
    2. 2. Relevant conditions in Andes
    3. 4. Relevant conditions in Andes (1) <ul><li>(very) high mountains with a lot of people in them </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely variable conditions </li></ul>Altitude range 0 - 6746 (masl) Bolivia 252 - 6542 Colombia 0 - 5750 Ecuador 0 - 6267 Perú 0 - 6746 Precipitation range 31 – 9000 (mm/year) Bolivia 200 - 5000 Colombia 300 – 9000 Ecuador 125 - 6000 Perú 31 – 3838 Source: Principales indicadores de la Unión de Naciones Suramericanas1998 – 2007 (SGCA, 2008c), (PNUMA & SGCA, 2003), Fondo Mundial para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (WWF). INDICATOR BOLIVIA COLOMBIA ECUADOR PERÚ CAN (2005) Population (millions) 9,4 44,9 13,2 27,3 94,8 Urban (%) 64 77 63 73 72 Rural (%) 36 23 37 27 28 Data from CEPALSTAT (CEPAL, 2008)
    4. 5. Relevant conditions in Andes (2) <ul><li>Mountain rivers with limited regulation capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Very high temporal variability of water availability in sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small catchments in case of high altitude offtakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High dependence on few regulation mechanisms: peatlands, glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little regulation infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Relevant conditions in Andes (3) <ul><li>Water demand at high altitudes </li></ul>Dependent on regulation mechanisms at even higher altitude, where groundwater regulation is almost unexistent
    6. 7. Relevant conditions in Andes (4) <ul><li>Water demand in lower river reach very variable (Peru’s coastal desert: very high, Amazon tributaries: very low) </li></ul>Source: ANA Perú 2010 Atlántico Pacífico Titicaca
    7. 8. Relevant conditions in Andes (5) <ul><li>Traditional knowledge and technologies to manage natural resources </li></ul>
    8. 9. Important drivers in Andes
    9. 10. Important drivers in Andes (1) <ul><li>Urbanization: drastic increase in urban population, rural population more or less stable. Causes geographical concentration of water demand </li></ul>Source: Presentation “Water Management and Climate Change”, by Axel Dourojeanni, Lima 2010. Source: Estrategia Andina para GIRH, CAN 2010.
    10. 11. Important drivers in Andes (2) <ul><li>Free trade agreements boost agroindustry for export, but large differences between countries </li></ul>
    11. 12. Important drivers in Andes (3) <ul><li>Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments </li></ul><ul><li>Some spontaneous recuperation in abandoned land (migration) </li></ul><ul><li>Doubts on reversibility </li></ul>
    12. 13. Important drivers in Andes (3) <ul><li>Land degradation: loss of regulation capacity in mountain catchments </li></ul>Source: Wouter Buytaert, 2010.
    13. 14. Important drivers in Andes (3)
    14. 15. Important drivers in Andes (3)
    15. 16. Important drivers in Andes (4) <ul><li>Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain </li></ul>
    16. 17. Important drivers in Andes (4) <ul><li>Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain </li></ul>Projected changes in ecosystems area: the higher ecosystems only loose, the lower ones loose and gain (Cuesta et al., 2010)
    17. 18. Important drivers in Andes (4) <ul><li>Climate change: vertical altitudinal moves certain, everything else very uncertain </li></ul>Range of projected annual rainfall
    18. 19. Responses for Andes
    19. 20. Responses (1) <ul><li>Urbanization: focus on catchments supplying water to large cities (e.g. water funds), campaigning for reduction of demand, large infrastructure to bring in water from further away. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Responses (2) <ul><li>Agroindustry: Interest for catchment, very recent (!), especially Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Design of PES in Rio Ca ñete basin </li></ul>
    21. 22. Responses (3) <ul><li>Land degradation: conservation of critical ecosystems (paramo, puna wetlands), in lower areas little response </li></ul>
    22. 23. Responses (4) <ul><li>Climate change: adaptation actions </li></ul><ul><li>Whole lot of projects, governmental at national and local scale, and non-governmental </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing really new: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Water Resources Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Catchment Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically reforestation with low positive hydrological impact or even negative impact </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Responses (5) <ul><li>From Payment for Environmental Services to Benefit Sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory shows that few cases in Andes meet criteria to be Payment for Environmental Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large variety of Benefit Sharing Mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong resistance to PES in countries like Ecuador and Bolivia, now almost forbidden by law </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Responses (6) <ul><li>Integrated Water Resources Management </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to update legislation and institutional framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Water Law, without success in most countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework for basin organizations/authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In absence of legal framework, Municipalities establish partnerships to manage catchments </li></ul>
    25. 26. Contacts : [email_address] [email_address] www.condesan.org

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