Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the
equilibrium-line and mass balance for glaciers in
the outer tropics?
Dr. A...
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
Context
2 / 18
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the o...
Context
2 / 18
“The World Glacier Inventory contains information for over 100,000 glaciers through out the
world. Paramete...
Context
2 / 18
0.1 % of the glaciers are monitored at worldscale
Limitation for the study of:
- glacier sensitivity to cli...
Context
2 / 18
Remote-sensing is an efficient tool to realize the
measurement of glaciological parameters at a regional sc...
3 / 18
Background
Equilibrium line, MB = 0
Acc > Ab
Saint Sorlin Glacier (French Alps)
For mid-latitude glaciers : end-of-...
4 / 18
Background
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for th...
4 / 18
Background
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for th...
Background
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the outer...
5 / 18
Background
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for th...
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
Tropical climate generates a sequence of
accumulation and ablation p...
7 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
Ph : B. Pouyaud
Monthly mass balance measurements on
the glac...
8 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
Ph : B. Pouyaud
Monthly mass balance measurements on
the glac...
9 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the o...
10 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the ...
11 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the ...
11 / 18
Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the ...
12 / 18
Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Conte...
12 / 18
Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
z
b
SLASLAtb ieq )()(
Snowline altitude for each year ...
12 / 18
Mass balance gradient derived
from field data, valid at a regional
scalez
b
SLASLAtb ieq )()(
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI ...
12 / 18
z
b
SLASLAtb ieq )()(
n
ieq
zb
B
SLA
n
SLA
1 /
1
with:
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
1) Context & ...
12 / 18
Mean mass balance of the glacier over
the study period computed by DEM
difference
z
b
SLASLAtb ieq )()(
n
ieq
zb
B...
13 / 18
11 glaciers where is available.
Soruco et al., 2009
)0697(B
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method fo...
14 / 18
Zongo Glacier (Bolivia, 16 S)
Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
Reconstruction of glacier surface mass...
15 / 18
Good consistency between
the glaciers
ENSO is the main forcing of
the interannual variability
El Niño
La Niña
1) C...
Important difference:
between -3.4 m w.e. and
-21.3 m w.e.
16 / 18
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for...
1) Context & background
2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes
3) Application to the Cordillera Real - B...
Gracias!
See also the poster by Ing. Edwin Loarte et al. for an application in the Cordillera Blanca
Rabatel et al., 2005....
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Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the equilibrium-line and mass balance for glaciers in the outer tropics?

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Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the equilibrium-line and mass balance for glaciers in the outer tropics?

  1. 1. Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the equilibrium-line and mass balance for glaciers in the outer tropics? Dr. Antoine Rabatel, Ing. E. Loarte, Dr. A. Soruco, Ing. J. Gomez August 28, 2009 Ph : B. Pouyaud Huaraz, 1 - 4 de julio 2013 Laboratorio Mixto Internacional GREAT – ICE Servicio de Observacion GLACIOCLIM
  2. 2. Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Context 2 / 18 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia “The World Glacier Inventory contains information for over 100,000 glaciers through out the world. Parameters within the inventory include: geographic location, area, length, orientation, elevation, and classification of morphological type and moraines.” World Glacier Inventory website
  3. 3. Context 2 / 18 “The World Glacier Inventory contains information for over 100,000 glaciers through out the world. Parameters within the inventory include: geographic location, area, length, orientation, elevation, and classification of morphological type and moraines.” World Glacier Inventory website “Basic information on specific net balance, cumulative specific balance, accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude is given for 111 glaciers.” GMBB #10, WGMS-Zurich, 2009 Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  4. 4. Context 2 / 18 0.1 % of the glaciers are monitored at worldscale Limitation for the study of: - glacier sensitivity to climate/morphological parameters - glacier contribution to hydrological systems “The World Glacier Inventory contains information for over 100,000 glaciers through out the world. Parameters within the inventory include: geographic location, area, length, orientation, elevation, and classification of morphological type and moraines.” World Glacier Inventory website “Basic information on specific net balance, cumulative specific balance, accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude is given for 111 glaciers.” GMBB #10, WGMS-Zurich, 2009 Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  5. 5. Context 2 / 18 Remote-sensing is an efficient tool to realize the measurement of glaciological parameters at a regional scale 0.1 % of the glaciers are monitored at worldscale Limitation for the study of: - glacier sensitivity to climate/morphological parameters - glacier contribution to hydrological systems “The World Glacier Inventory contains information for over 100,000 glaciers through out the world. Parameters within the inventory include: geographic location, area, length, orientation, elevation, and classification of morphological type and moraines.” World Glacier Inventory website “Basic information on specific net balance, cumulative specific balance, accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude is given for 111 glaciers.” GMBB #10, WGMS-Zurich, 2009 Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  6. 6. 3 / 18 Background Equilibrium line, MB = 0 Acc > Ab Saint Sorlin Glacier (French Alps) For mid-latitude glaciers : end-of-summer snowline = equilibrium line Ab > Acc The snowline is easy to identify on optical satellite images Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  7. 7. 4 / 18 Background Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  8. 8. 4 / 18 Background Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  9. 9. Background Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia BUT ! 5 / 18
  10. 10. 5 / 18 Background Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia BUT !
  11. 11. Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes Tropical climate generates a sequence of accumulation and ablation processes all year round that differs from that of mid- latitude glaciers. 6 / 18 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Outer tropical Andes (Peru – Bolivia)
  12. 12. 7 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes Ph : B. Pouyaud Monthly mass balance measurements on the glacier tongue (5250 – 4850 m a.s.l.) ELAi for each year i Mass balance gradient Zongo Glacier (Bolivia, 16 S) Monitored since 1991 IRD-France and UMSA-Bolivia0 z b 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
  13. 13. 8 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes Ph : B. Pouyaud Monthly mass balance measurements on the glacier tongue (up to 4850 m a.s.l.) ELAi for each year i Mass balance gradient Artesonraju Glacier (Peru, 9 S) Monitored since 2000 UGRH - ANA z b 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
  14. 14. 9 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 List of the used satellite images
  15. 15. 10 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 How to detect the snowline on satellite images? Test of different combinations of bands and band ratios applied on Landsat-5 image
  16. 16. 11 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Comparison of the highest remote-sensed SLA for each year and the annual ELA
  17. 17. 11 / 18 Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Comparison of the highest remote-sensed SLA for each year and the annual ELA
  18. 18. 12 / 18 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  19. 19. 12 / 18 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA z b SLASLAtb ieq )()( Snowline altitude for each year i of the study period, computed from satellite images Snowline altitude representative of a steady state of the glacier Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  20. 20. 12 / 18 Mass balance gradient derived from field data, valid at a regional scalez b SLASLAtb ieq )()( Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
  21. 21. 12 / 18 z b SLASLAtb ieq )()( n ieq zb B SLA n SLA 1 / 1 with: Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
  22. 22. 12 / 18 Mean mass balance of the glacier over the study period computed by DEM difference z b SLASLAtb ieq )()( n ieq zb B SLA n SLA 1 / 1 with: Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  23. 23. 13 / 18 11 glaciers where is available. Soruco et al., 2009 )0697(B 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
  24. 24. 14 / 18 Zongo Glacier (Bolivia, 16 S) Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA Comparison between mass balance derived from SLA measurements and field measurements 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia
  25. 25. 15 / 18 Good consistency between the glaciers ENSO is the main forcing of the interannual variability El Niño La Niña 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
  26. 26. Important difference: between -3.4 m w.e. and -21.3 m w.e. 16 / 18 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013 Reconstruction of glacier surface mass balance from the SLA
  27. 27. 1) Context & background 2) Validation of the method for the outer tropical Andes 3) Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Application to the Cordillera Real - Bolivia Morphological parameters are the main factors controlling the difference in volume loss between the studied glaciers circles = glaciers with a mean elavation > 5150 m a.s.l. triangles = glaciers with a mean elavation < 5150 m a.s.l. 17 / 18Dr. A. Rabatel, LMI Great Ice, 1-4 julio 2013
  28. 28. Gracias! See also the poster by Ing. Edwin Loarte et al. for an application in the Cordillera Blanca Rabatel et al., 2005. J. of Glaciology, 51(175), 539-546 Rabatel et al., 2008. J. of Glaciology, 54(185), 307-314 Rabatel et al., 2012. J. of Glaciology, 58(212), 1027-1036 antoine.rabatel@ujf-grenoble.fr
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