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Towards
“write once – run wherever possible”
with Safety Critical Java
Bent Thomsen
InfinIT Højniveausprog sem19
18.06.2014
A typical safety critical embedded
hard-real-time program
Cruise control:
Loop every X microseconds
Read the sensors;
Comp...
Aparently hard enough
• Toyota's Accelerator Problem Probably Caused
by Embedded Software Bugs
• Software Bug Causes Toyot...
Some examples
• The Ariane 5 satellite launcher malfunction
– caused by a faulty software exception routine
resulting from...
A hard real-time problem
Embedded Systems
• Over 90% of all microprocessors are used for real-
time and embedded systems
– Market growing 10% year ...
Model Driven Development
• Develop Model of System
• Verify desirable properties
• Generate Code from Model
• But ..
– Man...
We need to look for other languages
• The number of embedded systems is growing
• More functionality in each system is req...
Java
• Most popular programming language ever !
– In 2005 Sun estimated 4.5 million Java
programmers
– In 2010 Oracle esti...
Advantage of Java over C and C++
• Clean syntax and (relative) clean semantics
• No preprocessor
• Wide range of tool supp...
Embedded hard real-time
safety-critical systems
– Nuclear Power plants, car-control systems, aeroplanes etc.
– Embedded Sy...
But Java is not for Nuclear facilities!
3) RESTRICTIONS. Software is confidential and
copyrighted. Title to Software and a...
What is the problem with Java?
• Unpredictable performance
– Memory
• Garbage collected heap
– Control and data flow
• Dyn...
15
Observation
There is essentially only one way to get a more
predictable language:
• namely to select a set of features ...
Real-Time Java Profiles
• RTSJ (JSR 001)
– The Real-Time Specification for Java
– An attempt to cover everything
– too com...
Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ)
• Java Community Standard (JSR 1, JSR 282)
– Started in 1998
• January 2002 – RTSJ...
18
RTSJ Overview
• Clear definition of scheduler
• Priority inheritance protocol
• NoHeapRealtimeThread
• BoundAsyncEventH...
19
RTSJ Guiding Principles
• Backward compatibility to standard Java
• No Syntactic extension
• Write Once, Run Anywhere
•...
Safety-Critical Java (SCJ)
• Java Specification Request 302
• Aims for DO178B, Level A
• Three Compliance Points (Levels 0...
SCJ
• Only RealtimeThreads are allowed
• Notions of missions and handlers
• No heap objects/ no GC
• Restricted use of sco...
Predictable Java (PJ)
• Predictable Java intended as guidance/ideas for SCJ
• JSR-302 uses inheritance for limitation
– Lo...
Many variants of Java
• J2EE
– J2SE & enterprise extensions
• J2SE
– Standard Java
• J2ME
– Subset of J2SE & additional
cl...
Predicatble JVM
• JOP
– Java Optimized Processor
– JVM in Hardware (FPGA)
• HVM
– targeted at devices with 256 kB flash an...
Java look-and-feel for low-end embedded devices
Support incremental move from C to Java 25
The HVM
Java-to-C compiler with...
26
Features
- Execution on the bare metal
- First level interrupt handling & Hardware Objects
- Hybrid execution style (in...
The Predictable Real-time HVM
• Time predictable implementations of
Interpreter loop and each bytecode
Trinity of tools, platform and
programming model
What about Time Analysis?
• Traditional approaches to
analysis of RT systems are hard
and conservative
• Very difficult to...
Model based Analysis
– TIMES
• Model based schedulability tool based on UPPAAL
– WCA
• WCET analysis for JOP
– SARTS
• Sch...
31
SARTS
• Schedulability analyzer for real-time Java systems
– Assumes program in SCJ profile
– Assumes correct Loop boun...
SARTS Overview
32
SARTS Overview
• A scheduler automaton models FPS
• A controller automaton, periodic/sporadic, is
created for each handler...
34
Java to UPPAAL
35
Timed Automata templates
• Translation of Basic
Blocks into states and
transitions
• Patterns for:
– Loops
– Monitor st...
36
Simple models of RM scheduler
• Predefined models
– Scheduler
– Periodic Task
– Sporadic Task
37
Periodic Task/Sporadic Task
SARTS sales pitch
• The schedulability question is “translated" to a
deadlock question
– no deadlock means schedulable
• C...
39
SARTS can do better than utilisation test
• Example
• One periodic task
• Two sporadic tasks
– Mutually exclusive
40
SARTS can do better than utilisation test
• Period: 240
• Minimum inter-arrival time: 240
• Periodic cost: 161
• Sporad...
41
Time Line
TetaJ
• WCET analysis tool
– taking Java portability into account
• Analysis at method level
• Can be used interactively
•...
43
44
TetaSARTS
45
Minepump example
46
Minepump example
Write once – run whereever possible
47
Energy Optimize Applications
SymRT
• Combining Symbolic execution and TA
Compositional Verification
• TetaSARTS generates model for whole program
• Library routines analysed again and again
• Mod...
Note – could have used [ 1..8 ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ] since
[ 1 ; 7? ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ] ≤ [ 1 ..8 ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ]
TetaSARTS+
• Schedulability analysis now in three steps
– Verify that implementation is simulated by
specification
• Check...
Further Analysis and tools
• Scope compliance analysis for SCJ
• SCJ compliance analyzer
• Eclipse plug-in
• Lot’s of work...
Future Work
• Experiment with deductive verification
– Functional requirements
– JML and Key
– Especially loop bounds
• Te...
Future Work
• Internet of Things
– We can do it today, but how to do it fast and reliable?
– aicas's JamaicaVM hard real-t...
Learn more
• Model-based schedulability analysis of safety critical hard real-time
java programs
– T. Bøgholm, H. Kragh-Ha...
Try it out?
• TetaSARTS
– http://people.cs.aau.dk/~luckow/tetasarts/
• Hardware Near Virtual Machine
– http://icelab.dk/
•...
58
Joint work with:
• Allan Mycroft
– Cambridge University
• Corina S. Pasareanu
– NASA Ames, CA, USA
• Hans Søndergaard, ...
Thank You
59
60
SmartCampusAAU project
• Motivation:
• An essential part of the strategy for future growth in the North Jutland region ...
61
WiFi-based localization
• RADAR (by Microsoft Research in 2000)
• (almost) No need for new infrastructure
• Fingerprint...
62
Location Fingerprinting
- The Offline Phase
AP1
AP3
AP3
AP1 = -40
AP2 = -70
AP3 = -95
(x1, y1, z1)
AP1 = -45
AP2 = -60
...
63
Location Fingerprinting
- The Online Phase
AP1
AP3
AP2
AP1 = -55
AP2 = -40
AP3 = -80
(x1, y1, z1)
AP1 = -40
AP2 = -60
A...
Improving WLAN Positioning with
Weighted Graphs
Indoor Navigation
65
IFC file PIFC file
•Standard format
•Big file, used only on PC
•Can be read using
specialized toolkit
•Unaligned to real w...
Infrastructure-Based Positioning
• iPhone and WP 7 does not support device-based positioning.
• Instead, a ”Wi-Fi sniffer”...
Building the radio maps
• Two types of radio maps:
1. Device-based radio map
– Measurement done locally and uploaded.
2. I...
Setting up a Wi-Fi sniffer infrastructure
• Buy appropriate equipment or use/ modify existing (
http://wiki.openwrt.org/to...
3rd Positioning Service
• Infrastructure-Based, Device-Assisted Positioning
• For positioning and tracking of IoT devices
...
Integration
• PIM (Calandar)
http://way.askcody.dk/d.php?id=1644
• Intelligent signs
• Social Networks
• Intelligent Build...
72
Interacting with smart buildings
HomePort
Door locks
Conlan Demo
• Objective: Turn on Conlan device when mobile
device is within 10 meters
73
Solution from MapsPeople
• Geo Location Manager
Location-Based Edutainment
(group SW805 and Mymo®)
78
Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU
Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU
Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU
Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU
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Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU

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Oplægget blev holdt ved et seminar i InfinIT-interessegruppen Højniveausprog til indlejrede systemer, der blev afholdt den 18. juni 2014. Læs mere om interessegruppen her: http://infinit.dk/dk/interessegrupper/hoejniveau_sprog_til_indlejrede_systemer/hoejniveau_sprog_til_indlejrede_systemer.htm

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Transcript of "Towards "write once - run whenever possible" with Safety Critical Java af Bent Thomsen, AAU"

  1. 1. Towards “write once – run wherever possible” with Safety Critical Java Bent Thomsen InfinIT Højniveausprog sem19 18.06.2014
  2. 2. A typical safety critical embedded hard-real-time program Cruise control: Loop every X microseconds Read the sensors; Compute speed; if speed too high Compute pressure for brake pedal; if speed too low Compute pressure for accelerator; Transmit the outputs to actuators; wait for next period; How hard can it be to program such systems?
  3. 3. Aparently hard enough • Toyota's Accelerator Problem Probably Caused by Embedded Software Bugs • Software Bug Causes Toyota Recall of Almost Half a Million New Hybrid Cars • BMW recall: The company will replace defective high-pressure fuel pump and update software in 150,000 vehicles.
  4. 4. Some examples • The Ariane 5 satellite launcher malfunction – caused by a faulty software exception routine resulting from a bad 64-bit floating point to 16-bit integer conversion • LA Air Traffic control system shutdown (2004) – Caused by count down timer reaching zero • Airbus A330 nose-diving twice while at cruising altitude (2001) – 39 injured, 12 seriously. Problem never found
  5. 5. A hard real-time problem
  6. 6. Embedded Systems • Over 90% of all microprocessors are used for real- time and embedded systems – Market growing 10% year on year • Usually programmed in C or Assembler – Hard, error prone, work – But preferred choice • Close to hardware • No real alternatives – Difficult to find new skilled programmers • Jackson Structured Development (1975) still widely used • EE Times calling for re-introducing C programming at US Uni Well … ADA – 10th on the list of most wanted skills
  7. 7. Model Driven Development • Develop Model of System • Verify desirable properties • Generate Code from Model • But .. – Many finds developing models harder than programming – Often some parts have to be programmed anyhow – Model and code have tendency to drift apart
  8. 8. We need to look for other languages • The number of embedded systems is growing • More functionality in each system is required • More reliable systems are needed • Time to market is getting shorter • Increase productivity – Software engineering practices (OOA&D) – 10% – Tools (IDEs, analyzers and verifiers) – 10% – New Languages -700% • 200%-300% in embedded systems programming (Atego)
  9. 9. Java • Most popular programming language ever ! – In 2005 Sun estimated 4.5 million Java programmers – In 2010 Oracle estimated 9 million Java programmers – 61% of all programmers are Java programmers • Originally designed for setop-boxes • But propelled to popularity by the internet http://jaxenter.com/how-many-java-developers-are-there-10462.html
  10. 10. Advantage of Java over C and C++ • Clean syntax and (relative) clean semantics • No preprocessor • Wide range of tool support • Single dispatch style OOP • Strong, extendible type system • Better support for separating subtyping and reuse via interfaces and single inheritance • No explicit pointer manipulation • Pointer safe deallocation • Built-in Concurrency model • Portability via JVM (write once, run anywhere)
  11. 11. Embedded hard real-time safety-critical systems – Nuclear Power plants, car-control systems, aeroplanes etc. – Embedded Systems • Limited Processor power • Limited memory • Resources matter! – Hard real-time systems • Timeliness – Safety-critical systems • Functional correctness – Mine Pump and Candy Sorting machine – Grundfos pumps and SKOV pig farm air conditions – Aalborg Industries (ship boilers) and Therma (aero, defence) – GomSpace and NASA
  12. 12. But Java is not for Nuclear facilities! 3) RESTRICTIONS. Software is confidential and copyrighted. Title to Software and all associated intellectual property rights is retained by Sun and/or its licensors. Unless enforcement is prohibited by applicable law, you may not modify, decompile, or reverse engineer Software. You acknowledge that Licensed Software is not designed or intended for use in the design, construction, operation or maintenance of any nuclear facility....
  13. 13. What is the problem with Java? • Unpredictable performance – Memory • Garbage collected heap – Control and data flow • Dynamic class loading • Recursion • Unbounded loops • Dynamic dispatch • Exceptions – Scheduling – Lack high resolution time • JVM – Good for portability – bad for predicatbility
  14. 14. 15 Observation There is essentially only one way to get a more predictable language: • namely to select a set of features which makes it controllable. • Which implies that a set of features can be deselected as well
  15. 15. Real-Time Java Profiles • RTSJ (JSR 001) – The Real-Time Specification for Java – An attempt to cover everything – too complex and dynamic – Not suitable for high integrity systems • Safety-Critical Java (draft) (JSR 302) – Subset of RTSJ – Focus on simplicity, analysability, and certification – No garbage collection: Scoped memory – Missions and Handlers (and some threads) – Implementation: sub-classes of RTSJ • Predictable Java – Super classes for RTSJ – Simple structure – Inspiration for SCJ
  16. 16. Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) • Java Community Standard (JSR 1, JSR 282) – Started in 1998 • January 2002 – RTSJ 1.0 Accepted by JSP • Spring 2005 – RTSJ 1.0.1 released • Summer 2006 – RTSJ 1.0.2 initiated • March 2009 Early draft of RTSJ version 1.1 now called JSR 282. • Most common for real-time Java applications – Especially on Wall Street • New Thread model: NoHeapRealtimeThread – Never interrupted by Garbage Collector – Threads may not access Heap Objects – Extends Java’s 10 priority levels to 28
  17. 17. 18 RTSJ Overview • Clear definition of scheduler • Priority inheritance protocol • NoHeapRealtimeThread • BoundAsyncEventHandler • Scoped memory to avoid GC • Low-level access through raw memory • High resolution time and timer • Originally targeted at larger systems – implementation from Sun requires a dual UltraSparc III or higher with 512 MB memory and the Solaris 10 operating system
  18. 18. 19 RTSJ Guiding Principles • Backward compatibility to standard Java • No Syntactic extension • Write Once, Run Anywhere • Reflected current real-time practice anno 1998 • Allow implementation flexibility • Does not address certification of Safety Critical applications
  19. 19. Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) • Java Specification Request 302 • Aims for DO178B, Level A • Three Compliance Points (Levels 0, 1, 2) – Level 0 provides a cyclic executive (single thread), no wait/notify – Level 1 provides a single mission with multiple schedulable objects, – Level 2 provides nested missions with (limited) nested scopes • More worst case analysis friendly • Restricted subset of RTSJ
  20. 20. SCJ • Only RealtimeThreads are allowed • Notions of missions and handlers • No heap objects/ no GC • Restricted use of scopes
  21. 21. Predictable Java (PJ) • Predictable Java intended as guidance/ideas for SCJ • JSR-302 uses inheritance for limitation – Lots of @SCJAllowed annotations everywhere • RTSJ would be a specialisation of a smaller profile • PJ suggests to use inheritance for specialisation – Generalisation of RTSJ • Missions are first-class handlers – Scoped memory belonging to the mission • No need for immortal memory known from RTSJ and SCJ. • Simplifies memory hierarchy • Programs are more Java like
  22. 22. Many variants of Java • J2EE – J2SE & enterprise extensions • J2SE – Standard Java • J2ME – Subset of J2SE & additional classes • RTSJ – Add on to J2EE, J2SE, or J2ME for realtime • SCJava – Subset of RTSJ, subset of J2SE, & additional classes
  23. 23. Predicatble JVM • JOP – Java Optimized Processor – JVM in Hardware (FPGA) • HVM – targeted at devices with 256 kB flash and 8kB of RAM – Interpreted or AOT compilering – 1st level interupt handlers in Java – Runs on ATmega2560, CR16C, ARM7, ARM9 and x86 • JamaicaVM – Industrial strength real-time JVM from Aicas – Enroute for Certification for use in Airplanes and Cars
  24. 24. Java look-and-feel for low-end embedded devices Support incremental move from C to Java 25 The HVM Java-to-C compiler with an embedded interpreter
  25. 25. 26 Features - Execution on the bare metal - First level interrupt handling & Hardware Objects - Hybrid execution style (interpretation + AOT) - Program specialization * Classes & methods * Interpreter - Native variable support - Portability * No external dependencies * Strict ANSI-C - Process switching & scoped memory
  26. 26. The Predictable Real-time HVM • Time predictable implementations of Interpreter loop and each bytecode
  27. 27. Trinity of tools, platform and programming model
  28. 28. What about Time Analysis? • Traditional approaches to analysis of RT systems are hard and conservative • Very difficult to use with Java because of JVM (and Object Orientedness) 41 Utilisation-Based Analysis • A simple sufficient but not necessary schedulability test exists )12( /1 1   N N i i i N T C U  NU as69.0 Where C is WCET and T is period 42 Response Time Equation j ihpj j i ii C T R CR          )( Where hp(i) is the set of tasks with priority higher than task i Solve by forming a recurrence relationship: j ihpj j n i i n i C T w Cw           )( 1 The set of values is monotonically non decreasing When the solution to the equation has been found, must not be greater that (e.g. 0 or ) 1  n i n i ww ,..,...,,, 210 n iiii wwww 0 iw iR iC
  29. 29. Model based Analysis – TIMES • Model based schedulability tool based on UPPAAL – WCA • WCET analysis for JOP – SARTS • Schedulability on JOP – TetaJ • WCET analysis for SW JVM on Commodity HW – TetaSARTS • Schedulability analysis for SW JVM on Commodity HW and JOP – SymRT • Combines Symbolic executioon and modelbased timing analysis 30
  30. 30. 31 SARTS • Schedulability analyzer for real-time Java systems – Assumes program in SCJ profile – Assumes correct Loop bounds annotations – Assumes code to be executed on JOP • Generates Timed Automata – Control flow graph with timing information – Uppaal Model-checker checks for deadlock – Based on ideas from TIMES tool
  31. 31. SARTS Overview 32
  32. 32. SARTS Overview • A scheduler automaton models FPS • A controller automaton, periodic/sporadic, is created for each handler • Each Java method results in a parametrised automaton – One clock per task/thread – Pre-emption is modelled using stopwatches – Control-transfer is modelled using synchronization 33
  33. 33. 34 Java to UPPAAL
  34. 34. 35 Timed Automata templates • Translation of Basic Blocks into states and transitions • Patterns for: – Loops – Monitor statements – If statements – Method invoke – Sporadic task release
  35. 35. 36 Simple models of RM scheduler • Predefined models – Scheduler – Periodic Task – Sporadic Task
  36. 36. 37 Periodic Task/Sporadic Task
  37. 37. SARTS sales pitch • The schedulability question is “translated" to a deadlock question – no deadlock means schedulable • Compared to traditional schedulability analysis – Control flow sensitive – Fine grained interleaving – Less pessimism – Fully automatic 38
  38. 38. 39 SARTS can do better than utilisation test • Example • One periodic task • Two sporadic tasks – Mutually exclusive
  39. 39. 40 SARTS can do better than utilisation test • Period: 240 • Minimum inter-arrival time: 240 • Periodic cost: 161 • Sporadic cost: 64 • Utilisation test fails:
  40. 40. 41 Time Line
  41. 41. TetaJ • WCET analysis tool – taking Java portability into account • Analysis at method level • Can be used interactively • Takes VM into account • Takes HW into account 42
  42. 42. 43
  43. 43. 44
  44. 44. TetaSARTS 45
  45. 45. Minepump example 46
  46. 46. Minepump example Write once – run whereever possible 47
  47. 47. Energy Optimize Applications
  48. 48. SymRT • Combining Symbolic execution and TA
  49. 49. Compositional Verification • TetaSARTS generates model for whole program • Library routines analysed again and again • Models based on control flow can be complicated • Idea: Annotate interfaces with abstract description of behaviour – Time and Resource Specification Language (TRSL) – Could have been any of a range of spec. lang. • UML/Marte, ACSR, TADL 50
  50. 50. Note – could have used [ 1..8 ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ] since [ 1 ; 7? ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ] ≤ [ 1 ..8 ; using(r)[2] ; 1 ]
  51. 51. TetaSARTS+ • Schedulability analysis now in three steps – Verify that implementation is simulated by specification • Check L(Implementation) ≤ L(specification) • Possible since TRSL TAs are simple instances of the Event-Clock Automata – Generate TAs from Specs – Use TetaSARTS
  52. 52. Further Analysis and tools • Scope compliance analysis for SCJ • SCJ compliance analyzer • Eclipse plug-in • Lot’s of work on (analyzable) Real-time GC
  53. 53. Future Work • Experiment with deductive verification – Functional requirements – JML and Key – Especially loop bounds • Termination Analysis – Recursion bounds • Hierarchical schedulability (mixed mode) • Analyse non-SCJ programs – Java 8, Groovy, Scala • Multi-core HVM • Android and Dalvik VM • Loadable Safelets and cloud verification
  54. 54. Future Work • Internet of Things – We can do it today, but how to do it fast and reliable? – aicas's JamaicaVM hard real-time Java-based platform to provide a secure, scalable solution connecting intelligent devices to cloud-based services. – Some of my ideas: – Combining work on SCJ with • SmartCampus • HomePort 55
  55. 55. Learn more • Model-based schedulability analysis of safety critical hard real-time java programs – T. Bøgholm, H. Kragh-Hansen, P. Olsen, B. Thomsen, and K. G. Larsen – JTRES 2008 • Schedulability Analysis Abstractions for Safety Critical Java – Thomas Bøgholm, Bent Thomsen, Kim G. Larsen, Alan Mycroft – ISORC 2012 • Wcet analysis of java bytecode featuring common execution environments – C. Frost, C. S. Jensen, K. S. Luckow, and B. Thomsen – JTRES 2011 • TetaSARTS: A Tool for Modular Timing Analysis of Safety Critical Java Systems – Kasper Luckow, Thomas Bøgholm, Bent Thomsen, and Kim Larsen – To appear JTRES 2013 56
  56. 56. Try it out? • TetaSARTS – http://people.cs.aau.dk/~luckow/tetasarts/ • Hardware Near Virtual Machine – http://icelab.dk/ • oSCJ (open Safety-Critical Java Implementation) – http://sss.cs.purdue.edu/projects/oscj/ • Java Optimized Processor – http://www.jopdesign.com/ • JamaicaVM – http://www.aicas.com/jamaica.html 57
  57. 57. 58 Joint work with: • Allan Mycroft – Cambridge University • Corina S. Pasareanu – NASA Ames, CA, USA • Hans Søndergaard, Stephan Korsholm – Via University College • Thomas Bøgholm, Kasper Søe Luckow, Anders P. Ravn, Kim G. Larsen, Rene R. Hansen and Lone Leth Thomsen – CISS/Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University
  58. 58. Thank You 59
  59. 59. 60 SmartCampusAAU project • Motivation: • An essential part of the strategy for future growth in the North Jutland region of Denmark (Region Nordjylland- RN) is centred around private companies, as well as public services, use of location and other contextual information in Intelligent solutions. • RN already sponsor several clusters of projects: SmartCityDK, Intelligent Transport and Infotainment • Observation: – All such projects build (throwaway) middleware needed for their demonstrations • Goal: – Build scalable and re-usable middleware infrastructure enabling easy development of location based applications • Project Period: 3.8.2009 – 31.12.2011 (funded by RN / EU regional development) • SmartCampus2.0: 1.1.2012-31.12.2012 (funded by CaIN) • SmartCampus3.0: 1.3.2013 – 30.6.2013 (funded by InfinIT)
  60. 60. 61 WiFi-based localization • RADAR (by Microsoft Research in 2000) • (almost) No need for new infrastructure • Fingerprinting
  61. 61. 62 Location Fingerprinting - The Offline Phase AP1 AP3 AP3 AP1 = -40 AP2 = -70 AP3 = -95 (x1, y1, z1) AP1 = -45 AP2 = -60 AP3 = -85 AP1 = -65 AP2 = -55 AP3 = -75 AP1 = -80 AP2 = -45 AP3 = -60 (x2, y2, z1) … (x3, y3, z1) (x4, y4, z1) (…) Radio Map
  62. 62. 63 Location Fingerprinting - The Online Phase AP1 AP3 AP2 AP1 = -55 AP2 = -40 AP3 = -80 (x1, y1, z1) AP1 = -40 AP2 = -60 AP3 = -95 AP1 = -40 AP2 = -70 AP3 = -85 AP1 = -35 AP2 = -90 AP3 = -55 (x2, y2, z1) … (x3, y3, z1) (x4, y4, z1) (…) Radio Map AP1 = -50 AP2 = -40 AP3 = -85
  63. 63. Improving WLAN Positioning with Weighted Graphs
  64. 64. Indoor Navigation 65
  65. 65. IFC file PIFC file •Standard format •Big file, used only on PC •Can be read using specialized toolkit •Unaligned to real word •Non-standard XML-based format •Small file, can be used on pocket PC •Extendable for different types of objects •Can be read using XML parser •Aligned to WGS84 Foreach (building, storey) extract: Walls, spaces, access points … Conversion on user machine or Streamspin service
  66. 66. Infrastructure-Based Positioning • iPhone and WP 7 does not support device-based positioning. • Instead, a ”Wi-Fi sniffer” infrastructure is required. • Positioning is done on Infrastructure-Based Positioning Service 67
  67. 67. Building the radio maps • Two types of radio maps: 1. Device-based radio map – Measurement done locally and uploaded. 2. Infrastructure-based radio map • The Android app builds both radio maps in one go. 68 1.A) bool StartMeasuringAtBoundLocation( string clientMac, int buildingId, int vertexId) 1.B) bool StartMeasuringAtUnboundLocation( string clientMac, int buildingId, int latE6, int lonE6, int alt) 2) bool StopMeasuring(string clientMac) 3) int SaveMeasurement(string clientMac)
  68. 68. Setting up a Wi-Fi sniffer infrastructure • Buy appropriate equipment or use/ modify existing ( http://wiki.openwrt.org/toh/start ) • Update firmware (contact us for instructions) • Start sniffing! • I.e., start sending measurement reports of the form [sniffer_mac, time, RSSI, client_mac] to our Infrastructure-Based Positioning Service. • Contact us regarding hosting of infrastructure-based pos. service: – Use smartcampus server – Use your own server – Use an intermediary to filter measurement reports 69
  69. 69. 3rd Positioning Service • Infrastructure-Based, Device-Assisted Positioning • For positioning and tracking of IoT devices 70 * RTX41xx: http://www.rtx.dk/RTX4100_Wi-Fi_module-3921.aspx
  70. 70. Integration • PIM (Calandar) http://way.askcody.dk/d.php?id=1644 • Intelligent signs • Social Networks • Intelligent Buildings
  71. 71. 72 Interacting with smart buildings HomePort Door locks
  72. 72. Conlan Demo • Objective: Turn on Conlan device when mobile device is within 10 meters 73
  73. 73. Solution from MapsPeople • Geo Location Manager
  74. 74. Location-Based Edutainment (group SW805 and Mymo®) 78
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