The PermaSense Project   Wireless Sensor Networks for         Extreme Environments                   Jan Beutel           ...
19.11.2008
16.7.2003    Photo: Bruno Jelk
16.7.2003Rockfall releasemechanisms and theirconnection to time andclimate (change) arenot understood                     ...
PermaSense – Aims and VisionGeo-science and engineering collaboration aiming to:   – provide long-term high-quality sensin...
Understanding Root Causes of Catastrophes               Eiger east-face rockfall, July 2006, images courtesy of Arte Telev...
Our patient does not fit      into a laboratory
So the laboratory hasto go on the mountain
PermaSense Deployment Sites 3500 m a.s.l.A scientific instrument for precision sensing and data recovery in               ...
PermaSense – Key Architectural Requirements• Support for ~25 nodes• Different sensors   –   Temperatures, conductivity, cr...
Sensor Network Technology
PermaSense – System Architecture                    • Support for multiple sensor types                    • Wireless sens...
The Big Picture – Network System Integration
At the Core – Low-power Wireless Sensors           • Static, low-rate sensing (2 min)           • Temperature profiles,   ...
Based on Recent Research Achievements• Dozer ultra low-power data gathering system    – Beacon based, 1-hop synchronized T...
PermaSense – Sensor Node Hardware• Shockfish TinyNode584    – MSP430, 16-bit, 8MHz, 10k SRAM, 48k Flash    – LP Radio: XE1...
Sensors Contribute to Power Consumption
Ruggedized for Extreme Environments
PermaDozer – Total Power Performance Analysis                                 1/120 sec                                   ...
Infrastructure       &Data Management          Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze                      Computer...
Long-haul Communication – Directional WLAN           • 7.5 km from weather radar on             Klein Matterhorn          ...
PermaSense – Base Station Situation
Base Station - Embedded Linux & WLAN Router           Gumstix Verdex                                   WLAN Router        ...
Basic On-Site Support – Power, Weather, Camera                       • Mobile power/deployment box                        ...
Data Management – Online Semantic Data• Global Sensor Network (GSN)       –    Data streaming framework from EPFL       – ...
Multi-Site, Multi-Station Datenmanagement
Central Web-based Data Access
PermaSense Sensors – Sensor Rod Example
Geoscience: Fast Localized Thaw by Advection      Near-surface temperature/conductivity             Combination with lab e...
Installation Work on Matterhorn 09/2007                     PermaSense installation 2007, images courtesy of Arte Television
PermaSense Sensors – Crack Meter Example
Geoscience: Cryogenic Rock Movement/Weathering                      Moisture saturation and freezing                      ...
Experiences…
Physical Reality Impacting Performance         Ambient Temperature                                    DAQ Duration        ...
Experiences – First Behavioral Data from the Field                 System Outage# Lost Packets                            ...
3 Months Later – Increasing Runtime Errors                                 # Lost Packets                System Outages   ...
Data Quality and Integrity• Since 07/2008: 95„874„376 data points• Inconsistencies  – Between timestamps and sequence numb...
Key PermaSense Challenges    System Integration      Correct Test and Validation       Actual Data            Interdiscipl...
•   ETH Zurich     –   Computer Engineering and         Networks Lab•   University of Zurich     –   Department of Geograp...
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The PermaSense Project af Jan Beutel, ETH Zurich

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Oplægget blev holdt ved InfinIT-arrangementet "Temadag om trådløse sensornetværk", der blev afholdt den 17. november 2010. Læs mere om arrangementet her: http://infinit.dk/dk/hvad_kan_vi_goere_for_dig/viden/reportager/vaer_smart_-_taenk_traadloest.htm

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The PermaSense Project af Jan Beutel, ETH Zurich

  1. 1. The PermaSense Project Wireless Sensor Networks for Extreme Environments Jan Beutel ETH Zurich
  2. 2. 19.11.2008
  3. 3. 16.7.2003 Photo: Bruno Jelk
  4. 4. 16.7.2003Rockfall releasemechanisms and theirconnection to time andclimate (change) arenot understood Foto: Bruno Jelk
  5. 5. PermaSense – Aims and VisionGeo-science and engineering collaboration aiming to: – provide long-term high-quality sensing in harsh environments – facilitate near-complete data recovery and near real-time delivery – obtain better quality data, more effectively – obtain measurements that have previously been impossible – provide relevant information for research or decision making, natural hazard early-warning systems
  6. 6. Understanding Root Causes of Catastrophes Eiger east-face rockfall, July 2006, images courtesy of Arte Television
  7. 7. Our patient does not fit into a laboratory
  8. 8. So the laboratory hasto go on the mountain
  9. 9. PermaSense Deployment Sites 3500 m a.s.l.A scientific instrument for precision sensing and data recovery in environmental extremes
  10. 10. PermaSense – Key Architectural Requirements• Support for ~25 nodes• Different sensors – Temperatures, conductivity, crack motion, ice stress, water pressure – 1-60 min sensor duty-cycle• Environmental extremes Relation to other WSN projects – −40 to +65° C, ΔT ≦5° C/min – Rockfall, snow, ice, rime, • Comparable to other environmental avalanches, lightning monitoring projects – GDI [Szewczyk], Glacsweb [Martinez], Volcanoes [Welsh], SensorScope [Vetterli],• Near real-time data delivery Redwoods [Culler] • Lower data rate• Long-term reliability – ≧99% data yield • Harsher, higher yield & lifetime – 3 years unattended lifetime • Data quality/integrity
  11. 11. Sensor Network Technology
  12. 12. PermaSense – System Architecture • Support for multiple sensor types • Wireless sensor network – Ultra low-power data gathering (Dozer) • Base station – Embedded Linux (Gumstix) – 4 GB local storage, data duplication – WLAN/GPRS connectivity, backup modem – Solar powered • Data backend – Streaming interface with metadata (GSN) – Standard internet services for monitoring
  13. 13. The Big Picture – Network System Integration
  14. 14. At the Core – Low-power Wireless Sensors • Static, low-rate sensing (2 min) • Temperature profiles, crack meters, resistivity • 3 years operation • < 0.1 Mbyte/node/day
  15. 15. Based on Recent Research Achievements• Dozer ultra low-power data gathering system – Beacon based, 1-hop synchronized TDMA – Optimized for ultra-low duty cycles – 0.167% duty-cycle, 0.032mA contention window data transfer beacon jitter slot 1 slot 2 slot k time [Burri – IPSN2007]• System-level, round-robin scheduling – “Application processing window” between data transfers and beacons – Custom DAQ/storage routine Application processing window slot 1 slot 2 slot k time
  16. 16. PermaSense – Sensor Node Hardware• Shockfish TinyNode584 – MSP430, 16-bit, 8MHz, 10k SRAM, 48k Flash – LP Radio: XE1205 @ 868 MHz• Waterproof housing and connectors• Protective shoe, easy install• Sensor interface board – Interfaces, power control – Temp/humidity monitor – 1 GB memory• 3-year life-time – Single Li-SOCl2 battery, 13 Ah – ~300 A power budget
  17. 17. Sensors Contribute to Power Consumption
  18. 18. Ruggedized for Extreme Environments
  19. 19. PermaDozer – Total Power Performance Analysis 1/120 sec 1/30 sec 148 uA average power
  20. 20. Infrastructure &Data Management Technische Informatik und Kommunikationsnetze Computer Engineering and Networks
  21. 21. Long-haul Communication – Directional WLAN • 7.5 km from weather radar on Klein Matterhorn • Leased fiber/DSL from Zermatt Bergbahnen AG • Commercial components (Mikrotik) • Weatherproofing
  22. 22. PermaSense – Base Station Situation
  23. 23. Base Station - Embedded Linux & WLAN Router Gumstix Verdex WLAN Router TinyNode GSM EMP Protectors IP68 Enclosure and Connectors
  24. 24. Basic On-Site Support – Power, Weather, Camera • Mobile power/deployment box – 12V photovoltaic system – Surge protection – Remote switchable power channels (reset) – Internal humidity/temperature monitor – 220V converter for deployment work • Weather station • Webcam
  25. 25. Data Management – Online Semantic Data• Global Sensor Network (GSN) – Data streaming framework from EPFL – Organized in “virtual sensors”, i.e. data types/semantics – Hierarchies and concatenation of virtual sensors enable on-line processing – Translates data from machine representation to SI values – Adds metadataImport from field GSN GSN Web export Private Public Metadata ============== Position Sensor type …
  26. 26. Multi-Site, Multi-Station Datenmanagement
  27. 27. Central Web-based Data Access
  28. 28. PermaSense Sensors – Sensor Rod Example
  29. 29. Geoscience: Fast Localized Thaw by Advection Near-surface temperature/conductivity Combination with lab experiments and models
  30. 30. Installation Work on Matterhorn 09/2007 PermaSense installation 2007, images courtesy of Arte Television
  31. 31. PermaSense Sensors – Crack Meter Example
  32. 32. Geoscience: Cryogenic Rock Movement/Weathering Moisture saturation and freezing dynamics captured by sensor rod Resistance [MOhm]Dilatation data with cleared thermal signal Temperature [°C] Temperature [°C] Distance [mm] Distance [mm] Temperature [°C]
  33. 33. Experiences…
  34. 34. Physical Reality Impacting Performance Ambient Temperature DAQ Duration Storage Duration time Watchdog Resets
  35. 35. Experiences – First Behavioral Data from the Field System Outage# Lost Packets Loss of Connectivity Battery Voltage & Temperature
  36. 36. 3 Months Later – Increasing Runtime Errors # Lost Packets System Outages Loss of Connectivity Node Reboot
  37. 37. Data Quality and Integrity• Since 07/2008: 95„874„376 data points• Inconsistencies – Between timestamps and sequence numbers• Duplicates• Data gaps – Sporadic – Systematic Installation & Service 2008 Service 2009 Revision / Extension June 2010 Sensornode 20 - 22 new installiation
  38. 38. Key PermaSense Challenges System Integration Correct Test and Validation Actual Data Interdisciplinary Team
  39. 39. • ETH Zurich – Computer Engineering and Networks Lab• University of Zurich – Department of Geography• University of Basel – Department Computer ScienceInterested in more?http://www.permasense.ch

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