Prototyping in the design process

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Prototyping in the design process

  1. 1. 1<br />Prototyping in the design process<br />An introduction to Summerschool 2010<br />06.09.2010<br />Ronald Bastiaens<br />Coördinator Ba.IPD<br />
  2. 2. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Agenda<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Why (are you) in Kortrijk?<br />Howest<br />Bachelor Industrial Product Design<br />Master Industrial Design<br />Industrial Design Center<br />Knowledge- & expertise centre of Howeston product design.<br />Enhancingcooperationbetweeneducational programs, students, alumni.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />3<br />Presentation<br />ProtoLab | Activities<br />Service: prototypes, maquettes, ontwerp,…<br />Research (FIS, PWO, IWT,…)<br />Events, seminars, workshops, summerschools<br />
  4. 4. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />4<br />Presentation<br />ProtoLab | Infrastructure<br />VersaLaserlasercutting& engraving<br />Dimension 3D printer (FDM) <br />VacuumcastingSchuëchl<br />3D optical laserscanner Metris<br />ISEL 3axis CNC milling<br />Thermoforming 600x500<br />Traditional workshop metal, wood, plastics, composites<br />
  5. 5. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Lets talk about our job first!<br />A succesfull product = <br /> The best solution out af a 1000 ideas. <br /> A solution that answers all you customers needs.<br />For an ordinary person develloping a product is like playing the lottery.<br />And it’s still hard for a designer...<br />It’s a hell of a job but someone has to do it !-)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />So how can we raise our chances for succes?<br />Google:”productdesign”<br />Today there are many ways to help, validate, test, measure or speed up your design proces. Creativity tools, Software, Working environments, Online resources, standards...<br />A major improvement? Good CAD en simulation tools...<br />Great technology? Rapid prototyping...<br />How cool is Photoshop, Wacom tablets, 3D studio Max...?<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Some characteristics or downsides to CAD<br />CAD is cool!<br />CAD tools are mainly develloped to work accurate and in (very small) detail.<br />Once you choose a direction... You’ve chosen it!<br />In CAD there is little room for (vage) concept generation. Detailling in CAD is typical for the final stages of a development process. It’s great for steps that converge towards the final product. It sucks in setting up diverging concepts and ideas.<br />Simulationtools look in detail to one or few solutions, never to different concepts.<br />Some good “first steps” in using CAD in early design stages.<br />Still, many companies use only CAD in their design proces, from A to Z<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />And what about rapid prototyping?<br />RP is cool!<br />For one, it’s not that “rapid” at all.<br />Next day? I want it now!<br />The oldest RP techniques and the most advanced techniques where only available through service providers. One would only use the for prototypes that had already been through several stages of engineering.<br />Today some techniques get affordable to buy inhouse. They make it possible to use RP-models earlier in the design process.<br />Still, you need a 3D model. Still, you are limited by the machines features.<br />RP is also hype! Some companies buy a machine not knowing what to do with it.<br />Many companies use prototypes only at the very end of the design proces.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />And what about Photoshop, Wacoms and 3D studio MAX?<br />3D studio MAX is cool!<br />Virtual tools for sketching, modelling an visualising are great for exploration.<br />Still, they only give you a visual input.<br />Some designers “design” products they’ve never touched, don’t know how to make.<br />We want our students to materialise their ideas and concepts.<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />So how can we raise our chances for succes?<br />The lack of tools to be used in the early stages of design is painfull.<br />All key decisions are made early in the design proces.<br />We feel that CAD, simulation, RP and visualisation can help you raise “technical” and “commercial” chances for succes. They can not raise the chance for better design decisions, since they don’t influence early stages of design, since the don’t help you diverse.<br />If you want to raise you chances on making good design decisions, you need:<br />A good design methodology and tools. (take a look at innowiz.be)<br /> Use prototyping (in every meaning of the word) in every stage of your proces.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />We aim at “materialisation”<br />We use traditional, Rapid- and virtual prototypingtechniques where/when we need them.<br />Prototypes can be used in any stage of development, varying from quick-and-dirty to high-quality “machined” models. In the early stages one quickly needs many simple, diverging prototypes to explore concepts. Towards the end of development one needs exact models that converge to one design solution. So a choice has to be made between manual techniques, machining, rapid or virtual prototyping. Therefore prototyping needs to be part of an integrated design methodology which can be organized in four stages. During the problem definition stage, prototypes may define boundaries or define possible product interaction. During the idea exploration stage, prototyping serves as a modeling method to concretize fuzzy ideas into tangible objects even involving final users for testing experience prototyping. During the idea selection stage, prototypes may serve as artifacts for user interaction, direct comparison tests, validation and verification. During the communication stage, prototypes are used as tangible life objects that reflect reality better than any other technique. By making prototyping part of the methodology, using it in every stage, one could call this “design by prototyping”.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />So why are we so impressed by a physical model?<br />Physical prototypes help designers and engineers to better understand the complexity of the design. <br />They deliver a tangible 3D summary of all involved design issues (shape, function, materials, product personality,…) which gives the designer a chance to solve several problems in one design iteration. <br />Good prototypes invite to experiment and play with them. They provoke reactions.<br />How you play them is more important than how good the prototypes are.<br />Prototypes help you think out loud, start conversations. Early prototypes don’t even answer questions, they create new ones.<br />Designers and customers can move from spec-driven prototypes tot prototype driven specs.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />So why are we so impressed by prototyping?<br />Prototypes help designers and engineers balance between rationality and intuition. <br />A prototype can help you take a decision that is involves ergonomics, shape, function, production… at the same time. A decision that can’t be described in parameters. A decision that can’t be simulated by a computer…<br />A prototype can help you manage the complexity of design. It provides you with constant feedback for all you senses. It’s “real”<br />Ready? Fire! Aim.<br />As designers know, a design process is not necessarily a sequential process. Things can happen in parallel. Gathering information, detailing your “set of demands”, generating concepts can happen in parallel. “Design by prototyping”<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Why do most design colleges move towards the virtual?<br />Because it’s easy?<br />Because it’s sexy?<br />Because it’s efficient?<br />Because that’s what everyone else does?<br />companies use prototyping more and more every day to validate their designs. They are driven by the need for innovation, the “hype” of rapid prototyping, the need to shorten ‘time to market’,… Therefore companies need designers who can bring their concepts to production.<br />Does a designer need to know every prototyping techniques?<br />Does he need to know where to look for the right techniques?<br />or…Does he need the attitude to use prototypes in his proces?<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Is prototyping the “holy grale” of product design?<br />Will I be making a prototype in every step of my proces?<br />Will prototyping be the one and only way to succes?<br />No ! (but this is a prototyping seminar !-)<br />Prototyping will have to become part of you build-in set of design and creativity techniques and methodology.<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Intro | Prototyping | Methodology | Cases<br />Do companies have many issues concerning prototyping?<br />Yes ! <br />What do they need to know?<br />Can they outsource it?<br />Will it improve their level of innovation?<br />Will it be expensive?<br />Will their product time-to-market shorten?<br />Do they need an RP machine or do they use their workshop?<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sortingprototypes | Context<br />Informationphase: Inspiration, Market research<br />Explorationphase<br />Decisionphase<br />Test phase<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sortingprototypes | Context<br />Informationphase<br />Exploration fase: Quick & Dirty<br />Decisionphase<br />Test phase<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Intro | Methodologie | Prototyping | Cases<br />Sorting prototypes | Context<br />Informationphase<br />Explorationphase<br />Decisionphase: Accurate test model<br />Test phase<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sorting prototypes | Context<br />Informationphase<br />Explorationphase<br />Decisionphase<br />Test phase: Presentation model and firstproduction series<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sorting prototypes | Subject<br />Product Personality: Exploringshape, Communication, Presentation<br />Use<br />Function<br />Material<br />Shape<br />ManufacturingProcess<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sorting prototypes | Subject<br />Product Personality<br />Use: Ergonomical test, Temperaturesimulation, Ease of use<br />Function<br />Material<br />Shape<br />ManufacturingProcess<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Sorting prototypes | Subject<br />Product Personality<br />Use<br />Function: Mock-up, Technicalvalidation, CFD, FEA<br />Material<br />Shape<br />ManufacturingProcess<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques| Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa… (workshop Quick & Dirty on Monday)<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bending…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding…<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques | Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa…<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bending…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding…<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques | Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa…<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bendin,…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…(workshop on Thursday)<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding…<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques | Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa…<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bendin,…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding… (workshop on Wednesday)<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques | Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa…<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bendin,…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding…<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Prototyping techniques | Traditional Prototyping<br />Paper, cardboard, foam, balsa…<br />Workshop of wood, metal, plastics and ceramics: drilling, sawing, welding, bendin,…<br />Composite Laminating: hand lay-up, resin transfer moulding, vacuum & pressure bag forming…<br />Casting techniques: vacuum casting, investment casting, sand casting, centrifugal casting, rotation moulding…<br />Thermoforming<br />CNC milling, lasercutting, electrical discharge machining…(workshop 3D printing & lasercutting on Tuesday)<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques | Rapid Prototyping<br />Come & seeWednesday: workshop & visit Materialise<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques| Virtual Prototyping<br />Sketching: Photoshop, Digital Sketch, 3DsMax<br />Modelling: solid of surfaces, constrained, assembly,…<br />Visualisation: 3DsMax, Animatie, Fotoreal,…<br />Stereoscopical projection: shutter, polarisation, red/blue…<br />3D interactive: Head Mounted Device, spacemouse, Mocap…<br />CFD: acoustics, streaming, heat transfer, process simulations…<br />FEA: statical forces, analyse, vibrations, wear, non linear material behaviour…<br />Motion Analysis: cinematics, robotics, dynamics…<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques| Virtual Prototyping<br />Sketching: Photoshop, Digital Sketch, 3DsMax<br />Modelling: solid of surfaces, constrained, assembly,…<br />Visualisation: 3DsMax, Animatie, Fotoreal,…<br />Stereoscopical projection: shutter, polarisation, red/blue…<br />3D interactive: Head Mounted Device, spacemouse, Mocap…<br />CFD: acoustics, streaming, heat transfer, process simulations…<br />FEA: statical forces, analyse, vibrations, wear, non linear material behaviour…<br />Motion Analysis: cinematics, robotics, dynamics…<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Prototyping techniques| Virtual Prototyping<br />Sketching: Photoshop, Digital Sketch, 3DsMax<br />Modelling: solid of surfaces, constrained, assembly,…<br />Visualisation: 3DsMax, Animatie, Fotoreal,…<br />Stereoscopical projection: shutter, polarisation, red/blue…<br />3D interactive: Head Mounted Device, spacemouse, Mocap…<br />CFD: acoustics, streaming, heat transfer, process simulations…<br />FEA: statical forces, analyse, vibrations, wear, non linear material behaviour…<br />Motion Analysis: cinematics, robotics, dynamics…<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />Intro | Prototyping | Methodologie | Cases<br />Expertise centers:<br />Sirris: www.sirris.be<br />TNO: www.tno.nl<br />Service:<br />Materialise: www.materialise.com<br />Mbproto: www.mbproto.com<br />Layerwise: www.layerwise.com<br />KNS Roeselare / Vosschemie<br />Mentioned hardware:<br />Dimension: www.dimensionprinting.com<br />Stratasys: www.stratasys.com<br />3D systems: www.3dsystems.com<br />Zcorp: www.zcorp.com<br />Objet: www.2objet.com<br />Advised reading, cfr. www.protolab.be/media:<br />Kunstof en Rubber magazine: www.kunststofonline.nl<br />TCT magazine: www.time-compression.com<br />Prototype magazine: www.prototypemagazine.com<br />Marc De Moor, 2009. Werken met innovatievematerialen: Koudhardendekunststoffen. ISBN 9789081490900<br />Gebhardt Andreas,2003. Rapid prototyping. ISBN 3446212590 <br />Chua C.K.; Leong K.F.; Lim C.S.,2003. Rapid prototyping : principles and applications. ISBN 9812381171 <br />Grimm Todd, 2004. User's guide to rapid prototyping. ISBN 0872636976 <br />Hopkinson N.; Hague R.J.M., 2006. Rapid manufacturing : an industrial revolution for the digital age. ISBN 9780470016138 <br />Wohlers Terry T., 2009. Wohlers report 2009 : state of the industry annual worldwide progress report. ISBN 0975442953<br />LefteriChris, 2007. Making it : manufacturing techniques for product design. ISBN 9781856695060 <br />www.protolab.be<br />
  35. 35. 35<br />Intro | Prototyping |Methodology | Cases<br />THE OPTIMAL USE OF PROTOTYPING <br />IN THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Ventilation system<br />Intensive Program 2009<br />Description: quick & dirty, fast & approximating<br />Purpose: proof of concept, internal communication<br />Materials: cardboard, foam, glue, wood, axles,…<br />
  37. 37. 37<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Assistivetechnology<br />Project in cooperationwithIn-HAM: Guitarhelpfor a personwithone handOmschrijving: quick and dirty<br />Purpose: functionality<br />Materials: rubber, wood, plastic, aluminum, plexi,…<br />Description: functional product<br />Purpose: small series<br />Materials: aluminum, SLS<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Liften Coopman (1/2)<br />Model<br />Description: realisticmock-up of an elevator shaft, replica withmovingparts, scale 1/10<br />Purpose: visual– technical model, forin-house training & suppliers...<br />Procedure: simplifying , cfr. CAD-data<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Liften Coopman (2/2)<br />Model<br />Materials & technologies: 3D printing, lasercuttingstainless steel, MDF, PMMA 10mm polished<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Boo (1/2)<br />Small Business Project IPO<br />Description: decorativelighting<br />Purpose: production of a small series <br />Procedure: SLA master model, casting with a silicone mold<br />
  41. 41. 41<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Boo (2/2)<br />Small Business Project IPO<br />Material: PUR shore A withcolouringpowderglow in the dark<br />Procedure: injectingunderatmosphericalpressure, demoldingwithcompressed air, finishing of the final model<br />
  42. 42. 42<br />Intro | Methodologie | Prototyping | Cases<br />RobotBeamHolocube (1/2)<br />Animation -> Designtoy<br />Description: fixingSTL-file<br />Procedure: editing of thicknessthickness, holes, intersections…<br />
  43. 43. 43<br />Intro | Methodologie | Prototyping | Cases<br />RobotBeamHolocube (2/2)<br />Animation -> Designtoy<br />Description: demo<br />Purpose: small series for a fair<br />Technology: SLS<br />Description: presentation model<br />Purpose: finished model for a fair<br />Technology: FDM 3D printing, finishing, paint, weathering<br />
  44. 44. 44<br />Intro | Methodologie | Prototyping | Cases<br />Anti Whiplash System (1/2)<br />De Bedenkers 2009<br />Description: mold for a functional PUR model<br />Procedure: foam model (CAD/manual), polyester/glass fibre<br />
  45. 45. 45<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Anti Whiplash System (2/2)<br />De Bedenkers 2009<br />Description: first series for functional tests<br />Procedure: prototype made in a production environment<br />Crashtest: improvement of 30% ! <br />
  46. 46. 46<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Jori<br />Market research<br />Description: way of presenting the models to a testing public<br />Procedure: from a manual sketch to a photorealistic rendering<br />Software: 3ds Max<br />
  48. 48. 48<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Anchor system Zeydon<br />Forceson the anchor hatches<br />Description: simulation of the forces on the anchor hatches<br />Procedure: calculations of impact of water on the moving parts<br />Software: Fluent<br />
  49. 49. 49<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Lightingapplication Lunoo<br />Heat streams<br />Description: simulation of heat flow and transport in the application<br />Procedure: calculations by reflections, conduction, heat sources,…<br />Purpose: optimalisation application, shape and functionality<br />
  50. 50. 50<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Housingventilation<br />Functional prototypes fortesting<br />Description: production of a small series for functional tests<br />Procedure: simplification of the design and a choice of RP technology/material<br />Propositions for lowering cost: SLA, SLS, FDM, vacuumcasting<br />Cost reduction thanks to a suited choice of technique<br />
  51. 51. 51<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Sumorobot (1/2)<br />RC robot<br />Description: gears, bearings, body, chassis, visual and functional…<br />Procedure: combination of standard parts, manual and CNC techniques, electronics<br />
  52. 52. 52<br />Intro | Methodology | Prototyping | Cases<br />Sumorobot (2/2)<br />RC robot<br />Materials: ABS, PS, glass fibre, epoxy, aluminum<br />Techniques & technologies: lasercutting, hand lay-up, thermoforming, vacuumcasting, 3D printing, CNC milling<br />
  53. 53. Vragen?<br />53<br />Ronald Bastiaens<br />Howest<br />Industrial Design Center | ProtoLab<br />Marksesteenweg 58 8500 Kortrijk<br />056 24 12 11<br />ronald.bastiaens@howest.be <br />Have an inspiring Summerschool<br />

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