Manual Open Source CNC 3D makerbots

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. O Workshop overview ........................................................................................................................ 3A- Makerbot: getting started ............................................................................................................ 41-start replicatorG. .............................................................................................................................. 42-heat up the printer ........................................................................................................................... 43-generating G-code .......................................................................................................................... 54-test the extruder .............................................................................................................................. 7B Print your own objects ..................................................................................................................... 8C Setting up the software ................................................................................................................. 101-ReplicatorG ................................................................................................................................... 102-Custom profiles and driver for your machine ................................................................................ 10D Under the hood: configuring Skeinforge ....................................................................................... 11E THE CNC-MILL: GETTING STARTED ......................................................................................... 13Connect ............................................................................................................................................ 13Try it .................................................................................................................................................. 14F WRITING A BIT OF GCODE ........................................................................................................ 14G MILLING SOFTWARE .................................................................................................................. 15Software: general concepts .............................................................................................................. 15Software: CADPY ............................................................................................................................. 16Install CADPY ................................................................................................................................... 16H More CNC-milling ......................................................................................................................... 21K An introduction into G-code .......................................................................................................... 22Gcode example (for milling) ............................................................................................................. 24L Links ............................................................................................................................................. 25 2
  • 3. O Workshop overview10h Powerpoint 20 min10h30 Getting started with printingPrinting your own objects12h repairableCNC: getting started12h30 Print & CutCourse notes written by:Lieven.standaert@timelab.org+32.486.945.529 3
  • 4. A- Makerbot: getting started1-start replicatorG.After startup, go to ‘File’ and open ‘01-12_tooth_T5.stl’ You an find it under ’04-EXAMPLES’ on the USB-sticks.The interface should look something like this:Take a minute to check out the buttons and menu items. The large buttons show theirfunction if you hover your mouse over themAs indicated in the image, go to Machine>Driver and select the correct driver if thishasn’t been done yet. The name of the driver you are to use should be indicated on thecard next to the Makerbot you’re working with.Then hit ‘Connect’ and go to ‘Control Panel’2-heat up the printerDepending on the version of the Makerbot you’re using, the control panel should looksomething like this: 4
  • 5. Set the temperature to the indicated values,and center the print head about 20mm above the platform.You should see the machine heating up in the graph at the bottom right.Now go back to the main interface (don’t close this window)3-generating G-codeTo print the 3D-object, the file needs to be translated into machine code. This is calledGcode, and this translation is handled by a piece of software called ‘Skeinforge’.First, let’s make sure you have the correct version of Skeinforge selected.In the main interface, go to Menu> Gcode> Choose Gcode generator and check if theselected one matches the one indicated on your card. 5
  • 6. Next, click ‘Generate Gcode’ at the bottom right. You will see a popup like the one below.Don’t see the right profile?Copy the profiles from ’03-PROFILES’ to…replicatorg-0024skein_enginesskeinforge-0006prefs(006 is the standardversion, for version 35select skeinforge-035) Leave ‘Use raft’ checked. Pick the profile indicated on the card. Click ‘Generate’. Now you’ll see a window indicating the progress generating the code. This may take some time… 6
  • 7. When it’s done, you should see an extra ‘flap’ below the big buttons, saying ‘Gcode’ next to ‘Model’ It should look something like the image above when you click it. I can show you how to read this, there’s a short reference further in this manual, but you don’t need this now. We can dig into this later. For now go back to the ‘Control panel’ and see if the printer is hot yet… 4-test the extruderMotor speed is a valuebetween 0 to 255. First check if the extruder is hot. Then put in ‘230’ for motor speed and press forward.Thievalue you fill in here is The extruder should extrude a smooth squirt of plastic. Press stop and clear away thejust for testing, the actual plastic with some tweezers.speeds are set in theGcode during printing. BEFORE EVERY PRINT, CHECK THE MACHINE IS HEATED UP AND THE FILAMENT GOING INTO THE TOP IS FREE TO DO SO.Not working? Check these If the plastic is being extruded smoothly, you’re ready to print.things: Position the print head about 0,5 mm above the surface, and press ‘Build’ (the second-is the print head hot? large button from the left in the main interface window)-is the plastic filament clear Depending on the profile used and how this is set up, the printer will either start rightand free to be pulled into 7
  • 8. the printer? away, or do a test extrusion first.-is the extruder motorturning? It turns slowly (2RPM) butyou should be able to see it At the start of the print, the plastic is supposed to stick to the platform. This can be tricky.move. If it is not moving,first check the wire If it does not you can try a couple of things:connections, then try ahigher value for motor - While the print is still going, adjust the height manually by turning the wheel onspeed. top of the printer. Try to get the plastic to catch on the platform-Is the plastic being pulled - Just cancel the print. (Press ‘Stop’) and reset.in at the top? If it isn’t, and the motor isturning, the motor lost grip - Apply a layer of double-sided sticky tape to the platform.on the filament wire. TheMark V extruders have a - Yell for helpblack screw to the side totighten the grip the motorhas on the plastic filament.Tighten this. If it does start correctly, make sure the printer has enough free plastic filament to pull in,On the Mark IV extruders and get someone to get you coffee. This example should take about 10 minutes to print.this is more complicated todo, yell for help at thispoint. When the print finishes, give it 30 seconds to cool down, then peel off the print from the platform. It should, hopefully, look something like this: B Print your own objects At this point you can: - open up your own file, generate G-code and try it OR: -set up the software and try to print from your own laptop, go to part C of this course OR: -try to improve the print quality by earning to adjust the Skeinforge settings. Go to part D. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. C Setting up the software 1-ReplicatorG Download en unzip Replicatorg: http://www.replicat.orgIf this doesn’t work, you There is a version of this software on the stick, under ‘01-INSTALL FILES’might need to install theFTDI-driver manually, it islocated under ‘drivers’ inthe ReplicatorG installdirectory. The software only unzips to install, so you need to create a shortcut by hand. On windows, execute: ReplicatorG.exe(this is not the driver insideReplicatorG we talked Then connect the cable from the Makerbot to a USB-port, and try to connect to it, usingabout before but the the steps lined out in part A.system driver that lets yoursystem know what you justconnected to it) 2-Custom profiles and driver for your machine If this works, you need to get the correct driver and Skeinforge profile for your machine. They are on the USB-stick: -Copy the files from USB-STICK02-DRIVERS to REPLICATORG-INSTALL FOLDERmachines -Copy the files from USB-STICK03-PROFILESversion006 to REPLICATORG-INSTALL FOLDERskein_enginesskeinforge-0006prefs -Copy the files from USB-STICK03-PROFILESversion35 to REPLICATORG-INSTALL FOLDERskein_enginesskeinforge-35prefs Restart ReplicatorG. You should now be able to select the correct driver and profile. 10
  • 11. D Under the hood: configuring SkeinforgeSkeinforge is basically a large series of scripts that are executed one by one. Each havea number of parameters, and when you first take a look at those it will look quitedaunting.However:-at some point you’ll need to be able to tweak the settings. Either because the printerisn’t set up right, or because you need different settings for a small, hollow object thanyou need for, say, a gear wheel you want to have as strong as possible.-you don’t need to learn all the settings at once, you need to figure out which ones arethe important ones.If you want to dig into this, start by selecting Skeinforge 35 in menu>GCode>ChooseGcode generator. (it’s easier to set up than the standard version) 11
  • 12. The most important values are indicated in blue and yellow.The modules you should get acquainted with are:-Carve: this cuts the 3D-model in 2D-layers. Layer thickness is defined here-Temperature: what it sounds like-Raft: this is the module doing the bottom, ugh, raft on the model-Speed: sets extrusion and motion speeds-Fill: how the object is filled in (hollow/solid)Try to find following parameters, while taking a look around in the interface:-Flow rate setting (this is extrusion speed)-Layer thickness: thickness of 1 layer on the Z-axis-Infill solidity: how solid do you want your object-Base temperature: print head temperature-Perimeter width over thickness: how wide a strip of layed-down plastic is as a ratio tothe layer height.A good start to learn more are the links:- http://davedurant.wordpress.com/2010/10/17/configuring-skeinforge-some-basic-terms/This is a very good tutorial, there are more on the same site.http://fabmetheus.crsndoo.com/wiki/index.php/SkeinforgeThis is the official manual, with an overview to existing tutorials. 12
  • 13. E THE CNC-MILL: GETTING STARTED Timelab’s miniCNC is a milling machine with an open floor. It was designed as a small mill, capable of milling into larger panels. In this workshop we’ll show you how to use to mill small parts out of plexi. 1-Connect The machine has the same electronics as the Makerbot. You control it using ReplicatorG. -Go to Machine>Driver and select ‘miniCNC 32-teeth-gear’ If your machine has a sticker on it saying ’36-teeth gear’ select ‘miniCNC 36-teeth-gear’.If you do not have theoption to select these, you -Connect the machine with the USB-cable and click ‘Connect’ in replicatorG. You mightneed to copy the drivers need to go back to Machine>Serial Port to select the correct serial port.from the USB-stick.Consult chapter C on howto do this. 13
  • 14. 2-Try it-Once you got connected, open ’02-square.gcode’ from the ’03-EXAMPLES’ folderYouwon’t have a 3D-preview, but the g-code should look like this:G90G92 X0 Y0 Z0G21G01 Z-3 F50G01 X40 F100G01 Y40G01 X0G01 Y0G01 Z0Put a piece of plywood under the machine.Turn on the Dremel by hand. You don’t need to open it up fully, half way is fine.Press ‘Build’. If you selected the correct driver and the machine is working properly, thiscode should mill a 40x40mm pattern, 3mm deep. If you’re using a 2mm milling bit, this results in a 38x38 mm square. Check the size tosee if the scale works out.F WRITING A BIT OF GCODEYou’ll notice the G-code is a lot shorter than the one from the 3D-printer. It will get longeronce we do more complex shapes, but basic holes and rectangles only need a few lines.In Chapter H you’ll find a short reference on what the Gcode commands do. Take a lookat it, and compare it with the documented code here:G90 (use absolute coordinates)G92 X0 Y0 Z0 (you are now at zero)G21 (and we’re working in millimeters)G01 Z-3 F50 (go down 3 mm on the Z-axis at speed 50mm/min)G01 X40 F100 (move 40mm to the right at speed 100mm/min)G01 Y40 (move 40m up, keep same speed)G01 X0G01 Y0G01 Z0 14
  • 15. G MILLING SOFTWARE1-Software: general conceptsThe example above is how you would program a CNC-machine in ye olde days, typingcode by hand. Most CNC-machines still work and understand this code (or a variant onit), but you use a piece of software to convert a 3D-file into G-code.Because with this machine you have access to the Gcode, you can use any software thatallows you to export machine code. You export the code and open it in ReplicatorGAn interesting program to try out for 3D-milling is Deskproto, www.deskproto.comSkeinforge, the G-code generator for the Makerbot, can be used for 3D-milling as well,but is quite complicated to set up and does not offer a good preview.We’ve been using a 2D-based interface, as we were interested in introducing basicmilling to people who don’t necessarily have a background in 3D-modelling. 15
  • 16. 2-Software: CADPYCADPY is a small program from MIT we adapted for use with our machine. It allows youto cut out shapes without needing to learn 3D-modelling, using bitmaps or scanneddrawings.3-Install CADPYOn windows: Go to the USB-stick 01-INSTALL FILES,copy 01-cadPy_win32_exe.rarand unpack. Then, in the folder that is created go to distcad-2011-05-15.exeIf this does not run on your computer, go tohttp://www.repairablemachines.com/downloads.html and follow the guidelines to installPythonsOn Ubuntu: Consult http://www.repairablemachines.com/downloads.html for commandline install. On the set up computers, open the CADPY link on the desktop. After opening the software, you should see an interface a bit like The orange lines in the image above are the generated tool paths. These are saved as Gcode and then opened in ReplicatorG. ReplicatorG controls the machine in the same way as it does the Makerbots. 16
  • 17. We use CAD.PY to convert a 2D-bitmap to machine code. This machine code is calledG-code, and is sent to the machine later using a separate piece of software, ReplicatorG.In this tutorial we will open a black & white bitmap, set the correct size and depth,generate the G-code and save it.After installing Python, and opening cad.py, you should see this screen:1-Click on INPUT and select a bitmap.The image we used is a png-file of a black letter A, 50.8 x50.8 mm wide at 300dpi. Youcan find it as ‘05-A.png’ under the EXAMPLES folder on the stick.Once the bitmap got loaded, you should see something like this.2- Change ‘window size’ to a value that fits the window on your screen..3- Next you’ll set the size of the image, the origin point, the depth you want to mill, and 17
  • 18. which part of the image you want to have cut out.x min / y min: sets the origin point, we usually leave these at 0,0. When you start theCNC the location of the milling head will be the bottom left corner of the image field(which is not the same as the bottom left corner of the A!)x width/y width: the size of the image field in millimeters. The software takes the size asset in Photoshop. Set these to ‘50’nx/ny: is non-editable, it displays the amount of pixels in your imagedepth: a negative number, in mm. This is the total cutting depth. If you enter -7 here theblack parts in the image will be cut out to this depth.Grey parts of the image will be interpolated between 0 and depth, according to thesettings in intensity min / intensity max (we havent experimented much with those yet)Set this to ‘-4’travel height: how much the milling bit is raised when moving the tool.Set this to ‘1’number of layers: you can either cut out to the desired depth in one go, or mill in anumber of layers. This will depend on the hardness of the material and, if you haveslopes, how smooth you want these. 1 gives you the full depth in one go.Leave at 1 fornowinvert image: flips the black and white parts of the image aroundWhen youre happy with these settings, click on CAM. You will now see an additionalnumber of buttons and boxes:CAD.PY suggests a default filename as output file. You can change this if desired, but itwill by default save a gcode file in the same folder where the bitmap is located.maximum vector fit error: mostly left this alone, should influence accuracy. 18
  • 19. tool diameter: diameter of your milling bit. Set to the correct value. Most of you will be using a 2mm bit. tool overlap:value between 0 and 1. Overlap between the milling paths. A larger number gives less overlap. A value of 1 will give a distance of the full tool diameter between paths.Send to machinedoesnt work (yet) for theArduino-based #contours: number, 1 gives only an outline, which is useful when cutting a contour. -1electronics. mills away everything in black. Values of 2,3,... are also possible. Set to ‘1’ for now. contour starts the calculation. CAD.PY will calculate the tool path, and display these when done: Give it a try…. 19
  • 20. -Once the calculation is finished, you can go back to replicatorG, open the Gcode-file’05.A.gcode’ you just created.-place a piece of plywood under the machine-Position the mill bit and turn on the Dremel-Hit ‘Build’ and try it. 20
  • 21. H More CNC-milling1-On the stick you we prepared some more example files. ‘Arduinobot’ is a frame for asmall robot, designed to be cut out of 2mm plexi.2- Make and mill your own pieces Prepare a bitmap-file in Photoshop (I export a PDF out of my CAD program) PNG-files work well, black & white is faster than grayscale. Format: PNG-file, minimum 200 dpi, black&white* Maximum dimensions: 16x16cm*** Minimum detail: 1mm ** *Everything in black will be milled away. The black areas of the design should not touch the borders of the image. **Depends on which of our machines you’re using ***This is the diameter of the smallest milling bit available3- On one of the computer we installed a trial version of Deskproto. You can use thisto generate Gcode from 3D-models and mill into foam. I can help with that if you’reinterested in trying this. We’ve included a sample file, with the setup for our machine,in EXAMPLES: 21
  • 22. K An introduction into G-code-G-code is a standard for machinecode.-However, each brand of CNC-manufacturers tend to make their own ‘flavor’The reference below is a command list for the Makerbot electronics, which are also usedon the miniCNC.-G-codes: commands starting with ‘G’ are motion commands-M-codes: commands starting with ‘M’ are toolhead commands. (as the Dremel on the miniCNC is not controlled by the electronics these aremeaningless for this machine) CODE EXPLANATION EXAMPLE G01 Xxx.xx Yxx.xx Move to given coördinate. G21 Zxx.xx Fxx The parameter F defines a G01 X10 F120 speed in mm/min G01 Y10 G01 X0 G01 Y0 (this draws a square of 10x10mm, at 120mm/s) You could also write: G21 G01 X0 Y0 Z0 G01 X10 Y0 Z0 F120 G01 X0 Y10 Z0 … G04 Pxxxx Pause command, parameter P is defined in milliseconds G04 P5000 (wait for 5 seconds) G21 Use millimeters as units, G21 (use once at start of file) G20 is ‘use inches’ G90 Set absolute positioning i.e. G90 you will be using absolute G01 X10 coordinates, G91 selects G01 Y10 relative coordinates. G01 X0 G01 Y0 (draws a square, compare with G91) 22
  • 23. G92 Xxx.xx Yxx.xx Zxx.xx Set origin/ define position G92 X0 Y0 Z0 (you are now at X0,Y0, Z0)M101 Extruder on M101 (Extruder on, forward)M103 Extruder off M103 (Extruder off)M104 Sxxx Set extruder temperature, M104 S220 T0 (Temperature between 215 and 230°C for to 220 celsius) ABSM108 Sxxx Set extruder motor speed, M108 S255 (Extruder speed = value from 0 to 255 max)M30 Used at end of file, loop function (the code starts again from the top) 23
  • 24. Gcode example (for milling)(this file creates a 30x30 square button with 4 holes in it)G21 (set mm as units)G91G92 X0 Y0 Z0 (current position is zero)(lines above are a general header)G01 X10 Y20 F120(plunge hole)G01 Z-5 F50G01 Z0G01 X10 Y10 F120(plunge hole)G01 Z-5 F50G01 Z0G01 X20 Y10 F120(plunge hole)G01 Z-5 F50G01 Z0G01 X20 Y20 F120(plunge hole)G01 Z-5 F50G01 Z0(cut out a 30x30mm square)G01 X-2 Y-2 F120G01 Z-5 F50G01 Y32G01 X32G01 Y-2G01 X-2(lift and end)G01 Z0 24
  • 25. L LinksMakerbot industries: http://www.makerbot.com Our CNC-machines: http://www.repairablemachines.comwebsite Wim:http://www.kd85.com/ 25