Socio-economic profile of Shifting Cultivators of Tripura

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Study on the basis of a sample drawn from all the four districts of Tripura. Narrates the attemts at rehabilitation of Tribal people. Part of the ITTO Pre-Project commissioned by TFDPC

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Socio-economic profile of Shifting Cultivators of Tripura

  1. 1. Socio- Socio-economic Profile of the Shifting Cultivators of Tripura Indraneel Bhowmik 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  2. 2. The discourse Introduction & Information Sample Profile Socio-economic indicators Observations & Concluding Remarks 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  3. 3. Rehabilitation process………….some measures •The first attempts at rehabilitation -1930-31. 70,400 acres (11264 ha)- Kalyanpur Reserve in the Khowai subdivision •First Five Year Plan- special emphasis to the tribal welfare programmes. •Colonisation of the jhumias- pilot project at Belonia sub- division in 1953. •More than 49000 families rehabilitated through settled agriculture till Ninth Five Year Plan •Rubber based rehabilitation- success 23rd November ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ 2007 Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  4. 4. Extent of Jhum cultivation in Tripura Area under Shifting Cultivation 1. Task – Force Ministry of Agriculture, 1983 223 km2 2. Satpathy etal,,Ministry of Rural Development, 2003 1080 km2 3. National Remote Sensing Agency, 2003 395.26 km2 a) Abandoned Jhum 110.37 km2 b) Current Jhum 284.89 km2 4. Forest area under Jhum (1987-1997) * 600 km2 5 Forest Cover affected by Jhum # a) Dense Forest 221 km2 b) Open Forest 163 km2 Source- Tiwari 2005 Notes: * - Forest Survey of India, 1999; # - State of Forest Report 2003, National Forestry Commission, 2006 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  5. 5. JHUM CULTIVATORS IN TRIPURA District North Dhalai West South Tripura Tripuri 552 5197 5785 2024 13558 Reang 4518 3252 81 1328 9178 Noatia 0 21 59 47 127 Chakma 578 860 0 400 1838 Halam 269 236 182 399 1086 Jamatia 0 221 103 94 418 Mog 17 14 1 208 240 Garo 4 1 32 0 37 Lushai 1434 39 0 0 1473 Kuki 9 1 10 0 20 Munda 2 0 80 0 82 Uchai 0 0 0 12 12 Orang 4 0 20 0 24 Bhil 1 0 0 0 1 Khasia 3 0 16 0 19 Santhal 0 2 1 6 9 Others 1 10 149 2 153 Total 7392 9854 6520 4520 28286 Source- Compiled from the survey undertaken by the Dept. of Forests, Govt. of Tripura Notes- Others include non-tribals and unidentified groups
  6. 6. Progress in Rehabilitation Projects Considerable decline from in the last two decades- 55049 households in 1987 Success of the rehabilitation schemes undertaken by Tribal Welfare Department TRP & PGP Department Autonomous District Council Tripura Rehabilitation Plantation Corporation (TRPC) Forest Department Agricultural Department Tripura Forest Development Plantation Corporation (TFDPC) THE PRESENT SCENARIO • The Tripuri and the Reang community are the largest of the shifting cultivators • Maximum concentrations of shifting cultivators are seen in the Chawmanu, Damboornagar, Mungiakami and Dasda RD Blocks. • Some non-tribals in the West Tripura district have adopted shifting cultivation as a means of livelihood.
  7. 7. Sample Profile The sample size of 344 : selected through purposive random sampling covering all the four districts of the state. – spread over eight forest division – twelve rural development blocks & – 91 villages/paras. Community-wise distribution of the sample Community North Dhalai West South Total Tripuri 0 51 23 75 149 Reang 71 39 0 27 137 Jamatia 0 0 0 18 18 Chakma 1 9 0 13 23 Noatia 0 0 0 2 2 Munda 0 0 2 0 2 Lusai 3 0 0 0 3 Mog 0 0 0 5 5 Garo 0 0 0 5 5 Total 75 99 25 145 344 Source- Field Survey, 2007
  8. 8. Age distribution of the sample population Age Group North South Dhalai West Tripura (Years) <6 57 (15.32) 62(9.78) 59(13.05) 24(24.49) 202(12.98) 6-14 74(19.89) 163(25.71) 102(22.57) 22(22.45) 361(23.20) 15 – 40 193(51.88) 306(48.26) 223(49.34) 48(48.9) 770(49.48) 41 – 60 40(10.75) 94(14.82) 61(13.49) 2(2.04) 197(12.66) > 60 8(2.15) 9(1.42) 7(1.55) 2(2.04) 26(1.67) Total 372(100) 634(100) 452(100) 98(100) 1556(100) The average family size- 4.52 for the state; highest 4.96 in the North Tripura district & 23rd November lowest in the West Tripura district, 3.92 2007
  9. 9. Occupation structure of the samples- Tripura Occupation Primary Secondary JHUM 465 (52.60) 378 (43.10) Agriculture 41 (4.64) 9 (1.03) Agricultural Labour 5(0.57) 2 (0.23) Day Labour 300 (33.94) 454 (51.76) Business 40 (4.52) 16 (1.82) Service 10 (1.13) 0 Others 23 (2.60) 18 (2.06) Total 884 (100) 877 (100) Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage
  10. 10. Incidence of occupation in the four districts (in percentage) Primary Secondary Occupation Dhalai North South West Occupation Dhalai North South West JHUM 94.35 95.59 7.77 11.76 JHUM 0.82 6.03 85.07 0 Agriculture 1.61 0 9.58 0 Agriculture 0.82 0 1.87 0 Agricultural 0 0 1.30 0 Agricultural Labour 0 0 0.53 0 Labour Day Labour 0 0.49 70.21 62.75 Day Labour 94.25 90.45 9.33 44.44 Business 0.81 0.98 7.77 13.73 Business 2.04 2.01 1.87 0 Service 1.21 1.47 1.04 0 Service 0 0 0 0 Others 2.02 1.47 2.33 11.76 Others 0 1.51 1.33 55.56 Total 100 100 100 100 Total 100 100 100 100 23rd November 2007
  11. 11. Income Characteristics Per capita income & Average Income per house hold among the sample (in Rs.) (Current Price) Per capita income Average Annual Income per household North 3122.85 15489.33 (5917.10) Dhalai 3693.25 16862.12 (10535.67) West 2724.49 10680.00 (4868.86) South 7942.78 35214.83 (17677.41) Average for State 4370.84 19563.07 Source: Field Survey, 2007 Figures in parenthesis indicate the standard deviation NSDP Statistics for Tripura Per Capita income in 2003-04 (P) Current Price- Rs. 29357 Constant Prices-Rs. 11136 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  12. 12. Expenditure Profile Per capita expenditure & Average expenditure per house hold among the sample (in Rs.) Average Annual expenditure per Per capita expenditure household North 3376.64 16748.13 (9143.41) Dhalai 3528.45 16109.70 (5744.53) West 2841.43 11138.40 (4908.19) South 8547.62 37633.26 (16738.64) Average 4573.54 20407.37 Source: Field Survey, 2007 Figures in parenthesis indicate the standard deviation • Expenditures are higher than income in the three districts of North, West and South Tripura. •Food contributes to 33 percent of the total expenditure, followed by transport, 12 percent. •Average annual expenditures on health, clothing and housing are almost same and each accounts for 11 percent of the total. •Expenditure for fodder is very nominal (1%) because the livestock animals generally graze in forest lands and at times when fodder is obtained from the nearby jungles • Education is not a major head of expenditure, only 4 percent is spent on it. • Entertainment and others, each account for 6 percent of the aggregate expenditure
  13. 13. Forest Product Used by the Sample Households District Fuel Fodder Fruits Others West 25 0 25 0 (100) (100) South 138 18 89 84 (95.17) (12.41) (61.38) (57.93) North 75 4 60 2 (100) (5.33) (80) (2.67) Dhalai 99 2 99 0 (100) (2.02) (100) Total 337 24 273 86 (98.79) (4.94) (85.34) (15.15) Source: Field Survey, 2007 Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage Forest product as fuel is found among 99 percent; though it is marginally less in South district. Fruits from forest are used by 85 percent of the households. 23rd November ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ 2007 Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  14. 14. Level of Education Education Age Illiterate Primary Class Matriculatio H.S Total VIII n 6-14 51 (14.13) 308 2 361 (100) 15-40 433 (56.23) 267 57 12 1 770 (100) 41-60 154 ( 78.17) 38 4 1 197 (100) 61& 20 (76.92) 4 2 26 (100) above Total 658 (48.60) 617 (45.59) 65 (4.80) 13 (0.96) 1 1354 (100) Source: Field Survey, 2007 Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage • 48.60 percent of the respondents are illiterate and 45.59 percent has studied till the primary level. • There is only one person who has qualified in the Higher Secondary level and just 1(one) percent of the sample are matriculates. 23rd November ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ 2007 Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  15. 15. Category of Ration Cards among the Sample Households Ration cardholder District APL BPL Antardaya Annapurna A&B Nothing Total 7 14 1 3 25 West 0 0 (28) (56) (4) (12) (100) 31 84 11 2 8 7 143 South (2.16) (58.74) (7.69) (1.39) (5.59) (4.89) (100) 7 37 19 12 75 North 0 0 (9.33) (49.33) (25.33) (16) (100) 5 52 23 99 Dhalai 0 0 19 (19.19) (5.05) (52.52) (23.23) (100) 50 187 54 2 8 41 342* Total (14.62) (54.68) (15.79) (.29) (2.34) (11.99) (100) Items from Ration (TRIPURA) Obtained by the Samples Total Items from Ration Households Wheat Rice Kerosene Sugar Pulses Others 344 6 287 308 198 3 192 Total 1.74 83.43 89.53 57.55 0.87 55.81 percentage 23rd November 2007 Source: Field Survey, 2007
  16. 16. Observations….a few Housing- Mud in South district; bamboos, tin, straw, thatch in other districts Sanitation- Mostly Temporary in nature; permanent facilities, to an extent in South districts Pulse Polio- most popular government programme 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  17. 17. Concluding Remarks Differential character of the jhumias across state Situation in the South and West district comparatively better Area specific approach needed to address the problem Extensive & exhaustive resource mapping be undertaken along with capacity building of the jhum cultivators for alternative vocation 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala
  18. 18. Thank You 23rd November 2007 ITTO Pre-Project Workshop @ Prajna Bhavana, Agartala

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