Migration Profile of Tripura
----- With Special Emphasis on Women




            Indraneel Bhowmik


               Prese...
What is migration?
      Migration means movement from one
      place to another.
      In Economics, migration is moveme...
Census Definition of Migration

      Migrants by place of birth are those who
      are enumerated at a village/town at t...
Migration Statistics- India(                                 By
       Birth)

Total Migrants   2001 Census         1991 C...
Migration Statistics- India
     ( By last residence)
    Total migrants by last residence …….. 314.5 million
            ...
Causes for Migration- India
Causes (in %)        Persons             Male    Female
Work / Employment    9.51             ...
Observations: India
      Marriage is the most important cause for migration
      among females.
      Work/Employment is...
Observations: India
      Least rates for Bihar(-2.7%), UP(-2.0%),
      Manipur(-1.4%), Nagaland(-1.4%).
      Tripura- 1...
Historical Background
      People from the Chakla Roshanabad prior to
      independence of India
      Partition – huge ...
Migrants by Birth: Tripura
                          Persons           Male      Female
       Total              939052  ...
District- Migrants:

   West-478635: South-215148: Dhalai- 63210:
    North-182059

                Migrants Distribution
...
Female Migrants in Tripura



District Migrants Female              Female Migrants along with total migrants

Dhalai     ...
Migration Profile of Tripura
      29.35% of the population are migrants.
      34.99% of the women are migrants.
      76...
Rural Urban Divide
        total rural            urban                        urban rural
Tripura 544760        426515   ...
Migration by last residence:
  Tripura

  Total Migrants- 961,653
  Male- 403929 (42%), Female-557724(58%)
  National - 72...
Migration statistics- Tripura
  Total migrants by last residence …….. 961653
      Duration   less than 1 year ………………..252...
Migration Profile of Tripura
      Exodus from erstwhile East Pakistan.
      Maximum number of immigrants from-
      Miz...
Migration Profile of Tripura
      More than 30% of the people in the
      state are considered to be migrants.
      Mar...
Causes of Migration: Overall

  Causes (in %)                 Persons           Male    Female
  Work / Employment        ...
Migration Profile of Tripura
  Others is the most important factor for migration in
  Tripura.
  It includes widespread in...
Migration Profile of Tripura
•   Inter state migration with Assam mostly for
    marriage and in the North District.
•   M...
Causes for Migration:
  International
    Causes (in %)                Persons          Male    Female
    Work / Employme...
Migration Profile of Tripura
       International migration maximum due to
       socio-political factors.
       Marriage...
Changing Scenario
            Between 1991-2001
 Causes (in %)           Persons Male            Female
 Work / Employment...
Migration Profile of Tripura

  Out migrants from Tripura during 1991-2001:
  23,538.
  15.8% migration to other states fo...
Changing Scenario
            Between 1991-2001

      Migration for education is on the rise for
      all.
      More mi...
Changing Scenario
            Between 1991-2001

      Female migration rate for
      work/employment,business, education...
Major literature on Migration ----
            Arthur Lewis ( “Economic Development with Unlimited
            Supplies of...
Major literature on Migration

            G. Fields (“ Rural- Urban Migration, Urban Unemployment
            and Underem...
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Female Migration in Tripura

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Female Migration in Tripura

  1. 1. Migration Profile of Tripura ----- With Special Emphasis on Women Indraneel Bhowmik Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  2. 2. What is migration? Migration means movement from one place to another. In Economics, migration is movement from one place to another for an economic activity. Theories on Migration in most cases have been regarding developing countries. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  3. 3. Census Definition of Migration Migrants by place of birth are those who are enumerated at a village/town at the time of census other than their place of birth. Migrant by place of last residence are those who have changed their place of living during the interim period of census. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  4. 4. Migration Statistics- India( By Birth) Total Migrants 2001 Census 1991 Census Variation (%) Persons 307.1 229.8 32.9 Male 90.4 Female 216.7 Intra-district 181.7 136.2 32.6 Inter-district 76.8 59.1 29.5 Inter-state 42.3 27.2 54.5 Abroad 6.1 6.9 -11.6 Note: J&K Excluded In 1991 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  5. 5. Migration Statistics- India ( By last residence) Total migrants by last residence …….. 314.5 million (29.68%M &70.32%F) Duration less than 1 year ………….... 8.8 million Duration 1 to 4 years ……………….. 47.2 million Duration 5 to 9 years ……………….. 42.1 million Duration 10 to 19 years …………….. 69.4 million Duration 20 years and above ….…. 101.0 million Duration not stated ……………….…. 45.6 million Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  6. 6. Causes for Migration- India Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 9.51 28.09 1.66 Business 0.90 2.55 0.20 Education 1.06 2.55 0.44 Marriage 49.64 2.33 69.61 Moved after birth 5.02 9.94 2.94 Moved with household 13.68 19.39 11.27 Others 20.19 35.15 13.87 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  7. 7. Observations: India Marriage is the most important cause for migration among females. Work/Employment is the 2nd most important reason for migration among males after Others. Work/Employment is most prominent reason for in- migration of males to industrial states like Maharastra, Gujarat. Union territories and small states have the highest migration rate- Daman &Diu(44.1%), Dadra & Nagar (32.6%), Chandigarh (21.4%), Delhi(18.7%). Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  8. 8. Observations: India Least rates for Bihar(-2.7%), UP(-2.0%), Manipur(-1.4%), Nagaland(-1.4%). Tripura- 1%. 97% of the migrants from the neighbouring countries. 3.0 million from Bangladesh, 0.9 million from Pakistan, 0.5 million from Nepal and 0.1 million from Sri Lanka. Considerable migration from China. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  9. 9. Historical Background People from the Chakla Roshanabad prior to independence of India Partition – huge Bengali speaking population Indo- Pak War 1971: Inflow from the present Bangladesh Settlement also in hilly tracts Change in the demographic profile Population- 31,99,203 Male: 1642225(51.33%) & Female: 1556978(48.67%) Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  10. 10. Migrants by Birth: Tripura Persons Male Female Total 939052 394292 544760 Intra-district 476680 171800 304880 Inter-district 99669 39727 59942 Inter-state 62890 30060 32830 International 299813 152705 147108 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  11. 11. District- Migrants: West-478635: South-215148: Dhalai- 63210: North-182059 Migrants Distribution North 19% Dhalai West 7% 51% South 23% Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  12. 12. Female Migrants in Tripura District Migrants Female Female Migrants along with total migrants Dhalai 63210 34971 600000 400000 North 182059 103071 200000 Series1 South 215148 129562 0 Dhalai North South West Series2 West 478635 277156 population Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  13. 13. Migration Profile of Tripura 29.35% of the population are migrants. 34.99% of the women are migrants. 76.11% of the migrants live in Rural Areas. 26.94% of the rural population are migrants. Intra-district and inter-district migration greater for women. 33.06% of the female living in villages are migrants. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  14. 14. Rural Urban Divide total rural urban urban rural Tripura 544760 426515 118245 Tripura 21.71 78.29 Dhalai 34971 30329 4642 Dhalai 13.27 86.73 North 78988 88737 14334 North 18.15 81.85 South 129562 115338 14224 South 10.98 89.02 West 277156 192111 118245 West 42.66 57.34 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  15. 15. Migration by last residence: Tripura Total Migrants- 961,653 Male- 403929 (42%), Female-557724(58%) National - 72.69% (M-38.42%,F-61.58%) Within State-90.89% (M-37.48%, F- 62.52%) Within District-84.38%(M-37.03%,F- 62.97%) Other States- 63778 (M-47.83%, F- 52.17%) Other Districts- 99369(M-39.88%, F- 60.12%) International – 27.21% (M-51.59%, F-48.41%) Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  16. 16. Migration statistics- Tripura Total migrants by last residence …….. 961653 Duration less than 1 year ………………..25257 Duration 1 to 4 years …………………….134134 Duration 5 to 9 years ………………………85562 Duration 10 years and above ….……..507301 Duration not stated ……………………….209349 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  17. 17. Migration Profile of Tripura Exodus from erstwhile East Pakistan. Maximum number of immigrants from- Mizoram(28,292), followed by Assam (17827). No immigrants from Daman &Diu, Lakshadeep, Dadra & Nagar and Pondicherry. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  18. 18. Migration Profile of Tripura More than 30% of the people in the state are considered to be migrants. Marriage is the most important cause for intra state migration. Out migration from the state mostly to West Bengal. Second to Arunachal in terms of migration rate among NE states. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  19. 19. Causes of Migration: Overall Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 5.38 10.76 1.49 Business 0.95 2.05 0.15 Education 0.92 1.55 0.46 Marriage 28.69 2.03 48.00 Moved after birth 0.55 0.79 0.37 Moved with household 23.99 27.36 21.55 Others 39.52 55.46 27.97 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  20. 20. Migration Profile of Tripura Others is the most important factor for migration in Tripura. It includes widespread internal displacement due to insurgency and ethnic unrest. More than 10000 persons have migrated from Takarjala & Jampuijala. Several persons in the state who have been forced to migrate due to exogenous factors for more than twice. Huge migration from areas once used for resettlement of refugees after partition. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  21. 21. Migration Profile of Tripura • Inter state migration with Assam mostly for marriage and in the North District. • Migration from Mizoram is highest for other causes and concentrated in the North District. • Out migration rate from Dhalai as part of inter district migration is highest. • Lack of industrial sector factor for low migration for work/employment for both inter-state and intra-state sections. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  22. 22. Causes for Migration: International Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 3.28 5.52 0.88 Business 0.88 1.53 0.19 Education 0.44 0.70 0.15 Marriage 11.26 0.65 22.53 Moved after birth 0.24 0.46 0.18 Moved with household 44.19 41.94 46.59 Others 39.70 49.35 29.41 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  23. 23. Migration Profile of Tripura International migration maximum due to socio-political factors. Marriage between the two sides of the border is not very frequent. 99.69% of the international migrants from Bangladesh. Male majority migration from Bangladesh. International immigrants also from Nepal, Burma, Pakistan, the African and American continent. June 2006 migrants from Europe including 4 women. 5
  24. 24. Changing Scenario Between 1991-2001 Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 10.23 22.70 3.19 Business 1.20 2.96 0.20 Education 2.78 5.25 1.38 Marriage 37.83 3.05 57.44 Moved after birth 0.71 1.05 0.52 Moved with household 24.96 28.42 16.03 Others 22.28 36.55 14.24 Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  25. 25. Migration Profile of Tripura Out migrants from Tripura during 1991-2001: 23,538. 15.8% migration to other states for work/employment. In-migrants from other states( 1991-2001): 40,262. In migrants from abroad (1991-2001): 11,246. 65509 migrants in Agartala- 32237 males & 33272 females. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  26. 26. Changing Scenario Between 1991-2001 Migration for education is on the rise for all. More migration in the offing- regrouping of villages by the state government. Marriage assumes more than 50% of the cause for female migration. Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  27. 27. Changing Scenario Between 1991-2001 Female migration rate for work/employment,business, education more than double. Female migration as dependent on the decline. Indication for ……………..Women Empowerment…... Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  28. 28. Major literature on Migration ---- Arthur Lewis ( “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour”, 1954) Michael Todaro (“ A Model of Labour Migration and Urban Unemployment “, 1969) John Harris & Michael Todaro (Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis”1970) T.W. Schultz (“ Agriculture in an Unstable Economy”, 1945) Gustav Ranis and John Fei ( “ A Theory of Economic Development”1961) Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
  29. 29. Major literature on Migration G. Fields (“ Rural- Urban Migration, Urban Unemployment and Underemployment, and Job Search Activity in LDCs”, 1975) L.Y.L.Yap (“The Attraction of Cities: A Review of the Migration Literature”,1977) A.S. Oberai & H.K. Manmohan Singh (“Migration, Employment and the Urban Labour Market: A Study in the Indian Punjab”1984) Biswajit Banerjee (“ Information flow, expectations and job search: rural-to-urban migration process in India, 1984) Presentation at IGNOU Seminar, June 2006 Agartala
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