Literacy In Tripura
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Literacy In Tripura Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Literacy scenario in Tripura Indraneel Bhowmik Lecture at NSS Special Camp , Women’s College Agartala
  • 2. WHAT IS LITERACY? The traditional definition of literacy — the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts- reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO):- “Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning to enable an individual to achieve his or her goals, to develop his or her knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in the wider society."
  • 3. When is a person considered "literate": able to sign his/her name able to read/write a simple sentence describing one's daily activities able to read and write, by his/her self-report (not based on a test) able to pass a written test of reading comprehension at a level comparable to that achieved by an average student at grade 4 able to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her community Alternatively A person is literate if s/he can both read and write a short simple statement describe his/her everyday life. A person is functionally literate if s/he can engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning of his/her group and community and also for enabling him/her to continue to use reading, writing, and calculation for his own and the community's development. A person is literate if s/he has completed 5 or more years of schooling.
  • 4. LITERACY IN INDIAN POLICY- National Literacy Mission Functional Literacy should take into account WRITING NUMERACY READING •Copying, with understanding, 7 •Reading and writing numerals •Reading aloud, with normal words a minute. 1-100. accent, and at a speed of 30 •Taking dictation at 5 words a •Doing simple calculations words a minute, a simple minute. (without fraction) involving passage on a topic of interest •Writing with proper spacing addition and subtraction up to 3 to the learner. and alignment. digits, and multiplication and •Silent reading at 35 words a •Writing independently, short division by 2 digits. minute, of small paragraphs in letters and applications, and •Working knowledge of metric simple language. filling in forms of day-to-day units weights, measures •Reading with understanding use to the learner. currency, distance, area and the road signs, posters, simple unit of time. instructions and •Broad idea of proportion and newspapers/broadsheets interests (not involving designed for neo-literates. fractions) and their use in •Ability to follow simple written practical situations. passages relating to one's working and living environment.
  • 5. THE CENSUS DEFINATIONS Literacy: - “ A person aged 7 years and above who can both read and write with understanding in any language has been taken as literate. It is not necessary for a person to have received any formal education or passed any minimum educational standard for being treated as literate. People who were blind and could read in Braille are treated literates. A person who can neither read nor write or can only read but can not write in any language is treated as illiterate. All children of age of six years or less, even going to school and have picked up reading and writing are treated as literate.” Literacy Rate: - Literacy rate of population is defined as the percentage of literates to the total population age 7 years and above. Literacy Rate= (Number of literates/Population above 7 years) X 100
  • 6. International Literacy Day Nodal Agency--- UNESCO Declaration on November 17, 1965. 1st celebrations in 1966. Aim - highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities and societies. Some 774 million adults lack minimum literacy skills; one in five adults is still not literate and two-thirds of them are women; 72.1 million children are out-of-school and many irregular & finally drops out. South and West Asia has the lowest regional adult literacy rate (58.6%), followed by sub-Saharan Africa (59.7%), and the Arab States (62.7%). {UNESCO’s "Global Monitoring Report on Education for All (2006)" } Clear connection between illiteracy and poverty, between illiteracy and prejudice against women.
  • 7. UNESCO’s Four Pillars Learning to be: the right to self-definition and self-identification Learning to know: the right to self-knowledge Learning to do: the right to self-development Learning to live together: the right to self-determination •Millennium Development Goals- UN ‘Education For ALL’ •United Nations Literacy Decade [2003-2012] The biennium celebration theme for 2007-2008 is “Literacy and Health”.
  • 8. International Literacy Day 2008 has a strong emphasis on ‘Literacy and Epidemics’ with a focus on communicable diseases such as- HIV, Tuberculosis & Malaria
  • 9. The benefits of literacy- •Human Benefits - individual’s self-esteem, confidence and personal empowerment •Political Benefits- political participation, democracy, ethnic equality, post conflict situations •Cultural Benefits- Cultural change, Preservation of cultural diversity •Social Benefits- Health, Reproductive behaviour, Education, Gender Equality •Economic Benefits- Economic Growth, Return to Investment
  • 10. Literacy Spread- The World Over Lowest literacy rates- Burkina Faso(12.8%), Niger (14.4%) & Mali (19%). Positive (+) correlation between literacy & development
  • 11. Disparity- in India Highest Lowest Total Person Kerala (90.9) Bihar (47.0) Male Kerala (94.2) Bihar (59.7) Female Kerala (87.7) Bihar (33.1) Rural Person Kerala (90.0) Bihar (43.9) Male Kerala (93.7) Bihar (57.1) Female Kerala (86.7) Bihar (29.6) Urban Person Mizoram (96.1) Uttar Pradesh (69.8) Male Mizoram (96.4) Uttar Pradesh (76.8) Female Mizoram (95.8) Uttar Pradesh (61.7)
  • 12. Literacy Situation in the North East India- 2001 Census States Arunachal Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura Total Person 54.3 63.3 70.5 62.6 88.8 66.6 68.8 73.2 Male 63.8 71.3 80.3 65.4 90.7 71.2 76 81 Female 43.5 54.6 60.5 59.6 86.7 61.5 60.4 64.9 Gap 20.3 16.7 19.8 5.8 4 9.7 15.6 16.1 Rural Person 47.8 59.7 67.3 56.3 81.3 62.8 66.8 69.7 Male 57.7 68.2 77.3 59.2 84.9 67.6 74.5 78.4 Female 36.9 50.7 57 53.2 77.3 57.5 58 60.5 Gap 20.8 17.5 20.3 6 7.6 10.1 16.5 17.9 Urban Person 78.3 85.3 79.3 86.3 96.1 84.7 83.9 89.2 Male 85.2 89.7 88.7 89 96.4 87.4 87.8 93.2 Female 69.5 80.2 70 83.5 95.8 81.4 79.2 85 Gap 15.7 9.5 18.7 5.5 0.6 6 8.6 8.2
  • 13. Literacy Scenario in Tripura Year Person Male Female Gap 1911 4.76 8.06 0.92 7.14 1921 8.21 14.32 1.12 13.20 90 80 1931 3.43 5.93 0.52 5.41 80 70 1941 7.95 12.74 2.46 10.28 70 Male 60 1951 15.5 22.3 08.0 14.3 60 Female 50 50 Gap 1961 24.3 29.6 10.2 19.4 40 Person 40 1971 31.0 40.2 21.2 19.0 30 30 1981 50.1 61.5 38.0 23.5 20 20 10 10 1991 60.4 70.6 49.7 20.9 0 0 2001 73.7 81.5 65.4 16.1 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
  • 14. Gender Gap in Literacy District/State Rural Urban Total 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 West Tripura 23.8 17.7 12.4 8.5 20.7 15.0 South Tripura 23.3 19.4 13.0 7.6 22.6 18.6 Dhalai 22.0 19.7 8.7 9.9 21.8 19.2 North Tripura 19.8 15.5 9.7 5.9 18.5 14.4 Tripura 22.7 17.9 12.4 8.2 21.0 16.1 Source: THDR, 2007 25 West Tripura South Tripura Dhalai North Tripura Tripura 20 15 10 5 0 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 Rural Urban Total
  • 15. District/State SC ST Literacy Rates Male Female Male Female among the backward West Tripura 81.2 66.2 78.3 55.8 sections South Tripura 84.0 68.4 63.4 38.4 Dhalai 77.4 63.2 57.0 33.4 North Tripura 83.7 71.8 61.4 38.7 Tripura 81.8 67.2 68.0 44.6 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 SC Male SC Female ST Male ST Female 20 10 0 West Tripura South Tripura Dhalai North Tripura Tripura
  • 16. Area Name Person Female Male Area Name Person Female Male Mohanpur 73.9 65.6 81.5 Killa 53.7 42.8 64.8 Hezamara 61.2 50.4 71.7 Amarpur 59.0 46.4 70.9 Pabmabil 74.1 63.4 84.5 Matabari 74.3 65.9 82.1 Khowai 80.6 74.2 86.8 Kakraban 76.6 68.3 84.6 Tulashikhar 66.2 56.5 75.7 Rajnagar 74.3 65.1 83 Kalyanpur 79.1 70.9 87.2 Hrishyamukh 71.7 62.7 80 Teliamura 70.6 60.4 79.8 Bagafa 68.4 58.7 77.6 Mandai 65.6 54.6 76.4 Karbuk 48.9 35.8 61.1 Jirania 76.5 68.0 84.4 Rupaichhari 52.4 39.1 64.8 Dukli 80.2 72.9 87.1 Satchand 74.7 64.9 83.9 Jampuijala 63.3 48.8 77.0 Ompi 57.5 45.6 68.6 Bishalgarh 76.2 66.6 85.2 Boxanagar 65.6 56.1 74.4 Gournagar 66.1 58 73.9 Melaghar 71.2 62.4 79.6 Kadamtala 77.2 70 84.1 Kathalia 61.9 53.3 69.9 Panisagar 82.6 76.7 88.1 Mungiakami 61.5 50.7 71.6 Damchhara 49.9 36.2 62.8 Salema 72.0 64.3 79.4 Pencharthal 69.3 59.8 78.2 Manu 61.9 50.0 72.8 Kumarghat 78.8 72.2 85.0 Ambassa 54.8 44.5 64.3 Dasda 53.4 42.9 63.1 Chhamanu 33.1 18.5 46.1 Jampuii hills 74.0 66.3 81.0 Dumburnagar 41.5 28.9 53.0
  • 17. The LITERACY SPREAD 33.1- 61.9 62.0 - 70.6 70.7-76.0 76.1- 82.7
  • 18. People need literacy skills- to read a bus schedule or the daily newspaper, to calculate the dosage for medication, to use a computer program, or to follow and engage in a debate about government policy. Being able to read, understand, and act on written material and basic numerical information is fundamental for parents, students, workers, community members, and citizens. At the individual level, low literacy skills have an impact on people’s ability to support themselves and their family. Low income, poor health, and social exclusion are all associated with low literacy. At the economic and societal level, low literacy skills can be a barrier to having the highly skilled productive work force and strong thriving communities that underpin a high standard of living.
  • 19. Let us all strive towards the goal…………… ………..