Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
  through Rubber Plantation-
    Problems and Prospects




                Indraneel B...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        “Shifting cultivation is the custom of
        cul...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Rubber- raw material for 50,000
        articles.
...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        World market: SR- 58%, NR-42%.
        India: NR- ...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Rubber plantations – gestation period 7
        ye...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
 Traditional areas              Non- Traditional Areas
   ...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
 Events in Tripura
   1963- Forest Department, Manu and
  ...
Year        Area(ha)   Tappable             Prodn    Yield   Farms
1992-93     14305      5172                 4030     77...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Yield is much below the national
        average- ...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
 Resettlement of Jhum cultivators
   Top priority of the g...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
 Block plantation scheme
   45 plantation centres- all ove...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Jhum Cultivation has decreased.
        223 sq.kms...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Not profitable
        Lack of land
        Younge...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation
        Rubber Extremely Profitable
        Prices of RSS ...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation

        Craze for tilla land by well off
        tribals ...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation

        Outsiders as plantation owners
        Possibilit...
Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators
   through Rubber Plantation




                                  Thank You

 2006    ...
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Jhumia Rehabilitation

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Jhumia Rehabilitation

  1. 1. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation- Problems and Prospects Indraneel Bhowmik
  2. 2. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation “Shifting cultivation is the custom of cultivating clearings scattered in the reservoir of natural vegetation(forest or grass-woodland) and of abandoning them as soon as the soil is exhausted; And this includes the custom of shifting the homesteads in order to follow the cultivator’s search for new fertile land.” 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  3. 3. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Rubber- raw material for 50,000 articles. Products- aeroplane tyres, tubes, hose pipes, shoes, latex goods, erasers, rubber bands, etc. Two types- Synthetic (petrochemical feeds); Natural (latex from rubber tree). 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  4. 4. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation World market: SR- 58%, NR-42%. India: NR- 78%, SR-22%. Natural Rubber- Hevea Brasilliensis. Nodal Agency- Rubber Board, Kottayam(hq). 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  5. 5. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Rubber plantations – gestation period 7 years Economic life- 28-30 years Employment potential- one man per hectare Earning potential- Rs. 7000.00 to 10000.00 per ha per month 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  6. 6. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Traditional areas Non- Traditional Areas Kerala- North Eastern States Kanyakumari district Tripura of Tamil Nadu Assam Karnataka Goa Orissa 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  7. 7. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Events in Tripura 1963- Forest Department, Manu and Patichhari 1969- Rubber Board office at Agartala 1976-TFDPC 1983-TRPC 1992-World Bank Project 2005- Rubber Mission 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  8. 8. Year Area(ha) Tappable Prodn Yield Farms 1992-93 14305 5172 4030 779 4207 1993-94 15159 6982 5545 794 4830 1994-95 16233 7782 6311 811 5976 1995-96 17885 9074 7258 800 7793 1996-97 19200 10516 8518 810 9507 1997-98 20823 11467 8926 778 11454 1998-99 22578 11395 8946 785 13146 1999-00 23847 11895 9360 787 14866 2000-01 24793 11000 9980 907 15916 2001-02 26045 13529 12999 961 17605 2002-03 26884 14418 14830 1029 18548 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  9. 9. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Yield is much below the national average- 1584kgs/ha Average size of the plot: Tripura- 1.43ha, India-0.57ha Growth rate of area in Tripura is much higher than the national average National Bureau of Soil Survey- 100000ha in Tripura is suitable 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  10. 10. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Resettlement of Jhum cultivators Top priority of the government- Agencies- Tribal Welfare Department- financial assistance, organisational help Rubber Board- technical and financial assistance TFDPC- implementation and marketing TRPC- implementation and management 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  11. 11. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Block plantation scheme 45 plantation centres- all over the state 2760 ha 2451 beneficiaries Rubber Producers Societies 1st RPS in North East- Tripureshwari RPS at Mirza, Kakraban Block, South Tripura 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  12. 12. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Jhum Cultivation has decreased. 223 sq.kms under jhum. Minimum area under shifting cultivation one time or other- 1115 sq.kms. Natural Regeneration in shifting cultivation in Tripura in 1997 as compared to 1995- 4 sq.kms. 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  13. 13. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Not profitable Lack of land Younger generation not interested in jhum Elders misses Jhum, feels it to be part of their culture, lifestyle Not bothered with environmental issues 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  14. 14. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Rubber Extremely Profitable Prices of RSS increased almost threefold in the last three years Average annual growth rate (1999- 2005) of farm gate price in South Tripura District- 11.79% 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  15. 15. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Craze for tilla land by well off tribals and non-tribals Large scale leasing of land Illegal occupation of forest land Increase in land price 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  16. 16. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Outsiders as plantation owners Possibility of land owners turning out to be tappers? Fears of ethnic clashes??? 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
  17. 17. Rehabilitation of Jhum Cultivators through Rubber Plantation Thank You 2006 ICHR Seminar @ TU,Agartala
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