Dynamics of Tribal
Rehabilitation in Tripura


           Indraneel Bhowmik
                            &
    Prof. Aparaj...
The Discourse

 Introduction
 Rehabilitation- what, why & how
 Natural Rubber- Profile
 NR based rehabilitation
 Observati...
Tripura- the land & the people
Second smallest in size but second largest in
population in the NER
60 percent land under f...
Rehabilitation
………..of the poor landless shifting cultivators
 as they lived in abject poverty deprived of any
 human deve...
Rehabilitation process…….some measures
  •The first attempts at rehabilitation -1930-31.
  -70,400 acres (11264 ha)- Kalya...
Progress in Rehabilitation Projects

Considerable decline from in the last two decades- 55049 households in
1987 (Tribal W...
Natural Rubber
 Wide usage– 50000 articles
 Supply limited to geo-physical conditions
 Highly traded commodity
 India’s un...
Natural Rubber in Tripura
 Introduced as part of afforestation in 1963
 Rubber Board office in 1969
 2nd largest domestic ...
Economics of Natural Rubber
 Long Economic life                         Indicators           Results
 Labour intensive-   ...
Rubber based Rehabilitation
encompass land occupancy rights around 1 hectare for a
family ( head of the family is called b...
Extent of Rehabilitation of shifting cultivators through Rubber Plantation

     Agency                Till 31/03/2006    ...
Average earning of TRPC beneficiaries against supply of latex & scrap


                                                  ...
Observations
      Achievements                                            Hurdles
Macro                                  ...
Critical evaluation
  Lack of attitude for saving-
  Concerned for the short term; Conspicuous Consumption
  Appointments ...
Social Impact of Rubber based Tribal
Rehabilitation in Tripura

  Transition from wage earner to rent seeker
  Underutiliz...
Thank You




Your comments & suggestions are welcome at
           eyebees@gmail.com




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Dynamics Of Tribal Rehabilitation In Tripura

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Explores the rubber based rehabilitation strategy of landless tribal people in the state of Tripura

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Dynamics Of Tribal Rehabilitation In Tripura

  1. 1. Dynamics of Tribal Rehabilitation in Tripura Indraneel Bhowmik & Prof. Aparajita Mukherjee
  2. 2. The Discourse Introduction Rehabilitation- what, why & how Natural Rubber- Profile NR based rehabilitation Observations Critical evaluations Conclusions Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 2
  3. 3. Tripura- the land & the people Second smallest in size but second largest in population in the NER 60 percent land under forest cover & mostly hilly Ethnic mix- 31% ST, 17% SC Population growth- mostly during partition & the 1971 War Predominance of Jhum cultivators- migratory Bangla speaking majority- settled cultivation Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 3
  4. 4. Rehabilitation ………..of the poor landless shifting cultivators as they lived in abject poverty deprived of any human development facilities ……….by providing them a settled life with viable economic opportunity to enjoy the fruits of development and avail the education and health facilities Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 4
  5. 5. Rehabilitation process…….some measures •The first attempts at rehabilitation -1930-31. -70,400 acres (11264 ha)- Kalyanpur Reserve in the Khowai subdivision •First Five Year Plan- special emphasis to the tribal welfare programmes----- Colonisation of the jhumias- pilot project at Belonia sub-division in 1953. TTADC in January 1982; Sixth Schedule- 1985; & STDCL in 1979 Tribal Sub Plan- proportionate budget provision by each development department of the state government 37 point development package HIMSWKANG in 2003 Special Area Based Development Projects Rehabilitation programmes for jhum cultivators- agriculture, forest, plantation, etc Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 5
  6. 6. Progress in Rehabilitation Projects Considerable decline from in the last two decades- 55049 households in 1987 (Tribal Welfare Department) ……………….. 28628 households in 2005 (State Forest Department) Success of the rehabilitation schemes undertaken by Tribal Welfare Department TRP & PGP Department Autonomous District Council Tripura Rehabilitation Plantation Corporation (TRPC) Forest Department Agricultural Department Tripura Forest Development Plantation Corporation (TFDPC) Rubber plantation has been exceptionally successful Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 6
  7. 7. Natural Rubber Wide usage– 50000 articles Supply limited to geo-physical conditions Highly traded commodity India’s unique position- major consumer as well as major producer Expansion in traditional zone –saturation Tripura- leader among the non-traditional areas Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 7
  8. 8. Natural Rubber in Tripura Introduced as part of afforestation in 1963 Rubber Board office in 1969 2nd largest domestic producer, 36000 ha State led expansion 1992- World Bank Project 2005- Tripura Rubber Mission NLRSB- potential of 100000 ha Target- 85000 ha by 2030 Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 8
  9. 9. Economics of Natural Rubber Long Economic life Indicators Results Labour intensive- IRR 19% NPV Rs.149680 Highly Profitable- BC Ratio 2.07 Payback period 10.42 years Inter-linkage of the domestic price with the international price The optimum land size - semi-medium (2 ha to 4 ha) Small farms subsist only with household labour Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 9
  10. 10. Rubber based Rehabilitation encompass land occupancy rights around 1 hectare for a family ( head of the family is called beneficiary) entitled to the subsidy provided by Rubber Board given technical support and training number of beneficiaries clubbed together as a unit to enjoy the economies of scale the rubber tree has a long gestation period –seven years the beneficiary is employed as labourer in his own field adopt intercropping like banana and pineapple income accrues after maturity at the sale of latex agencies as marketing associates- ensured market processing as part of society formed by the beneficiaries Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 10
  11. 11. Extent of Rehabilitation of shifting cultivators through Rubber Plantation Agency Till 31/03/2006 2006-07 2007-08 Area Beneficiary Area Beneficiary Target TFDPC 2915 2413 247 247 160 TRPC 3964 4367 545 578 600 TTAADC 1521 NA 0 0 300 Block Plantation 3047 2651 204 204 150 by Rubber Board Total: 11447 9431 996 1029 1210 Source- TRPC Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 11
  12. 12. Average earning of TRPC beneficiaries against supply of latex & scrap Average Income Area Number of Production Year per beneficiary tapped (ha) Beneficiaries (MT) (Rs./pa) 2003-04 921 1335 917 20,250/- 2004-05 1044 1396 1036 25,989/- 2005-06 1182 1514 1585 33,458/- 2006-07 1264 1564 1828 60,758/- Source- TRPC Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 12
  13. 13. Observations Achievements Hurdles Macro Macro Revenue Managerial Inefficiency Employment Insurgency Value Addition Industrial Backwardness Environment Micro Micro Low Productivity Income Flow Less Efficient Employment Indifferent attitude for Surplus education & health Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 13
  14. 14. Critical evaluation Lack of attitude for saving- Concerned for the short term; Conspicuous Consumption Appointments of wage labourers for tapping- effecting yield Booming rubber sector- greater interest AAGR of NR Price -11.79% between 1999-2005 Craze for tilla land - large scale leasing by Capitalist farmers- Possibility of land owners turning out to be tappers Vulnerable to vagaries in the international market Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 14
  15. 15. Social Impact of Rubber based Tribal Rehabilitation in Tripura Transition from wage earner to rent seeker Underutilization of labour Stagnation or rather maintenance of status quo even after availing facilities Underutilization of resources NEED- Increasing Social Awareness & Consciousness Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 15
  16. 16. Thank You Your comments & suggestions are welcome at eyebees@gmail.com Presentation at the 8th session of the ICSP organised by VBU, Santiniketan, 2008 16
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