Census Data Dissemination Workshop

        Migration Profile of Tripura




                        Indraneel Bhowmik


 ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration means movement from one place
 to another.
 In Economics, migration is movement f...
Migration Profile of Tripura

   Migration                       Migration
   Rural to Urban                   Rural to Ru...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Major literature on Migration ----
 –   Arthur Lewis ( “Economic Development with Unlimited...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Major literature on Migration ----(contd.)
  –   G. Fields (“ Rural- Urban Migration, Urban...
Migration Profile of Tripura


   Migrants by place of birth are those who
   are enumerated at a village/town at the time...
Migration Profile of Tripura

Total            2001     1991       Variation
Migrants         Census   Census     (%)
Pers...
Migration Profile of Tripura

In terms of net migrants-     In terms of net migrants-
Maharastra- 2.3 million       Uttar ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

   Reasons _- All India level
   Work/ Employment………..14.7%
   Business…………………… 1.2%
   Educ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

   Marriage………………….... 43.8%
   Moved after birth………….. 6.7%
   Moved with household….. 21.0...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Marriage is the most important cause for
 migration among females.
 Work/Employment is the ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Union territories and small states have the
 highest migration rate- Daman &Diu(44.1%),
 Da...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 International Migration
     97% of the migrants from the neighbouring
 countries
     3.0 ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration in India- four types
  –   Rural to Rural:    56.52%
  –   Rural to Urban:    21....
Migration Profile of Tripura

  Intra state migrants     Inter state migrants
Rural to Rural: 60.5%    Rural to Rural: 26....
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Rural to Rural Migration – Bihar, Jharkhand,
 Uttar Pradesh, Assam
 Rural to Urban Migratio...
Migration Profile of Tripura

Tripura
 Total Migrants- 961,653
 Male- 42%, Female-58%
 National - 72.69% (M-38.42%,F-61.58...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Maximum number of immigrants from-
 Mizoram(28,292), followed by Assam
 (17827).
 No immigr...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Out migrants from Tripura during 1991-2001:
 23,538.
 In-migrants from other states( 1991-2...
Migration Profile of Tripura

  Causes of Migration:
 Causes (in %)           Persons   Male         Female
 Work / Employ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Causes for International migration

 Causes (in %)          Persons       Male          Fem...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Others is the most important factor for
 migration in Tripura.
 It includes widespread inte...
Migration Profile of Tripura


 Several persons in the state who have
 been forced to migrate due to
 exogenous factors fo...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration from Mizoram is highest for other
 causes.
 Male majority migration from Mizoram ...
Migration Profile of Tripura

 More than 30% of the people in the state are
 considered to be migrants.
 Marriage is the m...
Migration Profile of Tripura




             THANK YOU

                        December 2005
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Census Migration

4,357 views
4,231 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,357
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
68
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Census Migration

  1. 1. Census Data Dissemination Workshop Migration Profile of Tripura Indraneel Bhowmik Venue: Tripura University, Agartala December 2005
  2. 2. Migration Profile of Tripura Migration means movement from one place to another. In Economics, migration is movement from one place to another for an economic activity. Theories on Migration in most cases have been regarding developing countries. December 2005
  3. 3. Migration Profile of Tripura Migration Migration Rural to Urban Rural to Rural 1. Urban- rural income 1. Lack of opportunities differential 2. Lack of agricultural 2. Probability of Obtaining land an urban job 3. Unemployment in the rural sector December 2005
  4. 4. Migration Profile of Tripura Major literature on Migration ---- – Arthur Lewis ( “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour”, 1954) – Michael Todaro (“ A Model of Labour Migration and Urban Unemployment “, 1969) – John Harris & Michael Todaro (Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis”1970) – T.W. Schultz (“ Agriculture in an Unstable Economy”, 1945) – Gustav Ranis and John Fei ( “ A Theory of Economic Development”1961) December 2005
  5. 5. Migration Profile of Tripura Major literature on Migration ----(contd.) – G. Fields (“ Rural- Urban Migration, Urban Unemployment and Underemployment, and Job Search Activity in LDCs”, 1975) – L.Y.L.Yap (“The Attraction of Cities: A Review of the Migration Literature”,1977) – A.S. Oberai & H.K. Manmohan Singh (“Migration, Employment and the Urban Labour Market: A Study in the Indian Punjab”1984) – Biswajit Banerjee (“ Information flow, expectations and job search: rural-to-urban migration process in India, 1984) December 2005
  6. 6. Migration Profile of Tripura Migrants by place of birth are those who are enumerated at a village/town at the time of census other than their place of birth. Migrant by place of last residence are those who have changed their place of living during the interim period of census. December 2005
  7. 7. Migration Profile of Tripura Total 2001 1991 Variation Migrants Census Census (%) Persons 307.1 229.8 32.9 Male 90.4 Female 216.7 Intra-district 181.7 136.2 32.6 Inter-district 76.8 59.1 29.5 Inter-state 42.3 27.2 54.5 Abroad 6.1 6.9 -11.6 Note: J&K Excluded In 1991
  8. 8. Migration Profile of Tripura In terms of net migrants- In terms of net migrants- Maharastra- 2.3 million Uttar Pradesh: -2.7million Delhi- 1.7 million Bihar: -1.7 million Gujarat- 0.68 million Tamil Nadu: -0.37 million Haryana- 0.67 million Rajasthan -0.26 million Punjab- 0.33 million Andhra: -0.21 million West Bengal: 0.25million Assam: -0.15million Tripura- 27970 Mizoram: -704 December 2005
  9. 9. Migration Profile of Tripura Reasons _- All India level Work/ Employment………..14.7% Business…………………… 1.2% Education………………….. 3.0% December 2005
  10. 10. Migration Profile of Tripura Marriage………………….... 43.8% Moved after birth………….. 6.7% Moved with household….. 21.0% Other………………………. 9.7% December 2005
  11. 11. Migration Profile of Tripura Marriage is the most important cause for migration among females. Work/Employment is the most important reason for migration among males. December 2005
  12. 12. Migration Profile of Tripura Union territories and small states have the highest migration rate- Daman &Diu(44.1%), Dadra & Nagar (32.6%), Chandigarh (21.4%), Delhi(18.7%) Tripura- 1% Least rates for Bihar(-2.7%), UP(-2.0%), Manipur(-1.4%), Nagaland(-1.4%) December 2005
  13. 13. Migration Profile of Tripura International Migration 97% of the migrants from the neighbouring countries 3.0 million from Bangladesh, 0.9 million from Pakistan, 0.5 million from Nepal and 0.1 million from Sri Lanka Considerable migration from China December 2005
  14. 14. Migration Profile of Tripura Migration in India- four types – Rural to Rural: 56.52% – Rural to Urban: 21.74% – Urban to Rural: 6.57% – Urban to Urban: 15.16% N.B.- Computed from Table D-2, Census of India excluding international and unclassified migrants December 2005
  15. 15. Migration Profile of Tripura Intra state migrants Inter state migrants Rural to Rural: 60.5% Rural to Rural: 26.6% Rural to Urban: 17.6% Rural to Urban: 37.9% Urban to Rural: 6.5% Urban to Rural: 6.3% Urban to Urban: 12.3% Urban to Urban: 26.7% Unclassified: 3.1% Unclassified: 2.6% December 2005
  16. 16. Migration Profile of Tripura Rural to Rural Migration – Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Assam Rural to Urban Migration- Mizoram, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu Urban to Rural Migration- Goa, Kerala, Sikkim, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh Urban to Urban Migration- Tamil Nadu, Goa, Mizoram, Nagaland December 2005
  17. 17. Migration Profile of Tripura Tripura Total Migrants- 961,653 Male- 42%, Female-58% National - 72.69% (M-38.42%,F-61.58%) Within State-90.89% (M-37.48%, F- 62.52%) Within District-84.38%(M-37.03%,F- 62.97%) Other States- 63778 (M-47.83%, F- 52.17%) Other Districts- 99369(M-39.88%, F- 60.12%) International – 27.21% (M-51.59%, F-48.41%) December 2005
  18. 18. Migration Profile of Tripura Maximum number of immigrants from- Mizoram(28,292), followed by Assam (17827). No immigrants from Daman &Diu, Lakshadeep, Dadra & Nagar and Pondicherry. International immigrants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Burma, Pakistan etc. December 2005
  19. 19. Migration Profile of Tripura Out migrants from Tripura during 1991-2001: 23,538. In-migrants from other states( 1991-2001): 40,262. In migrants from abroad (1991-2001): 11,246. 5 migrants from Europe. 65509 migrants in Agartala- 32237 males & 33272 females. December 2005
  20. 20. Migration Profile of Tripura Causes of Migration: Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 5.38 10.76 1.49 Business 0.95 2.05 0.15 Education 0.92 1.55 0.46 Marriage 28.69 2.03 48.00 Moved after birth 0.55 0.79 0.37 Moved with household 23.99 27.36 21.55 Others 39.52 55.46 27.97 December 2005
  21. 21. Migration Profile of Tripura Causes for International migration Causes (in %) Persons Male Female Work / Employment 3.28 5.52 0.88 Business 0.88 1.53 0.19 Education 0.44 0.70 0.15 Marriage 11.26 0.65 22.53 Moved after birth 0.24 0.46 0.18 Moved with household 44.19 41.94 46.59 Others 39.70 49.35 29.41 December 2005
  22. 22. Migration Profile of Tripura Others is the most important factor for migration in Tripura. It includes widespread internal displacement due to insurgency and ethnic unrest. More than 10000 persons have migrated from Takarjala & Jampuijala. December 2005
  23. 23. Migration Profile of Tripura Several persons in the state who have been forced to migrate due to exogenous factors for more than twice. Huge migration from areas once used for resettlement of refugees after partition. December 2005
  24. 24. Migration Profile of Tripura Migration from Mizoram is highest for other causes. Male majority migration from Mizoram and Bangladesh. More migration in the offing- regrouping of villages by the state government. December 2005
  25. 25. Migration Profile of Tripura More than 30% of the people in the state are considered to be migrants. Marriage is the most important cause for intra state migration. Out migration from the state mostly to West Bengal. Second to Arunachal in terms of migration rate. December 2005
  26. 26. Migration Profile of Tripura THANK YOU December 2005

×