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Basic Research & Documentation Skill D t ti Skills Indraneel Bh I d l Bhowmik k Tripura UniversityKnowledge Enhancement Workshop organised by CPA, Agartala in collaboration with CUTS International held @ Agartala Press Club on 19th May, 2012
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‘Research is a careful and exhaustive investigation of a phenomenon with an objective of advancing knowledge’ 2
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Uses of Research• Improves Decision Making• Reduces Uncertainty• Enables Adoption of New Strategy• Helps in Planning the Future• Helps in Ascertaining Trends 3
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Types of Research• Descriptive – Answers to the questions relating to • WHO • WHAT • HOW • WHERE & • WHEN• Exploratory – Better Understanding of the Problem• Explanatory – Explains Causes of the Problem 4
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Methods of Research• Field Study‐ – Observation• Experimental‐ – Controlled• Survey‐ – Sample• Case Study‐ – Thorough/ Intensive/ In‐depth• Statistical Statistical‐ – Quantitative• Historical‐ Historical – Secondary• Evolutionary‐ – Changes over time 5
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Phases in Research Design• Specifying the problem/topic to be studied• Framing Research Design• Planning a Sample – probability & non‐probability or combination of the two• Collecting the data• Analysing the Data – Editing – Coding – Processing – Tabulating• Preparing the Report p g p 6
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SamplingA VANTAG SADVANTAGES• Manageable• Saves Time & Money• Increases AccuracyTYPES• Probability Simple Random Stratified Random Systematic Cluster Multi‐Stage M lti St Multi‐phase• Non‐Probability Convenience Purposive Quota Snowball Volunteer 7
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Data• Time Series Data‐ sequence of observations ordered in time – Profits of MRF since 1991 – GDP of India from 1950‐51 to 1999‐00• Cross Sectional Data‐ parallel data on many units (individuals, firms, nations) at the same point of time – Heights and weights of the people present in the room – Literacy rate of the member countries of UN in 2010• P l D t same cross‐section unit surveyed Panel Data‐ ti it d over time – AGR of G20 countries from 2001 to 2010 – R R of return of 10 mutual f d over th l t 10 RoR f t f t l funds the last years Methods of Collection • Questionnaire • Interview Schedule • PRA • FGD 8
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Exploring Data• Descriptive Statistics – Measures of Central Tendency • Mean‐ Average, Geometric & Harmonic; • Median; • Mode – Measures of Dispersion • Range • Inter Inter‐ Quartile Range • Standard Deviation • Mean Deviation • Quartile Deviation• Graphical Representation – Scatter – Column – Bar – Line – Pie 9
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Descriptive Statistics• By hand………………….• Software packages‐ • Example: Show xls. File• D t A l i f Data Analysis‐ from th menu D t the Data; choose Descriptive Statistics‐ select the input range‐ select summary range statistics‐specify the output location‐ get the result• Command for descriptive available in the menu of all other packages 10
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Graphical Representations MS‐Excel is the most popular way‐ use of the insert menu Diagram should be on the basis of data Pie for one time period; 100% stacked column/bar for multi period Line graph: time series‐ trend line fitting: checking the R.sq Tradition: B /C l T diti Bar/Column f cross‐ for sectional data Manipulations on the axis is often important‐ e.g: scale 11
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Case StudiesCharacteristics• In Totality• Multiple Methods for Data Collection• Often a single Unit• Respondent is Principles knowledgeable • Use Multiple Sources • Maintain a Chain of Evidence • Record Data 12
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Writing Case Studies• A puzzle requiring Solution3 basic steps• Research‐ – Library and Internet research – Interview relevant people p p• Analysis‐ – Put all the information in one place p – Assign sections to different people – Formulate the case problem in a brief• Actual Writing‐ – Describe the problem or case question you want the reader to solve t th d t l – Organise the sections of the case 13
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Thank You ALL Comments & suggestion to eyebees@gmail.com b @ il 14
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