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Academic paper to support npmp decree Academic paper to support npmp decree Document Transcript

  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE ACADEMIC PAPER TO SUPPORT NATIONAL PORT MASTER PLAN DECREECREATING AN EFFICIENT, COMPETITIVE, AND RESPONSIVE PORT SYSTEM FOR INDONESIA January 2012
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEIndonesia Infrastructure InitiativeThis document has been published by the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), anAustralian Government funded project designed to promote economic growth in Indonesiaby enhancing the relevance, quality and quantum of infrastructure investment.The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the AustralianIndonesian Partnership or the Australian Government. Please direct any comments orquestions to the IndII Director, tel. +62 (21) 230-6063, fax +62 (21) 3190-2994. Website:www.indii.co.id.AcknowledgementsThis report has been prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. (Dr. Paul Kent, Mr. RichardBlankfeld) assisted by national consultants (Prof. Sudjanadi, Hidayat Mao, SH, DR. Russ BonaFrazila, and Ir. Budiyono Doel Rachman MSc.) and with invaluable support from the IndIIoffice manager (Desi Rahmawati, SE), who was engaged under the Indonesia InfrastructureInitiative (IndII), funded by AusAID, as part of the Activity #244.We would like to extend gratitude to Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Bappenas,Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of State Own Enterprise, Pelindo 1-4,Tanjung Priok and Tanjung Perak Port Authorities, INSA, KPPU and NPMP Counterpart Teamfor their highly support and valuable informations.Thanks should also go to David Ray (IndII Facility Director), David Shelley (IndII TechnicalDirector Transport) for their support and valuable inputs.The support provided by Efi Novara Nefiadi, IndII Sr. Transport Program Officer, is gratefullyacknowledged. Any errors of fact or interpretation are solely those of the author.Dr Paul KentNathan Associates Inc.Jakarta, 12 January 2012
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEACRONYMSADB Asian Development BankAPPI Asosiasi Produsen Pupuk Indonesia (Indonesian Fertilizer Association)BPS Badan Pusat Statistic ( Statistic Indonesia)COMTRADE Commodity Trade Statistic DatabaseCPO crude palm oilCY container yardDGST Directorate General of Sea TransportationDWA David Wignall AssociatesDWT dead weight tonnageEIA Energy International StatisticFFB fresh fruit bunchesGDP gross domestic productGoI Government of IndonesiaGR 16 Government Regulation No. 61 of 2009HP horsepowerICT Information and Communication TechnologyIEDC Indonesia Economic Development CorridorIFC International Finance CorporationIMF International Monetary FundISPS International Ship and Port Security CodeJICA Japan International Cooperation AgencyJICT Jakarta International Container TerminalKPPU Commission for the Supervision of Business CompetitionLaw Law on Shipping No. 17 of 2008MENPAN Ministry os State Administrative ReformMoT Ministry of TransportationMP3EI Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Indonesia (The Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development)NPK nitrogen phosphorous and potassiumNPMP National Port Master PlanOPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesPA(s) Port Authority(ies)PBEs Port Business EntitiesPELINDO Pelabuhan Indonesia (Port Management State Owned Enterprise)PERUMPEL Perusahaan Umum PelabuhanPMU(s) Port Management Unit(s)PR 67 Presidential Regulation No 67 of 2005PT IIF PT Indonesia Infrastructure FinancePT SMI PT Sarana Multi InfrastrukturRTG Rubber Tired Gantry CraneSEZ Special Economic ZoneSISTRANAS Sistem Transportasi Nasional (National Transport System)TEU twenty foot equivalent unitsTR Technical Report on Development of National Port Master Plan
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE ContentsChapter 1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1Chapter 2. National Port Policy .............................................................................................. 42.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 42.2 Background ..................................................................................................................... 52.3 Indonesia’s Need for Integrated Port Policy ..................................................................... 72.4 Legal Context................................................................................................................... 82.5 Port Sector Vision and Goals ............................................................................................ 82.6 Port Policy Formulation, Implementation and Review.................................................... 10 2.6.1 Critical Issues........................................................................................................ 10 2.6.2 Policy ................................................................................................................... 112.7 Integrated Planning, Facilitation and Performance Monitoring ...................................... 11 2.7.1 Critical Issues........................................................................................................ 11 2.7.2 Policy ................................................................................................................... 132.8 Tariff Regulation ............................................................................................................ 14 2.8.1 Critical Issues........................................................................................................ 14 2.8.2 Tariffs ................................................................................................................... 14 2.8.3 Service Agreements.............................................................................................. 15 2.8.4 Rights of Explanation and Objection ..................................................................... 16 2.8.5 Policy ................................................................................................................... 172.9 Promoting Port Sector Competition ............................................................................... 17 2.9.1 Critical Issues........................................................................................................ 17 2.9.2 Complaints Procedure .......................................................................................... 18 2.9.3 Policy ................................................................................................................... 192.10 Enhance Labor Competitiveness .................................................................................. 19 2.10.1 Critical Issues...................................................................................................... 19 2.10.2 Policy ................................................................................................................. 202.11 Supporting Effective Port Safety Regulation ................................................................. 21 2.11.1 Critical Issues...................................................................................................... 21 2.11.2 Policy ................................................................................................................. 212.12 Supporting Effective Environmental Regulation ........................................................... 21 2.12.1 Critical Issues...................................................................................................... 21 2.12.2 Policy ................................................................................................................. 22Chapter 3. Analysis of Port Traffic and Current Performance ............................................... 233.1 Approach and Data Sources ........................................................................................... 23 3.1.1 DGST Shipping Data Sets ...................................................................................... 23 3.1.2 Pelindo Port Data ................................................................................................. 24 3.1.3 Data from Other Recent Studies of Indonesian Ports ............................................ 243.2 Indonesian Port Traffic 1999-2009 ................................................................................. 24 3.2.1 Indonesian Port Traffic in 2009 ............................................................................. 27Chapter 4. Forecast of Indonesian Port Traffic ..................................................................... 394.1 Approach....................................................................................................................... 394.2 Containers ..................................................................................................................... 39 4.2.1 Forecast of International Container Flows ............................................................ 39 4.2.2 Forecast of Domestic Container Flows .................................................................. 424.3 Other Cargo Types and Commodity Groups ................................................................... 47 4.3.1 General Cargo ...................................................................................................... 47
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 4.3.2 Dry Bulk ............................................................................................................... 47 4.3.3 Liquid Bulk............................................................................................................ 524.4 Alternative Traffic Scenarios .......................................................................................... 544.5 Implications of Indonesian Port Traffic Forecast for 2009-2030...................................... 58Chapter 5. Port Location and Development Plan ................................................................. 605.1 Approach and Methodology .......................................................................................... 605.2 Port Facilities and Capacity Assessment ......................................................................... 60 5.2.1 Container and General Cargo Port Facilities .......................................................... 615.3 Strategic Port Development Plan Identified by Government and Pelindos ..................... 735.4 National Port Development Plan.................................................................................... 80 5.4.1 Unit Investment Costs .......................................................................................... 80 5.4.2 Investment Requirements .................................................................................... 825.5 Port Sector Financing ..................................................................................................... 82 5.5.1. Conditions for Attracting Private Sector Investment in Ports ............................... 85 5.5.2. Indonesia’s Legal Framework for Private Sector Investment in Ports ................... 87 5.5.3. Framework of Government Support and Guarantee ............................................ 89 5.5.4. Possible Sources of Funding for Public Sector Investment .................................... 91Chapter 6. Legal, Regulatory and Administrative Actions Needed ........................................ 936.1 Subsidiary Regulations under the Law on Shipping ........................................................ 936.2 Subsidiary Regulations Required under Government Regulation on Port Affairs ............ 936.3 Policy Actions ................................................................................................................ 936.4 Short-Term Initiatives for Facilitating Policy Implementation ......................................... 96LIST OF TABLESTable 3-1 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 1999 and 2009 ................ 25Table 3-2 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type and Principal Commodity,2009 ................................................................................................................................... 28Table 3-3 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Container Traffic by Trade Flow, 2009 ..................... 31Table 3-4 Indonesian Main Ports for Containers, Selected Years, 1990-2009 ....................... 33Table 4-1 Regression Equation and Statistics for Forecast of Indonesian InternationalContainer Traffic ................................................................................................................. 40Table 4-2 Projected GDP Growth for Selected Regions and Countries, 2011-2030 ............... 41Table 4-3 Base Case Forecast of International Container ..................................................... 42Table 4-4 Characteristics of Container Traffic at JICT, 2000-2009 ......................................... 42Table 4-5 Regression Equation and Statistics for Forecast of Indonesian Domestic ContainerTraffic ................................................................................................................................. 43Table 4-6 Base Case Forecast of Domestic Container Traffic at Indonesian Ports ................. 45Table 4-7 Characteristics of Container Traffic at Pelindo II Ports excluding JICT, 2000-2009 . 45Table 4-8 Base Case Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 ........ 48Table 4-9 Indonesian Fertilizer Plants and Annual Capacity.................................................. 51Table 4-10 GDP Growth Assumptions for Alternative Traffic Scenarios, 2010-2030 .............. 54Table 4-11 Indonesian Container Traffic under Alternative Growth Scenario, 2009-2030 ..... 55Table 4-12 High Growth Scenario Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030.................................................................................................................................... 57
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 4-13 Low Growth Scenario Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030.................................................................................................................................... 58Table 5-1 Container and General Cargo Berth Facilities at Selected Indonesian Ports, 2011 62Table 5-2 General Cargo and Container Traffic Forecast at Main Indonesian Container Ports,2009-2030 (Base Scenario) .................................................................................................. 63Table 5-3 Container Terminal Berth Capacity Indicators, 2009-2025 .................................... 66Table 5-4 Assumed Indonesian Port Productivity Factors by Type of Facility, 2009-2030...... 67Table 5-5 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2009 ............................... 68Table 5-6 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2015 ............................... 70Table 5-7 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2020 ............................... 71Table 5-8 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2030 ............................... 72Table 5-9 Range of Unit Cost Estimates for Container Terminal Development andConstruction ...................................................................................................................... 80Table 5-10 Unit Investment Cost for Indonesian Container Terminal Development ............. 81Table 5-11 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Port Facility 2011-2030 andTotal 2011-2030 ................................................................................................................. 83Table 5-12 Indicative Funding Requirements by Private and Public Sector for Development ofPort Facilities, 2011-2030 .................................................................................................... 85Table 6-1 Regulatory Mandates for the Ministry in Shipping Law No. 17 of 2008 ................. 94Table 6-2 Scope of Government Regulation No. 61 of 2009 ................................................. 94Table 6-3 Actions for Policy Implementation ....................................................................... 95Table 6-4 Near-term Initiatives for Facilitating Policy Implementation ................................. 96LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1-1 NPMP within MP3EI Framework ........................................................................... 2Figure 1-2 NPMP Frameworks ............................................................................................... 3Figure 2-1 Guidelines for Anti-Competitive Pricing Behavior ................................................ 16Figure 2-2 Criteria for Assessing Anti-Competitive Behavior ................................................ 18Figure 3-1 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 1999 and 2009 ............... 26Figure 3-2 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 2009 .............................. 27Figure 3-3 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Total Traffic by Trade Flow, 2009 ........................... 29Figure 3-4 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Total Traffic by Cargo Type, 2009 ............................ 30Figure 3-5 Indonesian Main Ports for Containers, Selected Years, 1990-2009 ...................... 34Figure 3-6 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Traffic 2009 ................ 35Figure 3-7 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Traffic 2009 ...................... 35Figure 3-8 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia General Cargo Traffic, 2009 ........ 36Figure 3-9 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Cargo Traffic, 2009 ........... 36Figure 3-10 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Dry Bulk Cargo 2009 ................. 37Figure 3-11 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Dry Bulk Cargo 2009 ....................... 37Figure 3-12 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Liquid Bulk Cargo 2009 ............ 38Figure 3-13 Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Liquid Bulk Cargo 2009 ............................. 38Figure 4-1 General Approach for Traffic Forecast................................................................. 39
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 4-2 Indonesian Base Case Container Forecast for Domestic and International Trade,2009-2030 .......................................................................................................................... 45Figure 4-3 Indonesian Coal Production, Exports and Domestic Consumption, 1996-2010 .... 49Figure 4-4 Indonesian Urea Plants and Annual Capacity, 2010 ............................................. 51Figure 4-5 Indonesian Crude Oil Production and Consumption, 1999-2009 .......................... 52Figure 4-6 Forecast of Indonesian Total Container Traffic under Alternative GrowthScenarios, 2015-2030 ......................................................................................................... 56Figure 4-7 Forecast of Total Indonesian Port Traffic by Cargo Type Under Alternative GrowthScenarios, 2015-2030 ......................................................................................................... 56Figure 5-1 Investment Requirement Methodology .............................................................. 61Figure 5-2 Location and Forecasted Container Traffic at Main Indonesian Container Ports,2009-2030 ........................................................................................................................... 64Figure 5-3 Sumatra Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters andStrategies through 2030 ...................................................................................................... 74Figure 5-4 Java Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategiesthrough 2030 ...................................................................................................................... 75Figure 5-5 Kalimantan Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters andStrategies through 2030 ...................................................................................................... 76Figure 5-6 Bali and Nusa Tenggaraa Economic Development Corridor: Port PlanningParameters and Strategies through 2030 ............................................................................ 77Figure 5-7 Sulawesi Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters andStrategies through 2030 ...................................................................................................... 78Figure 5-8 Papua – Kepulauan Maluku Economic Development Corridor: Port PlanningParameters and Strategies through 2030 ............................................................................ 79Figure 5-9 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Period ................................... 84Figure 5-10 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Type of Port Facility 2011-2030.................................................................................................................................... 84LIST OF APPENDICESAppendix A-1 Port Hierarchy ............................................................................................... 99Appendix B-1 Strategic Ports within Sumatra Economic Corridor ....................................... 131Appendix B-2 Strategic Ports within Java Economic Corridor ............................................. 131Appendix B-3 Strategic Ports within Kalimantan Economic Corridor ................................. 132Appendix B-4 Strategic Ports within Sulawesi Economic Corridor ...................................... 132Appendix B-5 Strategic Ports within Bali –Nusa Tenggara Economic Corridor.................... 133Appendix B-6 Strategic Ports within Papua – Kepulauan Maluku Economic Corridor.......... 133Appendix C-1 Port Physical Development Plan by Economic Corridor and Type of PortFacilities, 2011-2030 ......................................................................................................... 135Appendix C-2 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Type of Facility, 2011-2030......................................................................................................................................... 143
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 1. IntroductionAs a nation whose economic growth is heavily dependent on ports, the efficient functioningof Indonesia’s ports is a top priority. Shipping Law No. 17 of 2008 helps advance thatpriority by addressing critical issues of port efficiency, safety, security, and sustainability.The Law calls for port sector institutional reform, the advancement of competition, thedevelopment of a rationalized port development plan, the use of public-private partnershipsfor financing of port projects, the participation of local, regional, and national authorities inthe port planning process, and preparation of a workforce to serve public and private sectorneeds. The multidimensional approach the Law addresses will help Indonesian exportersand importers do what they must to succeed while providing the necessary connectivity --economic and transport – to enable prosperity to reach all Indonesian citizens. Indonesia’sport sector vision reflects the multidimensional role for the country’s ports: An efficient, competitive, and responsive port system that fully supports international domestic trade and promotes economic growth and regional development.Shipping Law No. 17 of 2008 mandates the development of a National Port Master Plan(NPMP). The Plan establishes the policy framework to facilitate achievement of the vision.It also sets forth the requirements for a rationalized approach to port development. ThePlan, encompassed in this document, presents cargo forecasts, port developmentrequirements in the coming years, investment costs, and financing constraints andstrategies, with the final chapter laying out the actions needed to facilitate portmodernization and its integration in both economic development and transport systemframeworks.The underlying theme of the NPMP is integration on several levels – across transportcorridors, between investment and policy and public and private sectors, among levels ofgovernment, and in collaboration with economic development initiatives. They will providea coherent foundation for long-term planning and prudent investment among the partnersinvolved. While this obviously will include public and private investment in new andexpanded infrastructure where the need is demonstrated, it will also be essential to achievemaximum efficiency and capacity out of existing footprints. That will require integratedmeasures addressing issues of policy and administration, and governance and operations, inaddition to building infrastructure. 1
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 1-1 NPMP within MP3EI Framework 2
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 1-2 NPMP Frameworks 3
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 2. National Port Policy2.1 IntroductionIn very recent years Indonesia has made some very important decisions relating to thereform of its port sector. The country passed a new law, Shipping Law 17 of 2008, that callsfor the transformation of its port system from one operated by state-owned monopolycorporations to a port authority system more characteristic of the landlord model with theinducement of competition for providing the range of services offered to port users. Portauthorities are being established and future concession programs are intended to secureneeded investment while expanding the number of rivals seeking to provide port services.This transformation underscores the importance of the Ministry of Transport and DGST indeveloping a policy framework designed to facilitate the Shipping Law’s underlying objectivefor the development of a competitive and efficient port system.This chapter sets forth the policies which the government will adopt in order to achieve theShipping Law’s objectives. This follows the preparation of the Scoping Study Policies andProcedures Report, which identified some of the policy themes open to the government toimplement. The process of developing policies involved consultations with governmentofficials and other stakeholders, site visits, and a review of the Shipping Law andcomplementary regulations. The process also considered other economic developmentinitiatives the government is implementing that may be facilitated in part by the existence ofan efficient port system.The development of a Port Policy for Indonesia was thus conducted in three stages:diagnostic, consultative, and policy formulation. The diagnostic stage consisted of a reviewof existing reports and data, technical site visits to pertinent maritime infrastructure, andextensive interviews with both government and private sector stakeholders. Theconsultative stage consisted of conducting several meetings and a workshop with industrystakeholders on the basis of the National Port Master Plan and the noted Policy andProcedures Report findings. The workshop stimulated discussion among a range ofstakeholder groups and resulted in a number of comments. Having carefully considered thecomments, revisions were made to the Policy and Procedures Report, which set forth policyimplications from the Shipping Law and National Port Master Plan from which port policywould be formulated.In the sections that follow, we first present a background to Indonesia’s port sector policyenvironment, including institutional arrangements and challenges, and recentdevelopments. We then describe the legal context for Indonesian port policy. This isfollowed with the presentation of the port sector vision, mission and strategic objectives anda discussion of the critical issues that influence the development of policy. The chapter thenpresents the policies the government will implement. Initially, four sets of supportingregulations are proposed to be issued to support the implementation of policy. These relateto: (a) port tariff regulation (b) complaint procedure and dispute resolution; (c) safe, secureand environmentally-responsible port operations, and (d) port planning. 4
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE2.2 BackgroundAs a nation composed of many islands, Indonesia is perhaps the world’s most port-reliantnation. Historically, the main focus of government has been on the administration of its portsystem. In response to government’s call for port sector restructuring, government focus isnow extended to the associated institutional, regulatory and technical issues that need to beaddressed in building a modern port sector.In 1992, Indonesia had installed a system of state-owned enterprises (Pelindos) charged withthe development, administration, and operation of Indonesia’s ports. The institutionalreforms introduced by Shipping Law 17 established a system of landlord port authorities(and related port management units) and also changed the status of the Pelindos to portoperators (port business entities). The port authorities are charged with the developmentand regulation of Indonesia’s ports, but as entities holding civil service status, do not reflectthe wide span of autonomy normally accorded landlord port authorities. And while theShipping Law did not create a new entity overseeing Indonesia’s port administration, thetransformation to the landlord model also indicates a change in the role of the Ministry ofTransport, which is charged in part with issuing regulations related to the implementation ofthe Shipping Law.Indonesia’s new port institutional framework implies a set of new or revised responsibilitiesfor port sector governance. There is a need to ensure clarity about each institution’s rolesand objectives. They must work together effectively in building the port sector. AsIndonesia’s port interests are now housed in separate entities, the Ministry of Transport’sprimary role needs to be clearly defined as including acting as policymaker for the portsector, monitoring the performance of the port system and its individual components, andoverseeing the government’s interests in ports. Shipping Law 17 and its complementaryregulations entrust the Ministry of Transport with responsibility for:  Planning the development of the country’s commercial and non-commercial seaports;  Securing and facilitating investment in port development and improvements;  Promulgating regulations and guidelines for port authorities and PMUs designed to assure effective port sector governance, coordinated and integrated planning, and efficient operation;  Formulating an education and training model to assure effective performance of port-related functions and a ready supply of highly capable port sector human resources;  Approving port authority and PMU tariffs and developing port tariff structures for port business entities;  Issuing permits for port development, construction, operation; and  Approving port authority, PMU, and private sector plans for the development and upgrading of ports.And while the Ministry of Transport’s role can be viewed as one of instituting port policy andoverseeing the port sector, the responsibility for planning and direct supervision of the portsector is housed within port authorities and port management units. To this extent, portauthorities and PMUs are charged with:  Assuring the smooth flow of goods in ports and establishing standards for operational performance;  Provide land and water areas for ports; 5
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE  Contracting port business entities to undertake port business activities;  Prepare tariffs for services rendered by port authorities and PMUs and submit them for approval by the Ministry of Transport;  Issue regulations governing the use of ports, harbors, and pilotage services;  Prepare local master plans for approval by the Ministry of Transport;  Assure environmental protection in the port areas; and  Facilitate dissemination of port-related information.In 2009, nearly 1 billion tons of cargo were handled in Indonesia’s ports, with about 543million tons (56 percent) and 435 million tons handled in foreign and domestic volumes,respectively. While cargo volumes are substantial, competitiveness is lower thanexpectations. Pelindo subsidiaries arguably compete on the basis of operationalperformance, but competition on the basis of pricing is virtually nonexistent given themajority ownership position of the Pelindos in port business entities. This has been duelargely to barriers to market entry imposed on non-Pelindo affiliated port business entitiesand antitrust protections accorded to state-owned enterprises. Re the former, specialterminal operators are highly restricted from engaging in cargo handling services for thirdparty cargoes and, even if given the required permits to do so, permits are granted for onlyfive years. Though options for renewal are available, it is difficult to imagine a situationwhere an investor can receive financing where there is a risk of non-renewal and the loan’spayback period far exceeds the initial permit period. Re the latter, the KPPU legislationexempts Pelindos, as state-owned enterprises, from antitrust regulation, hence allowingthem to directly engage what would otherwise be prohibited behavior. Additionally,Indonesia currently requires government entities to hold 51% equity in joint venturearrangements involving foreign corporations, discouraging foreign investment in Indonesia’sport sector. Finally, Pelindos are accorded land stewardship responsibility and hence controlof landside port development within their territories.Indonesia can expect continued robust economic growth in the coming years, generallyaveraging about 6.4 percent through 2030. This growth places new demands on operationalefficiency and capacity; failing to meet these demands may constrain expected economicgrowth. Global shipping patterns are in a state of flux as ship sizes increase, a risk ofcontainer carrier overcapacity emerges, and rate instability ensues; shipping lines in turn willseek to minimize port calls in an effort to rationalize their businesses. Efficient modern portfacilities capable of handling the latest generation of container ships and large bulk carriersefficiently are seen as the key to reducing transport costs and hence attracting overseasinvestment and diversifying Indonesia’s manufacturing and trading base. At the same time,Indonesia needs to replicate global best practices and develop a port institutionalframework that is commercially efficient. Such a framework includes an element of planningand control to ensure that development and operations are carried out to the highestinternational standards and hence contribute towards, rather than constrain, theachievement of Indonesia’s goal of accelerated economic development.The port reform process is not yet complete. There are gaps and clarifications needed in theShipping Law and more legislation and regulations may be needed to assure effective policyimplementation. Additionally, the emergence of a competitive port system is dependent onfinding the right people. The newly created port entities will need the ability to recruit andretain a workforce of the highest caliber to undertake the tasks with which they areentrusted. Port authorities will be unable to wrest highly qualified people from othersectors unless compensation rates can exceed the compensation levels bound by currentcivil service rules. Retaining employees also means that effective management of human 6
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEresources, including training and development, will be necessary to support the functioningof DGST and the port authorities.Access to qualified labor is also a concern for the port business entities. As cargo volumesincrease in the coming years, additional physical capacity will be needed, and there will beincreasing demand for workers to manage and operate these new facilities. Indonesia’s portsector will need a ready supply of qualified workers in order maintain and operate facilitiesat acceptable global standards.2.3 Indonesia’s Need for Integrated Port PolicyThe policies set forth below are intended in part to enhance multimodal and cross-sectoralintegration. Ports can no longer be viewed in isolation of the rest of the transportationsystem and economic development strategy. Hence, policy implies an emphasis on rigorousanalysis and long-term planning in partnerships among government agencies and betweenpublic and private sectors. The emergence of global supply chains as the preeminentbusiness model is a key factor in global economic changes. Propelled by dramatic changes ininformation and transportation technologies, leading-edge production strategies nowfeature deeper integration of production, marketing, transportation, and distribution –commonly referred to as integrative trade. These changes in how businesses operate havesignificant implications for transportation, as pressures mount for greater scale andefficiency in infrastructure systems that support major trade flows.As businesses increase their reliance on seamless, secure, and efficient multi-modaltransport systems as keys to their success, transportation as a whole is being recognized asmore crucial than ever to Indonesia’s competitiveness. Hence, the key for Indonesia’s futuresuccess will be an integrated approach to both policy and physical infrastructure relative toall surface transport modes. This approach places transportation infrastructure at its core,but goes further to encompass other interconnected issues of public policy, regulation, andoperational practices that directly impact how well transport infrastructure works and howwell Indonesia takes advantage of it. As for investment, the crucial role for privateinvestment is highlighted, along with a commitment to policies that foster a positive climatefor it to increase while safeguarding the public interest.The scope of a future maritime policy in Indonesia is potentially wide-ranging. It is inevitablethat the various policies, once approved, will be phased in and may be changed during thecourse of time in view of strategic and other events. This suggests that policies will alsohave to be prioritized and maybe revised. Hence, the Ministry of Transport will relycontinuously on input from stakeholders in identifying the most important policy areas andany needed modifications.Policies are required to ensure that Indonesia’s port sector develops into a world-classcompetitive industry and that the ports are operated in line with international safety andenvironmental standards. The objective should be to ensure that the port sector promotescompetitiveness, facilitates trade, and seamlessly integrates with the multimodal transportlogistics system. To achieve this, a flexible legal and regulatory framework is required thatensures orderly, safe, secure, accessible, and competitive services, high standards ofcorporate governance, and effective economic and technical regulation. It requires a clearpolicy built on consensus and a commitment from policymakers, managers, regulators andstakeholders. 7
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE2.4 Legal ContextShipping Law 17 of 2008 is the “parent” law governing Indonesia’s ports sector. The Lawcovers both port and shipping matters. Port issues are mainly dealt with in Chapter VII (Arts67 – 115), Chapter XI and in a few scattered provisions elsewhere in the Law. The maintopics covered in Chapter VII of the Law are:  National Port System  Port Master Planning  Institutional Frameworks / Participants in the Port System  Port Construction and Operation  Special Terminals and Own Interest Terminals  Tariffs  Designation of ports open for foreign trade  Role of regional governmentAlso relevant is Chapter XI, which establishes the office of the Harbour Master and definesits powers and functions. The Law is supplemented by various Government and Ministerialregulations issued to give effect to specific provisions. The principal regulations governingport institutions, their roles, functions and duties include:  Government Regulation No 61/2009 regarding port affairs;  MoT Ministerial Regulation No KM 62/2010 on the organization and working procedures of Port Management Units and its amendment (PM 44/2011);  MoT Ministerial Regulation No KM 63/2010 on the organization and working procedures of Port Authorities and its amendment (PM 45/2011);  MoT Ministerial Regulation No KM 64/2010 on the organization and working procedures of the Harbour Master’s Office; and its amendment (PM 46/2011);  MoT Ministerial Regulation No KM 65/2010 on the organization and working procedures of the Batam Port Office and its amendment (PM 47/2011).2.5 Port Sector Vision and GoalsChapter 1 presented the vision for Indonesia’s port sector. The government’s goals forachieving this vision are set out below.  Secure Private Investment. Indonesia’s port sector will require substantial expansion to accommodate higher demand as well as to support economic development initiatives. The scale of investment is such that the public sector cannot cover the cost alone. While private sector participation is key to port development and operations success, government currently has regulations in place that have the effect of discouraging private sector investment. Restrictions to operational scope by special and own-interest terminals, related restrictions on length of permits, and mandatory foreign equity ownership guidelines in terminal infrastructure limit foreign investment and the ability of the private sector to engage in third-party cargo handling.  Institute competition. Indonesia’s port sector is characterized by market dominance. As a result, prices are not determined by market conditions, translating to higher 8
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE costs to port customers, and in the end Indonesia’s producers and consumers, than what would otherwise exist under fully competitive conditions. Market entry by competitors is constrained by certain provisions in the Shipping Law that should be amended. A light-handed regulatory framework is needed to guard against abuses of market power until such time as it is feasible to introduce more competition, and allow market forces to drive the search for greater efficiencies and lower costs after competition is introduced. The principle to be applied is “competition where possible, regulation when necessary”. Enhance the landlord model of port administration in Indonesia. Indonesia’s port landlord model as currently configured does not reflect international best practice, particularly in regards to the autonomy given landlord ports of other countries. Missing from the existing model is the port authority’s ability to make independent decisions relative to organizational structuring, marketing, pricing, budgeting, financing, procurement, setting compensation levels, and hiring/termination. This has the effect of slowing responsiveness to changing market conditions and constraining inter-port competition that could emerge in future years as hinterland accesses to market catchment areas are improved. Integrate planning. The success of Indonesia’s economic development initiatives depends to a great degree on the port sector’s ability to facilitate implementation of these initiatives while contributing to their success. This is particularly true of the MP3EI, where ports will serve some of the economic activity located along the economic corridors. Port planning must respond to the growing requirements of economic activity and integrate these developments in the development of their master plans. Port development must also be coordinated with national transportation planning and planning decisions cannot be made in isolation of the communities where ports operate; port plans must therefore be in conformity with local land use plans. Create an enabling, flexible, legal and regulatory framework. Indonesia has already embarked on extensive legal reform with the introduction of the Shipping Law and its complementary regulations. However, further legislation and/or regulations are likely to be required to improve integrated and coordinated planning, provide an efficient procedure for regulating tariffs, and allow for light-handed regulation in the event of market failure. Ensure safe and secure port operations. The port sector has to have a good safety record and secure its assets and human resources. In the future this will require more capacity to ensure that safety and security regulation adheres to world class standards and international protocols to which Indonesia is a signatory. Technical capacity must be created to meet these challenges and to cooperate with national authorities in building an efficient safety and security management regime that applies to Indonesia’s ports. Expand protection of the environment. Future port expansion requirements will result in the increased use of coastal waters and new developments along the coastline increase the threat to the marine environment. The port authorities and port management units must be diligent in implementing systems to mitigate such threats, and effective oversight mechanisms must be established by the Ministry of 9
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Transport to achieve this in cooperation with other relevant agencies in Indonesia. Systems for implementation include effective emergency response programs.  Develop human resources. The port sector should provide a safe and rewarding work environment with opportunities for career progression and personal development. To become an “employer of choice” in a more competitive labor market, the sector needs to provide attractive employment conditions, challenging and rewarding work, an appropriate work–life balance, and greater opportunities for training and upgrading the skills of the workforce. The ultimate goal is high levels of efficiency within a work environment that balances the interests of workers, employers, and society as a whole. But assuring quality workers begins with preparation well before they are ready to embark on their careers – both vocational institutes and universities must play a role in preparing the port sector workforce. For workers already employed for cargo and vessel handling, training programs must focus on measures for improving productivity while Indonesia must strive to meet global standards for port labor practices. Further, women do not figure prominently in the port sector workforce -- Indonesia must focus on strategies designed to mainstream women in this important sector.2.6 Port Policy Formulation, Implementation and Review2.6.1 Critical IssuesIndonesia’s port governance system is new as is the role of the Ministry of Transport in thisnew landlord form of administration. At the same time, there is a lack of a policy frameworksetting out government’s goals for the sector, how these goals are to be achieved and whowill be responsible for achieving them.It is traditionally the role of line function government departments, such as the Ministry ofTransport and DGST, to undertake policy development and monitor its implementation. Thismust occur on a consultative basis with the involvement of all stakeholders. The processadopted in the development of the National Port Master Plan already establishes a suitableprecedent for stakeholder involvement.Policy is never static and must continuously adapt to changing circumstances. Hence, theMinistry of Transport must also be tasked with reviewing policy on a regular basis to verifythat it still supports the Government’s overall economic and social goals. Legislation is a toolof policy. As Indonesia’s port policy takes shape, legislation must be revised to ensure that itfully enables policy objectives to be achieved.The Ministry of Transport’s work in policy development should be concerned with:  Contributing to the debate on the long-term structure of the port industry by advising on ways of increasing competition. Although the Pelindos currently have superior technical knowledge in this area, it has a major conflict of interest as any increase in competition will automatically weaken its own position. A healthy debate on the issue will enable the government to make a better-informed judgement on the amount and form of competition which is appropriate and time at which it is introduced. The Ministry of Transport’s proposed role in promoting competition is elaborated further below. 10
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE  Ensuring that Indonesia’s ports are compliant with the country’s policies. The Ministry of Transport will also be expected to represent port sector interests when new policies are being developed at the national level, while DGST must work within the Ministry to assure that prospective Ministry of Transport modal policy incorporates deliberations about the impact modal policy may have on the port sector.  Integrating the port system more effectively with other modes of transport, for example by setting regulations on vehicle weights and drivers hours, or improving highway systems, which do not have the effect of impeding the efficient working of the ports.2.6.2 Policy  The Ministry of Transport will develop capacity to oversee the effective implementation of its proposed policy. It will report regularly to government and stakeholders on progress in achieving policy goals. The Minister of Transport, working through DGST, will from time to time issue guidelines to government institutions and commercial agencies with regard to the implementation of port policy. As appropriate such policy guidelines will be preceded by consultation with key stakeholders.  Business strategies of all stakeholders, including port authorities, PMUs, and port business entities, must be aligned to support government’s port policy objectives. To this end the Ministry of Transport through DGST will enter into a dialogue with stakeholders with regard to those aspects of its plans and budgets that raise issues of port policy. The Ministry of Transport will pursue a structured and open dialogue with stakeholders, via the establishment of stakeholders and/or port user committees, aimed at promoting a broad consensus and seeking to resolve differences in emphasis or approach through a consultative process.  Policy will be regularly reviewed to ensure that it is still responsive to achieving the goals identified for the port sector. A policy review will be undertaken on a three yearly basis and will be integrated with the Ministry of Transport’s strategic planning process. The review process will allow for stakeholder consultation and the reviewed policy will thereafter be published for public notice.  Legislation will be reviewed to ensure that it provides an enabling framework for the Government’s policy goals for the sector.2.7 Integrated Planning, Facilitation and Performance Monitoring2.7.1 Critical IssuesIntegrated PlanningThe Shipping Law has assured a coordinated port planning process. The Ministry ofTransport through DGST is responsible for preparing and updating a national port masterplan (NPMP) every five years with interim updates made as appropriate. Port authoritiesand PMUs are, in turn, responsible for preparing local port master plans in conformity withthe NPMP; but the local master plans must also be aired with local governments to assurethey adhere to local land use planning provisions. There is, however, no provision in the Lawand its complementary regulations to assure plans are part of an integrated national 11
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEtransport planning process and also to assure port master plans facilitate overall economicdevelopment objectives.It is therefore crucial that the ports are effectively integrated with other transport modesand economic development initiatives. Planning to achieve such integration must occur atvarious levels and among agencies within the national government and the port authoritiesand Pelindos. The challenge is to devise a framework that promotes complementaryplanning and allocates responsibility to each organization on the basis of its mandate anddistinct responsibilities.Typically, it is a core function of transport departments to undertake overall planning for thetransport sector that ensures effective integration of transport modes. The desiredoutcome is a seamless integration of modes that function as a single logistics chain.Experience in many countries demonstrates that where such integrated planning is absent,transport operations are constrained resulting in inefficiencies and higher costs. A goodexample is inadequate road or rail connections to modal interchange points such as ports.An important role of the DGST is to develop a strategic vision of future port requirements, tocoordinate port planning with developments in other sectors of the economy, and to ensurethat the growing volumes of port traffic can be comfortably accommodated on Indonesia’sroad, rail, and interisland transport systems. The primary role of port authorities and PMUsis to undertake the physical planning and oversee construction and operation of portinfrastructure. However, DGST also has an important supporting role in coordinating portauthority plans with those of other government organizations and reviewing port authorityplans from a strategic and operational perspective.Port development plans need to be integrated into wider strategies for economicdevelopment, land use, and environmental protection. It is important to map out clearlyhow this strategic planning process will work, and define the central role of the Ministry oftransport and DGST in coordinating port development plans with those of other entities andsectors. DGST and port authorities may also be required to facilitate consultation on theplans to ensure that the views of all stakeholders are properly taken into account.The Ministry’s port planning responsibility should include the role of overall sectorfacilitation. This entails facilitating between the port sector and stakeholders in bothgovernment and the private sector to ensure that the port system can function at optimalefficiency levels. Worldwide, studies have shown that over 75% of the constraints to portsystem efficiency result from the activities of government agencies such as customs, poorproductivity due to the inefficient use of information technology and logistics practices thatare below par. There is potentially an extensive role to play by the Ministry in securinggreater cooperation between agencies and stakeholders involved in the transport field toensure higher productivity and overall lower port and transport costs.Finally, the Ministry’s overall planning role implies that it must also be in the position toevaluate the efficiency of the transport system and to assess whether policies and plans arecontributing towards higher port productivity and lower costs. This entails developing therequired performance monitoring and data processing capacity. 12
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEPort HierarchyIndonesia has developed a hierarchical framework to reflect the roles ports play in thecountry’s port system, how they may be integrated in the country’s economic and portplanning processes, how they may be institutionally restructured as national, regional, andlocal assets, and the extent to which they may be financially supported by the governmentof Indonesia.As indicated in the Shipping Law, the port hierarchy consists of 1) main, 2) collector, and 3)feeder ports. Main ports serve domestic and foreign trade, while collector and feeder portsare limited to domestic trade only; main ports are deemed to handle large cargo volumes,while collector ports and feeder ports handle “medium” and “limited” volumes, respectively.Main ports are to be administered by port authorities; collector ports may be administeredby port authorities or PMUs; feeder ports are to be administered by PMUs. Collector portsand feeder ports may also be administered by regional or local governments. How collectorand feeder ports are administered will be determined in close consultation with regional andlocal governments based on their expressed interest to the Ministry in administering theseports or upon the Ministry’s interest to transfer these ports to local and regional control.The current classification of Indonesian ports is presented in Appendix A.2.7.2 Policy  The Ministry of Transport is responsible for coordinating planning of the entire transport system in Indonesia based on sector plans prepared by modal divisions, other modal agencies, and port authorities. To this end, port authorities will cooperate with DGST to ensure that DGST is regularly informed of ongoing planning efforts. The Ministry of Transport will issue planning regulations consisting of requisite planning processes and guidelines to provide a basis for the Ministry’s monitoring of this activity. The Ministry will also require Pelindos and other port business entities to provide port authorities with all relevant detail needed for assessing impacts of their plans on the master plan, and port authorities to provide similar details to the Ministry to coordinate overall transport system planning.  The Ministry will review the status of ports in future years to determine if their hierarchical status should change and what implications there are in terms of revising the prevailing and future National Port Master Plans and in the plans submitted by port authorities and PMUs.  The Ministry of Transport will review port authority development plans from an integrated transport planning perspective and establish a review procedure in the planning regulations. The DGST will promote a continuous dialogue with the port authorities to ensure that DGST is able to effectively execute its regulatory and planning responsibilities.  The Ministry of Transport through DGST will develop capacity to supplement its planning function by undertaking overall sector facilitation. To this end, the Ministry will engage with other government agencies such as customs, and private sector role-players such as freight forwarders and logistics service providers, to continuously review sector performance and adopt practices that eliminate constraints to the optimal functioning of the transport chain. 13
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE  The DGST will develop a system of indicators for both planning and monitoring performance purposes and publish regular findings of key port performance indicators.2.8 Tariff Regulation2.8.1 Critical IssuesPort authorities and PMUs are required to prepare tariffs for services that they render andsubmit tariffs for review and “stipulation” by the Ministry of Transport. It is important thatthe process of tariff review and approval is well understood by all the parties. The Lawsuggests a “light-handed” regulation approach as tariffs are not imposed; instead, portauthorities are subjected to tariff approval, and eventually, as port authorities and PMUsreflect the global standard approach to landlord administrations, they will make their ownpricing decisionsbased on a combination of commercial and cost recovery principles. In thisinstance, the Ministry of Transport’s role will be limited to ensuring that the tariff complieswith its general tariff guidelines and does not discriminate unfairly or constrain competition.Steps will be taken to ensure short-medium term stability in the published tariff and majoradjustments to the tariff should be relatively rare, unless there are large unforeseen changesin costs. At the same time port authorities will need some flexibility to negotiate tariffs ifthese are needed to bring in new business. The role of the Ministry of Transport is to ensurethat these do not seriously disadvantage other customers, and do not undermine the overallfinancial stability of the port authority by leading to large losses.International best practice generally advocates non-discriminatory treatment ofcustomers—similar tariffs for similar customers receiving a similar service—but this is notalways easy to achieve, as most customers can find something that differentiates them fromothers and can be used to justify a lower tariff.While the Shipping Law does not compel port business entities to submit tariffs for approval,the risk of oligopolistic behavior by port business entities requires that port business entitiessubmit tariffs to enable the Ministry of Transport to monitor for anticompetitive pricingpractices. The tariff setting process should incorporate a formal tariff filing system for portauthorities and port business entities covering both the published tariffs and the tariffsnegotiated with individual port users on the basis of “one-off” service agreements. This willenable the Ministry of Transport to monitor tariffs to ensure that they remain internationallycompetitive, are not the result of collusive behavior, cover costs, and do not unfairlydiscriminate against individual port users. The tariff filing system is expected to operatebroadly as follows.2.8.2 TariffsTariffs are the standard charges by port authorities that apply to all port users unlessotherwise specified. It is anticipated that they will be changed infrequently in order to giveusers a high degree of certainty about the level of port charges, and that the changes will bepreceded by a period of consultation during which users will be able to prepare for theeffects of any proposed changes.Changes to the port tariff will be proposed by port authorities and should be filed with theMinistry of Transport at least 60 working days before their intended date of introduction. Ifthe port authorities receive no comments from the Ministry by 15 working days before theirintended date of introduction they are deemed to have been approved. 14
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEPort authorities will be expected to provide some justification for the proposed tariffchanges based on their financial impact on the port authority, requirements to recoverinvestment and operating costs of relevant services, competitiveness concerns, and theoutcome of any consultations port authorities have held with port stakeholders. TheMinistry of Transport will be entitled to conduct its own consultations with stakeholders if itbelieves this is necessary. The tariffs for all port infrastructure and services will bepublished for public notice, for example, on the Ministry’s and port authority websites.While the Shipping Law does not require Ministry approval of port business entity tariffs,this does not mean they would not be subjected to review and monitoring foranticompetitive behavior. In terms of terminal operations, port business entities control allactivities between and including the berth and gate. Port business entities in dominantpositions have the ability to leverage higher prices without the threat of losing business,thereby placing an undue cost burden on port users that is detrimental to tradecompetitiveness. There is also a further cost to society as prices not constrained bycompetition or regulation increases the costs to consumers and domestic production.Today, state-owned enterprises are not subjected to the provisions of Indonesia’scompetition law, while other port business entities are. The KPPU antitrust case precedentshave shown that it has regulatory jurisdiction over state-owned enterprise subsidiaries, butnot over state-owned enterprises themselves. This has the effect of encouraging state-owned enterprises to avoid creating subsidiary operating companies and directly managingand operating terminals themselves or, alternatively, to set standard prices for all terminalsunder their control. State-owned enterprises are also not prohibited from engaging inanticompetitive practices, such as predatory pricing and discriminatory behavior as well ascross-subsidization, in their efforts to eliminate competition. State-owned enterprises arealso not prohibited from engaging in anticompetitive practices, such as predatory pricingand discriminatory behavior as well as cross-subsidization, in their efforts to eliminatecompetition. Given the changing role of the Pelindos brought about by the new ShippingLaw, it is important to seek clarification from KPPU regarding the question of antitrustexemption. A continued exemption in itself will serve as a constraint to market entry ofpotential rivals and ultimately discourage needed port infrastructure investment. This initself will serve as a constraint to market entry of potential rivals and ultimately discourageneeded port infrastructure investment. Finally, we must bear in mind that state-ownedenterprises have profit maximization as their objective, with the Ministry of State-OwnedEnterprises establishing annual financial performance targets.2.8.3 Service AgreementsService agreements with individual customers are negotiated quite frequently and may befor either a fixed or indeterminate period of time, or linked to the shipment of specificconsignments. Because they usually involve price guarantees, they serve as de facto tariffs.Service agreements should be monitored to assure non-discriminatory behavior. Theyshould be filed with the Ministry of Transport under confidentiality rules established by theMinistry no more than 10 working days after they have been agreed with port users,together with supporting information which describes briefly the nature of the transactionand the reasons for entering into a service agreement rather than applying the tariff. If nocomments are received from the Ministry within 10 working days of the date of filing, theyare deemed to have been approved. Because they are highly confidential, serviceagreements with individual customers will not be published. Regulations should provide for 15
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEthe confidentiality of agreements to be protected, unless disclosure is authorized by portbusiness entities.2.8.4 Rights of Explanation and ObjectionThe Ministry of Transport will be entitled to request an explanation from port authoritiesand port business entities for any proposed tariff changes (in the tariff or serviceagreements) which it wishes to query. At the request of the Ministry of Transport, changesto tariffs can be put on hold while this explanation is being given.The Ministry of Transport should have the right to object to an existing or proposed tariffonly on the grounds that it is anti-competitive or non-compliant with government policy. Atariff or service agreement can be considered to be anti-competitive when it fails to complywith Ministry of Transport guidelines (see Figure 2-1). These guidelines will also providegrounds for complaints about anti-competitive behavior which port users may refer to theMinistry of Transport. Port users making complaints about anti-competitive behavior will beexpected to produce factual evidence to support their complaints before the issue is takenany further.The Ministry of Transport’s right to object to a tariff item should only be exercised if thematter cannot be resolved through discussions with the port authorities and port businessentities. In this event, the following procedures will apply.  The Ministry of Transport should formally notify port authorities and port business entities of its objection, together with the reasons for it.  Port authorities and port business entities may respond to the objection with a statement of reasons which the Ministry of Transport is required to consider after which it must inform port authorities/port business entities whether or not it withdraws its objection.Figure 2-1 Guidelines for Anti-Competitive Pricing BehaviorAnti-competitive pricing behavior is normally defined in terms of the following criteria:Excessive tariffs. Average charges are high in relation to the cost of providing the service or for use of similarinfrastructure or services elsewhere and the premium cannot be justified by any unique feature in the coststructure of the port or terminal.Predatory pricing. Tariffs for particular infrastructure or services are below their appropriate marginal cost(long-term or short-term, according to the nature of the transaction).Price discrimination. Similar customers are charged different tariffs for the provision of similar services.However, this does not preclude volume discounts or the negotiation of individual service agreements for whichthere is economic justification.In situations where the Minister of Transport determines there may be anticompetitivebehavior, or if a complaint received may be valid, then the Ministry of Transport may referits own determination or complaint to Indonesia’s competition commission (KPPU), which inturn is obliged to take up the matter. To be able to do this, it is important that aninteragency Memorandum of Understanding be prepared that defines the process and rolesof either agency in considering possible antitrust behavior. Additionally, in furtherance ofpromoting competition, already a part of Indonesia national policy, the Ministry of Transportmust seek to incorporate a port sector state-owned enterprise exception to the exemptionaccorded to all state-owned enterprises in the antitrust legislation. 16
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREECircumstances will change over time, and the regulations should be flexible enough for tariffreview procedures to be modified by mutual agreement and formalized through aministerial decision without requiring legislative amendment.2.8.5 Policy  It is the duty of the Ministry of Transport to review the tariffs. The basic approach that the Ministry of Transport will adopt is that of “light-handed” regulation. On the part of port authority or PMU tariffs, it will object to proposed tariffs only to the extent that they are not reasonable relative to the cost of providing the service or infrastructure. In the case of port business entities, the Ministry will refer the proposed tariff to the Competition Commission if in the Ministry’s judgment it is not reasonable relative to the service or infrastructure cost or is anti-competitive or discriminatory.  The Ministry of Transport’s power of review is without prejudice to the freedom of port business entities to negotiate service agreements with individual customers.  The Ministry of Transport will issue regulations to clarify the procedure to be followed with tariff monitoring and review to ensure that a light-handed approach is followed which does not impose any undue burden on port authorities, port management units, or port business entities. The regulations will also specify the grounds for regarding the tariff or a service agreement as anti-competitive.2.9 Promoting Port Sector Competition2.9.1 Critical IssuesCompetition is generally regarded as the best way of achieving economic developmentbecause of the incentives it provides for all participants to satisfy customer needs in themost efficient way possible. Government intervention is only needed when competitiondoes not produce the desired outcome. The basic policy approach that many governmentsadopt and which is also the approach for Indonesia is “competition where possible,regulation when necessary”. This approach allows government to adopt a “hands-off”stance intervening only for one of three reasons: anticompetitive behavior, the existence ofexternalities (such as traffic congestion or pollution which are not automatically taken intoaccount in commercial decision-making), and a failure to provide customers with sufficientinformation.Indonesia’s port sector is not yet highly competitive, meaning that shippers are left with veryfew options relative to their hinterland markets. The use of more distant ports imposessignificant transaction costs on port users, thus reducing their effective choice. Currently,terminals serving specific hinterlands are now managed by the same state-owned enterprisethrough subsidiaries. This enables the state-owned enterprises to take decisions that maybe favorable to their overall business, but which could be to Indonesia’s disadvantage. Assole providers of port infrastructure and services, the potential for abuse of monopolypower exists even if it is never exercised. These factors create a strong case for the Ministryof Transport to have a role in advising the government on ways in which competition mightbe increased, and to have a role in controlling anti-competitive behavior should it arise.The layout and scale of cargo volumes in Indonesia’s largest ports suggest that competitioncould be introduced to effect inter-terminal competition. Hence, as part of its master planreview process, the Ministry of Transport will consider strategies for introducing 17
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEcompetition. Additionally, in order to avoid monopoly or oligopoly effects of verticalintegration of port services, and the opportunities for cross subsidization, the Ministry mayprohibit port business entities providing certain services from also providing other services.For example, terminal operators may be prohibited from also offering tug assist services.This policy will prevent operators from bundling port services and thus expand theopportunities for inducing competition.The Ministry of Transport will also endeavor to simplify licensing procedures for servicescurrently requiring licenses while assuring adequate insurance against liability. This policy isintended to ease market entry requirements while simultaneously assuring only qualifiedlicense holders can provide the service. This will serve to establish a market for certainservices which will encourage local entrepreneurship and the development of small andmedium sized enterprises.Where the market fails to ensure competition, Indonesia must have a framework in placethat can anticipate the potential for abuse of monopoly power in the future as commercialrelationships may evolve in unforeseen ways. Anti-competitive behaviour can assume avariety of forms (see Figure 2-2).2.9.2 Complaints ProcedureDue to the imbalance in market power between the port operator, service providers andport users, it is important that an effective channel exists for reporting and resolvingcomplaints and disputes relative to anticompetitive behavior. Such complaints refer only toissues related to anticompetitive behavior. For complaints not related to anticompetitiveFigure 2-2 Criteria for Assessing Anti-Competitive Behavior  Entry barriers (Access discrimination). Potential port users are deliberately excluded from access to particular infrastructure or services, at a time when the port business entity is physically and legally capable of supplying them, and would not lose money by doing so. This includes failure to invest when the port is approaching full capacity.  Service bundling. Port users are required to purchase services they do not want, or could buy from a competitor, in order to obtain access to infrastructure or services for which the supply is more restricted.  Exclusive dealing. Port users – and the port operator’s own suppliers - are not allowed to deal with the port operator’s competitors, and are threatened with loss of their existing business if they do so.  Performance standards. The port operator fails to provide an acceptable quality of service, and/or consistently fails to meet its conditions of contract with port users or government.behavior, port authorities are better positioned to receive, respond, and seek remedies tocomplaints relative to non-competitive issues.Best practice encourages the parties to negotiate a commercially-acceptable solution. Theregulator’s first response should always be to direct the parties to seek a negotiatedoutcome, rather than have a solution imposed “from above” by the regulator. Only iftheparties are unable to achieve a settlement between them should the regulator becomeinvolved. However, even with the involvement of the regulator, the initial approach will be 18
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEto seek to reach an amicable settlement between the parties through independent non-binding mediation. Only once both direct negotiations and mediation have failed will theMinister of Transport refer the matter to the KPPU. The following general guidelines shouldapply to complaint procedures.First, all incoming complaints should be formally recorded and acknowledged. Complaintsshould be made in a prescribed format and be accompanied by supporting documentation.After a review of the complaint a decision should be made on whether the complaint fallswithin the Ministry of Transport’s jurisdiction. Complaints about day-to-day operationalmatters, for example, should be automatically referred back to the port authorities.Frivolous or vexatious complaints should also not be entertained. The organization againstwhich the complaint has been made should then be given the right to respond, usuallywithin a pre-determined time period which reflects the nature of the complaint. At thispoint, the Ministry of Transport is entitled to ask either party to the dispute for furtherinformation if this seems appropriate.After reviewing this “first round” of information, the Minister of Transport may ask theparties involved to attempt to resolve the dispute themselves and it will generally do so if itbelieves a commercially-negotiated outcome can be achieved. In fact, before lodging acomplaint, complainants should make every effort to solve a dispute through negotiations asthey are likely to be required to present evidence to the Ministry that they attempted toresolve matters in good faith. Where the Ministry directs the parties to attempt to resolvethe dispute themselves, it should be entitled if it wishes to offer informal suggestions onhow to proceed. A limited period of time should be allowed for the parties to resolve thedispute, at the end of which the status of the complaint – resolved, unresolved, orpartially/conditionally resolved - should be recorded by the Ministry.2.9.3 Policy  The Ministry of Transport in partnership with the KPPU has the overall responsibility to promote competition within the port sector. It is cognizant of the fact that the ports sector is highly concentrated and characterized by monopolies. Hence, it will remain vigilant to prevent anti competitive behavior and abuses of monopoly power.  The Ministry of Transport will promote competition by executing its planning functions and participating in the debate – by conducting its own independent analysis - of ways in which competition can be increased, especially with regard to the planned new port developments or expansion of existing ports.  The Ministry of Transport will develop the capacity to respond to alleged anti- competitive behavior by introducing a complaints and dispute resolution procedure in regulations. Where applicable, the approach to be followed will be similar to the procedure used in resolving disputes with regard to port tariffs.2.10 Enhance Labor Competitiveness2.10.1 Critical IssuesWhile all workers should be assured of a safe and rewarding work environment, there is anexpectation that the work force will also be competitive relative to global standards. Portauthority and PMU employment systems must distinguish themselves in terms ofemployment conditions and work environments in order to effectively compete for highly 19
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEqualified workers with other sectors. Port authorities and PMUs must offer a nurturingenvironment for entry level workers, both men and women, that translates to careeradvances facilitated by training and development and experience. At the same time, therehas to be a concerted effort in collaboration with vocational and higher educationinstitutions to promote the port sector as a desirable career option, for both men andwomen, and to assert a symbiotic relationship in continuing education opportunities for portsector workers.While capacity development is recognized as important to port performance, we must alsorecognize the importance of work practices to a port’s competitiveness. Today, terminaloperators are compelled to hire workers from labor cooperatives; because of lowproductivity and capability concerns, workers from labor cooperatives are retained whileterminal operators simultaneously deploy their own workers, increasing the cost of doingbusiness in the port. Labor cooperatives must demonstrate improved capacity to workskillfully and productively, while availing themselves of training programs designed toimprove their capabilities and performance. At the same time, as skill levels are increased,work practices must also reflect global standards; the size of the gangs offered bycooperatives for container handling, for example, are substantially larger than the norm forcontainer handling. Additionally, while most modernized port systems offer workers on a24/7 basis, labor cooperatives in some cases are not willing to deploy late-shift gangs.Terminal operators are thus not able to serve vessels during late-shift hours as they are notpermitted to use workers without hiring cooperatives.2.10.2 Policy  The Ministry of Transport, in close consultation with training centers, port business entities, port authorities, and labor cooperatives, will identify port sector training and education requirements for the Ministry (including DGST), port authorities, PMUs, labor cooperatives, and port business entities and and will develop a strategy for addressing port sector training and education needs. Training requirements and strategy will be periodically revised to reflect changing demands.  The Ministry of Transport will engage in memorandums of understanding with training centers, vocational institutions, and higher education institutions to promote port sector careers and to identify training and development requirements to improve labor productivity and assure respective curriculums are responsive to port sector needs, including those of the Ministry of Transport, port authorities and PMUs, port business entities, and labor cooperatives.  The Ministry of Transport will engage in a dialogue with labor cooperatives to formulate incentives for increasing productivity, expand training programs, improve work practices, and to identify strategies for enhancing competition among the cooperatives providing port workers.  The Ministry will promote the recruitment and retention of women into the port sector workforce and women’s participation in vocational and higher educational institutions. 20
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE2.11 Supporting Effective Port Safety Regulation2.11.1 Critical IssuesEffective safety regulation in Indonesia’s ports is a shared responsibility of the nationalgovernment, port authorities, and port business entities. This requires the Ministry toestablish a policy for safe operations with the port authorities responsible for the executionof this policy. Port business entities in turn are responsible for introducing safetymanagement systems as part of their operational functions.The role of port authorities in landside safety and environmental management must beclarified in view of their status as new organizations and the Ministry’s oversight role inensuring that ports are managed in a safe and environmentally-responsible manner.Independent safety oversight by the Ministry of Transport can be undertaken by developinga port safety and security framework that is agreed between the Ministry and the portauthorities by way of a Port Safety Code or similar standard. In practice, it will be a formalagreement between the Ministry of Transport and the port authorities that sets out portsafety operating requirements and corresponding performance measures.2.11.2 Policy  The Ministry of Transport will enhance implementation of regulations which entrust port authorities and harbor master with effective powers to oversee safety and security based on international guidelines and standards.  The recent reforms creating the port authorities require that there be independent oversight of port safety. To this end, the Ministry of Transport will develop a port safety framework setting out the obligations of port authorities in respect of compliance with port safety regulations.2.12 Supporting Effective Environmental Regulation2.12.1 Critical IssuesThere are many common environmental concerns that ports face. These include:  Handling, storage, and movement of International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) cargoes;  Waste generation from vehicle and maintenance activities and proper disposal of such wastes;  Bunker facilities, pipelines and other above- or underground storage tanks for fuels;  Potential for oil, fuel and hazardous material spills and the need for spill prevention planning and emergency-response measures;  Protection of the sea and atmosphere from releases into the environment, either from spills, directed discharges, or non-point source pollution;  Air pollution from ground vehicle and vessel exhaust fume emissions;  Wastewater discharges from cleaning operations and ballast water;  Solid waste (sewerage and garbage) disposal; and  Ballast water management.Hence, national authorities are responsible for establishing internationally acceptableguidelines in respect to the port and marine environment. The Ministry of Transport isresponsible for developing and applying regulations while port authorities are responsible 21
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEfor assuring compliance by port business entities and users. An ISO 14001 EnvironmentalManagement System is required to help the port self-police its environmental requirementsand audit its own facilities, as well as develop plans to reduce pollution and commit tocontinuous improvement. In turn, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System shouldbe part of an integrated Environmental, Health and Safety Management System.2.12.2 Policy  Effective environmental protection must be ensured through a port environmental protection code that will be developed by the Ministry of Transport and implemented by port authorities which sets forth:  An Indonesian standard and best practice guidelines for environmental protection in the ports;  A framework for an environmental management system to be developed and implemented by the Ministry of Transport; and  Provides for periodic independent audits in addition to the oversight role to be undertaken by the Ministry.  Harbor master will be entrusted with specific powers to manage and control pollution in the ports.  The Ministry of Transport will assume its full responsibilities under the Emergency Management System and engage partners in the maritime field to ensure that there is a functioning system of emergency response in the port sector. 22
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 3. Analysis of Port Traffic and Current PerformanceIn this chapter we present information collected on traffic for ports within the Indonesianport system, and trends in foreign and domestic traffic volumes by type of cargo andcommodity/commodity group. Data on foreign trade (imports and exports) and domesticshipping (loadings and unloading) are presented for the following cargo types andcommodity/commodity groups:  General cargo  Container  Dry bulk o Cement; o Coal; o Iron ore; o Fertilizer; o Grain; o Other dry bulk.  Liquid bulk o Petroleum & products; o Crude palm oil (CPO); o Other liquid bulk.  Total traffic3.1 Approach and Data SourcesA complete profile of the traffic handled at Indonesian ports is an important element toprepare traffic forecasts, identify necessary future port capacity additions and estimateinvestment. Information sources include data maintained by the DGST, by individualPelindos, and from other recent studies of the Indonesian port sector. The informationobtained from each of these sources is described in the sections below.3.1.1 DGST Shipping Data SetsDGST compiles from data provided by the shipping companies that report information onvessel calls at Indonesian ports. Separate data sets are maintained for foreign trade fordomestic shipping. The foreign data set obtained for 2009 includes the followinginformation:  Name of shipping company;  Name of vessel;  Deadweight, gross tonnage and horsepower of vessel;  Name and location of shipper (exporter or importer);  Direction of trade (import or export);  Foreign port of origin or destination;  Indonesian port of origin or destination;  Commodity and commodity group;  Tons or TEU loaded or unloaded;  Crew;  Type of vessel (tramper or liner). 23
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFor 2009, the foreign trade data set contains 32,734 records of individual vessel calls inIndonesia for foreign trade.The domestic shipping data sets have separate files for coal, fertilizer, cement and othercommodities. The domestic data sets include the following information:  Name of shipping company;  Name of vessel;  Flag (domestic or foreign);  Deadweight, gross tonnage and horsepower of vessel;  Indonesian port of origin and destination;  Commodity and commodity group;  Cargo type;  Tons or TEU loaded or unloaded;  Type of vessel (tramper or liner).For 2009, the domestic trade data set contains more than 72,000 records ofcargo/commodity shipments in Indonesian domestic trade between ports. 1 These data setswere reviewed and revised to clean them of inconsistencies and obvious errors, includingthe following:  Indonesian port names were harmonized to a single spelling and to a single name for a particular port;  Commodity (e.g. coal) or commodity group (petroleum and petroleum products) classifications were harmonized to a single commodity or commodity group name and spelling;  Obvious errors in reported cargo volumes were corrected when the cargo volume grossly exceeded the carrying capacity of the vessel;  Container shipments in TEU and vehicle shipments in units were separated from other cargo reported in tons.The DGST data sets provide the single most comprehensive view of the cargo handled inIndonesian ports during 2009.3.1.2 Pelindo Port DataHistoric information on cargo handled at Indonesian ports is also maintained by theindividual Pelindos. The time series presented in this chapter are largely derived from dataprovided or reported by the Pelindos.3.1.3 Data from Other Recent Studies of Indonesian PortsInformation was reviewed on port traffic from a number of recent Indonesian port sectorstudies and reports to fill in data gaps and to confirm or verify information obtained fromthe two primary sources described above.3.2 Indonesian Port Traffic 1999-2009As an archipelago, Indonesia relies heavily on its ports to accommodate its extensive foreigntrade as well as for vast domestic commerce. In 2009, a total of 968.4 million tons were1 Please note that some of the vessel calls have multiple records to accommodate the multiplecommodities that are loaded or unloaded at a port. 24
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEhandled at Indonesian ports, consisting of 560.4 million tons of dry bulk cargo (nearly three-quarters of which was coal), 176.1 million tons of liquid bulk cargo (86 percent of which waspetroleum and petroleum products or CPO), 143.7 million tons of general cargo and 88.2million tons of containerized cargo (Table 3-1).Foreign trade accounted for 543.4 million tons or 56 percent of the total volume of cargohandled at Indonesian ports in 2009. Export shipments at 442.5 million tons accounted formore than 80 percent of the foreign trade, while imports of 101.0 million tons accounted for20 percent of the foreign trade. The export figures are higher due to the substantial volumeof coal exports of 278.6 million tons in 2009.Table 3-1 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 1999 and 2009(000’s tons) Trade flow AAGR and cargo type 1999 2009 1999-2009 IMPORTS General cargo 11,777 18,628 4.7% Container cargo 6,755 30,658 16.3% Dry Bulk 12,281 9,719 -2.3% Liquid Bulk 17,327 41,954 9.2% Subtotal 48,140 100,958 7.7% EXPORTS General cargo 16,635 14,212 -1.6% Container cargo 8,568 30,342 13.5% Dry Bulk 41,511 303,133 22.0% Liquid Bulk 38,535 94,769 9.4% Subtotal 105,249 442,457 15.4% DOMESTIC UNLOADING General cargo 25,018 55,430 8.3% Container cargo 5,844 13,613 8.8% Dry Bulk 26,885 123,743 16.5% Liquid Bulk 45,448 19,675 -8.0% Subtotal 103,195 212,460 7.5% DOMESTIC LOADING General cargo 17,535 55,430 12.2% Container cargo 6,525 13,610 7.6% Dry Bulk 14,499 123,771 23.9% Liquid Bulk 47,334 19,675 -8.4% Subtotal 85,893 212,485 9.5% TOTAL General cargo 70,966 143,699 7.3% Container cargo 27,692 88,222 12.3% Dry Bulk 95,176 560,366 19.4% Liquid Bulk 148,644 176,072 1.7% Total 342,477 968,361 11.0% Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. from DGST and Pelindio data. 25
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEIndonesian domestic cargo handled at its ports in 2009 totaled 433.3 million tons, with drybulk shipments of 247.8 million tons accounting for 58 percent of total domestic shipments.2Table 3-1 and Figure 3-1 also show the growth in Indonesian port traffic for the 10-yearperiod from 1999 to 2009. During this period, total port traffic increased at an averageannual rate of 11.0 percent. However, the distribution of the growth of traffic was quitediverse. For example, dry bulk traffic increased more than five-fold from 95.2 million tons in1999 to 560.4 million tons in 2009. Container cargo also increased at a high average annualrate of 12.3 percent from 27.7 million tons in 1999 to 88.2 million tons in 2009 3. Generalcargo increased at an average annual rate of 7.3 percent, while liquid bulk cargos increasedat a much slower annual rate of 1.7 percent during this period.Figure 3-1 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 1999 and 2009(000’s tons) 180,000 000s tons 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 - General Cargo Container Cargo Liquid Bulk 1999 70,966 27,692 148,644 2009 143,699 88,222 176,072 600,000 000s tons 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 - 1999 2009 Dry Bulk 95,176 560,3662 The reason for a significant discrepancy between domestic unloading and loading statistics in 1999 isnot known. Conceptually, these figures should be close as they are in 2009.3 Container cargo volumes were estimated by multiplying TEU reported by 10 tons per TEU. 26
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 3-2 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type, 2009 (000’s tons) 600,000 000s tons 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 - General Container Dry Bulk Liquid Bulk Cargo Loading 55,430 13,610 123,771 19,675 Unloading 55,430 13,613 123,743 19,675 Export 14,212 30,342 303,133 94,769 Import 18,628 30,658 9,719 41,954Within trade flows, exports increased the most from 195.2 million tons in 1999 to 442.5million tons in 2009, corresponding to an average annual increase of 15.4 percent. Importsand domestic commerce volumes experienced annual growth in the range of 8-10 percentfrom 1999 to 2009.3.2.1 Indonesian Port Traffic in 2009Further detail of Indonesian port traffic in 2009 by trade flow and principal commodity/commodity group is presented in Table 3-2. Within the dry bulk cargo type, coal accounts fornearly 90 percent of the total dry bulk foreign trade but only 56 percent of the domestic drybulk trade. Other substantial volumes of dry bulk commodities shipped on domestic tradesinclude fertilizer (30.7 million tons), cement (14.9 million tons), grains (2.3 million tons) andother dry bulk products (60.1 million tons).Within liquid bulk cargoes, virtually all of the 91.5 million tons of petroleum and petroleumproducts handled at Indonesian ports in 2009 was for foreign trade and only 385 thousandtons were reported as domestic shipments. For CPO, domestic shipments totaled 38.5million tons in 2009, while 22.4 million tons of CPO was shipped as foreign trade (exports).Samarinda is the top port in terms of dry bulk cargo due to the 65.6 million tons of coalhandled in 2009, followed by Tanjung Bara that handled 41.0 million tons of dry bulk.Tanjung Priok is the top port in terms of container traffic with 39.2 million tons ofcontainerized cargo handled in 2009 followed by Tanjung Perak at 17.4 million tons.Tanjung Priok is also the top port for handling cement at 3.9 million tons followed by Bintuniat 3.0 million tons. Cigading is the top port for iron ore at 1.8 million tons.For fertilizer, both the ports of Pontianak and Teluk Melano each handled around 9.0 milliontons in 2009. Tanjung Perak is the leading port for handling grains at 5.7 million tons in 2009,followed by Bau-Bau at 4.2 million tons. The port of Kendawangan is the leading port forother dry bulk commodities, handling 31.3 million tons in 2009. 27
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 3-2 Indonesian Port Traffic by Trade Flow and Cargo Type and Principal Commodity,2009 (000’s tons) Foreign Trade Domestic TradeType of cargo Imports Exports Subtotal Unloading Loading Subtotal TotalGeneral Cargo 18,628 14,212 32,840 55,430 55,430 110,859 143,699Container 30,658 30,342 61,000 13,613 13,610 27,223 88,222Dry Bulk 9,719 303,133 312,852 123,743 123,771 247,514 560,366 Cement - 144 144 7,459 7,483 14,941 15,085 Coal 685 278,618 279,303 69,674 69,674 139,349 418,652 Iron Ore 1,862 8,669 10,531 46 46 91 10,623 Fertilizer 3,360 1,802 5,162 15,331 15,334 30,665 35,828 Grain 3,469 363 3,832 1,172 1,172 2,343 6,175 Other Dry Bulk 343 13,537 13,879 30,062 30,062 60,124 74,003Liquid Bulk 41,954 94,769 136,723 19,675 19,675 39,349 176,072 Petroleum & Products 31,801 59,309 91,110 192 192 385 91,495 CPO 269 22,169 22,438 19,243 19,243 38,485 60,923 Other Liquid Bulk 9,884 13,291 23,175 240 240 479 23,654Total 100,958 442,457 543,415 212,460 212,485 424,946 968,361Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. from DGST shipping data.For liquid bulk cargo, Bontang is the lead port in terms of petroleum and petroleum productsat 25.6 million tons followed by Tanjung Balai Karimun at 12.9 million tons. For CPO, thereare four major ports led by Dumai at 10.1 million tons, followed by Satui and Kuaro each ataround 9.0 million tons and Tanjung Perak at 7.5 million tons. Balikpapan and Merak handlethe largest volume of other liquid bulk products, each at around 3.6 million tons in 2009.Figures 3-3 and 3-4 presents total traffic by trade flow and cargo type, respectively, forIndonesia’s top 50 ports.The presentation of port volumes in this chapter up to now has been in terms of tons ofcargo so as to be uniform across cargo types. However, for the discussion of containershipments, it is customary to speak in terms of twenty foot equivalent units (TEU) which hasbecome a standard measurement unit within the container industry. Hence in thissubsection, all information regarding containers handled at Indonesian ports is expressed inTEU.Table 3-3 presents containers handled at the top 50 Indonesian ports for containers in 2009by type of trade flow. In 2009, a total of 8.8 million TEU were handled at Indonesian ports,consisting of 6.1 million TEU for foreign trade (69 percent) and 2.7 million for domestic trade(31 percent). The top 50 ports that handled containers account for 99.7 percent of the totalcontainer traffic. Due to the requirement of specialized handling equipment, the handling ofcontainers is concentrated at just a few ports with the top 5 ports handling 84 percent ofthe total volume in 2009 and the top 10 ports handling 91.5 percent. 28
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 3-3 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Total Traffic by Trade Flow, 2009 (000’s tons) Legend: 60,000 Pie Chart of indo_plab250plus 30,000 45,000 22,500 4,500 Export Exp09 Import Imprt09 Unload09 Unloading Load09 Loading 29
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 3-4 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Total Traffic by Cargo Type, 2009 (000’s tons) Legend: Pie Chart of indo_plab250plus 60,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 4,000 General Cargo Gencar09 Container Container09 Dry Bulk Drybulk09 Liquid Bulk Liquidbulk09 30
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 3-3 Indonesian Top 50 Ports for Container Traffic by Trade Flow, 2009 (000’s TEU) Foreign Trade Domestic Trade Port Imports Exports Subtotal Unloading Loading Subtotal Total Tg. Priok 1,605 1,485 3,090 328 505 833 3,923 Tg. Perak 630 576 1,206 256 282 539 1,744 Belawan 302 309 610 180 98 278 888 Tg. Emas 291 253 543 17 15 32 575 Panjang 137 139 277 14 11 25 302 Makassar 2 - 2 144 104 249 250 Banjarmasin - - - 61 57 118 118 Pontianak - - - 70 29 99 99 Samarinda 0 - 0 50 45 95 95 Pekanbaru 11 32 44 16 13 30 73 Merak 25 36 61 1 1 3 64 Perawang 1 53 54 4 5 9 63 Bitung - - - 27 36 63 63 Palembang 16 16 33 14 15 29 62 Batu Ampar 18 29 47 - - - 47 Teluk Bayur - - - 20 22 42 42 Balikpapan 1 2 3 19 16 35 38 Batam 1 3 4 15 11 26 30 Jayapura - - - 12 15 28 28 Buatan 2 26 27 - - - 27 Kabil 12 15 27 0 0 0 27 Kuala Tungkal 0 22 22 - - - 22 Sorong - - - 13 9 22 22 Tarakan - - - 9 8 17 17 Ambon - - - 7 8 15 15 Batu Licin - - - 7 7 14 14 Bau-Bau - - - 7 4 11 11 Biak - - - 7 3 10 10 Merauke - - - 6 4 10 10 P. Burung - 10 10 - - - 10 Talang Duku 4 5 9 - - - 9 Palu - - - 5 4 9 9 Timika - - - 5 4 9 9 Kendari - - - 6 3 9 9 S. Guntung - 8 8 - - - 8 Fak-Fak - - - 4 3 7 7 Manokwari - - - 4 3 7 7 Nabire - - - 4 3 6 6 Benoa - - - 3 3 6 6 Benete 2 3 5 - - - 5 Jambi 2 2 5 - - - 5 Muntok 2 2 4 - - - 4 Sampit - - - 2 2 4 4 S. Buatan 0 3 4 - - - 4 Pantoloan - - - 2 1 3 3 Pangkal Balam 1 1 3 0 - 0 3 Malili - - - 1 1 2 2 Tg. Pandan - - - 1 1 2 2 Kumai - - - 1 1 2 2 Luwuk - - - 1 0 2 2 Top 50 ports 3,064 3,031 6,095 1,347 1,354 2,700 8,796 All other ports 1 3 5 14 7 22 26 Total all ports 3,066 3,034 6,100 1,361 1,361 2,722 8,822 31 Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. from DGST Shipping Database, 2009.
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAs can be seen from Table 3-6, there seems to be a demarcation between the volume ofcontainers at the top 6 container ports from those lower in the list. The top 6 ports areTanjung Priok (3.9 million TEU), Tanjung Perak (1.7 million TEU), Belawan (0.9 million TEU),Tanjung Emas (0.6 million TEU), Panjang (0.3 million TEU) and Makassar (0.3 million TEU). Noother Indonesian port handled much more than 100 thousand TEU in 2009.It is interesting that for Tanjung Priok, 3.1 million TEU of its total 3.9 million TEU were ofcontainers for foreign trade (78.8 percent), whereas Tanjung Perak handled 1.2 million TEUof its total 1.7 million TEU for foreign trade (69 percent). At Makassar, nearly all of thecontainers handled in 2009 were for domestic trade.A longer perspective on the growth of container traffic at Indonesian ports is presented inTable 3-4 for the period of 1990 to 2009. During this period, container traffic in Indonesiaincreased nearly nine-fold from 1.0 million TEU in 1990 to 8.9 million TEU in 2009 4. Thegrowth in container volumes is shown graphically in Figure 3-5.The corresponding average annual growth rates for container traffic at the main Indonesianports is presented in Table 3-8 for the entire period of 1990 to 2009, and for the sub-periodsof 1990 to 2000, 2000 to 2009 and 2000 to 2008. Figure 3-5 displays the growth in containertraffic at the main container ports during this period.For the entire period of 1990 to 2009, container traffic at Indonesian ports increased at anaverage annual rate of 12.2 percent, which is very high for a 19-year period. Equallyimpressive is the average annual growth rate of 17.3 percent that was recorded from 1990to 2000. For the most recent period of 2000 to 2009, the average annual growth rate hasbeen lower but still quite robust at 6.9 percent. If one discounts the financial crisis year of2009 and looks at the 2000 to 2008 period, the average annual growth rate was 7.3 percent.4 There are differences between the figures reported in Table 3-6 and Table 3-7 for container traffic in2009. For purposes of computing average annual growth rates, it was decided to use the samePelindo-based data sources for 2009 as for other years shown in Table 3-7. 32
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 3-4 Indonesian Main Ports for Containers, Selected Years, 1990-2009 (TEU) Avergae annual growth rate (%)Port 1990 2000 2008 2009 1990-2009 1990-2000 2000-2009 2000-2008Tanjung Priok 643,582 2,494,606 3,973,661 3,799,411 9.8 14.5 4.8 5.8Tanjung Perak 198,135 915,000 2,213,477 1,744,300 12.1 16.5 7.4 12.3Belawan 82,585 311,089 590,069 888,400 13.3 14.2 12.4 6.4Tanjung Emas 37,361 262,697 468,177 576,100 15.5 21.5 9.1 7.3Makasar 6,457 164,684 362,452 463,818 25.2 38.2 12.2 9.3Banjarmasin 2,766 142,958 258,034 284,282 27.6 48.4 7.9 11.3Samarinda - 68,685 167,387 266,438 - - 16.3 11.8Pontianak 847 93,098 132,732 133,419 30.5 60.0 4.1 3.5Panjang 19,386 76,090 106,935 104,175 9.3 14.7 3.6 4.3Palembang 8,300 45,657 78,469 84,403 13.0 18.6 7.1 7.8Bitung 134 66,737 105,405 61,914 38.1 86.1 (0.8) 5.9Pekanbaru - 14,236 50,548 57,612 - - 16.8 (10.0)Balikpapan 754 22,401 70,952 52,844 25.1 40.4 10.0 10.1Jambi - 36,655 54,276 52,086 - - 4.0 5.8Teluk Bayur - 12,383 48,503 47,633 - - 16.1 16.0Batam a/ 133,345 125,000 104,200 - - (2.7) (0.9)Jayapura - 264 30,405 25,592 - - 66.2 72.0Sorong - 2,163 18,832 24,110 - - 30.7 23.3 Subtotal 1,000,307 4,860,585 8,836,482 8,746,627 12.1 17.1 6.7 7.4Other ports - 67,915 45,984 224,911 - - 14.2 (4.7)Total 1,000,307 4,928,500 8,882,466 8,971,538 12.2 17.3 6.9 7.3a/Batam includes Batu Ampar and Kabil.Source: Compiled by Nathan Associates Inc. from DGST, Pelindo II and other data. 33
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 3-5 Indonesian Main Ports for Containers, Selected Years, 1990-2009 (TEU) Legend: 2,000,000 1,000,000 Bar Chart of indo_plabcont09 250,000 1990 Cntnr90  Cntnr00 2000 Cntnr08 2009 Cntnr09                  34
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Figure 3-6 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Traffic 2009Legend (in 000 TEUs):1500 750 Figure 3-7 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Traffic 2009 Legend (in 000 TEUs): 350 175 35
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Figure 3-8 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia General Cargo Traffic, 2009Legend (in 000 tons):1000 500 Figure 3-9 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Container Cargo Traffic, 2009 Legend (in 000 tons): 5000 2500 36
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Figure 3-10 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Dry Bulk Cargo 2009Legend (in 000 tons):10000 5000 Figure 3-11 Major Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Dry Bulk Cargo 2009 Legend (in 000 tons): 5000 2500 37
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Figure 3-12 Major International Trade Flows for Indonesia Liquid Bulk Cargo 2009Legend (in 000 tons):20000 10000 Figure 3-13 Domestic Trade Flows for Indonesia Liquid Bulk Cargo 2009 Legend (in 000 tons): 10000 5000 38
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 4. Forecast of Indonesian Port Traffic4.1 ApproachFirst, the forecast is driven by the top-down approach, working first at the nationallevel based on macroeconomic trends and conditions in Indonesia, the region and itstrading partners (Figure 4-1). Forecasts at the national level are then assigned toindividual port areas based on historical patterns adjusted for special conditions suchas implementation of the economic development corridor strategy.Figure 4-1 General Approach for Traffic Forecast • Voyage data; maritime traffic by port pair, 2009 • Socioeconomic data (GRDP, population) & port statistics • Future condition (MP3EI, specific commodity trend) Data • Growth of specific commodities demand and productions • Commodity Type (11 types) • Modeling Port Demand by Commodity Type Int’l & Domestic Modeling • Alternative High ( with MP3EI accelerated growth) and Low Forecast (smaller GDP growth) • Future Port Demand by Commodity Type Forecast • Assigning National Port Demand to Port ClustersComponents of trade such as international container traffic and domestic containertraffic that have different determinants of growth are forecasted separately taking intoconsideration customized regression models developed for this study.4.2 ContainersDue to the high rate of traffic growth and the anticipated requirement for investmentin new and expanded facilities, a particular focus was placed on the development of atraffic forecast for containers. The first step was to separate Indonesian containerflows into those for international trade and those for domestic trade, as thecharacteristics and determinants of future growth for these two trade flows are quitedifferent.4.2.1 Forecast of International Container FlowsComprehensive data on the classification of container traffic between Internationaland domestic trade flows are not publicly available. We have compiled available datafrom DGST and the Pelindos for the main container ports of Tanjung Priok, TanjungPerak, Belawan, Makassar and Tanjung Emas. As was described in Chapter 3, these fivecontainer ports handled 83 percent of the total container volume in Indonesia in 2009. 39
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEInternational container flows were forecast through 2030 based on a multipleregression model that assesses the relationship between historical internationalcontainer TEU and the independent variables of trade-weighted GDP of Indonesia’smajor trading partners and Indonesia’s own GDP. GDP in constant US dollars of 2000were obtained for Indonesia, Europe, China, and the United States from the WorldBank’s on-line databank for the period of 1990 to 2009. For Indonesia’s tradingpartners, their GDP was weighted in accordance of their share of Indonesian foreigntrade in manufactured goods. The Indonesian trade data for manufactured goods wasobtained from the on-line United Nations Statistics Division, Commodity TradeStatistics Database (COMTRADE) for 1990 to 2009.The resulting regression model and the statistical results are presented in Table 4-1.The model has a coefficient of determination (R-squared) of 98 percent and thevariables have t-statistics of nearly 4.0 with the exception of Europe that is stillsignificant at a value of 2.0. The regression, based on the historical container trafficvolumes, implicitly takes into account trends in the propensity to trade andcontainerization rates of general cargo.Table 4-1 Regression Equation and Statistics for Forecast of Indonesian InternationalContainer Traffic Regression StatisticsMultiple R 0.990R Square 0.980Adjusted R Square 0.975Standard Error 252,946.900Observations 20ANOVA df SS MS F Significance FRegression 4 4.74331E+13 1.18583E+13 185.3371032 1.41913E-12Residual 15 9.59732E+11 63982134104Total 19 4.83928E+13 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95%Intercept (2,546,444.4) 674,378.4 (3.776) 0.002 -3.98E+06 (1,109,041.016)Europe TW-GDP (553.3) 278.4 (1.987) 0.065 (1,146.803) 40.133US TW-GDP 1,373.0 329.0 4.173 0.001 671.727 2,074.246Indonesia GDP 19,050.0 4,996.2 3.813 0.002 8,400.881 29,699.091China TW GDP 6.1E-06 1.6E-06 3.746 0.002 2.650E-06 9.647E-06Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc.To apply this regression model to develop forecasts of Indonesian internationalcontainer volumes in future years, it is necessary to develop assumptions regarding thefuture growth of GDP for Indonesia and each of its main trading partners. We haveused the real GDP growth rates projected by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) aspublished in the Statistical Appendix of the April 2011 issue of the World Economic 40
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEOutlook. The IMF projections are for 2011 through 2016. From 2016 through 2030, wehave assumed GDP growth rates as shown in the Table 4-2.Table 4-2 Projected GDP Growth for Selected Regions and Countries, 2011-2030Region or country 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2025 2030Europe 1.7% 1.6% 1.8% 1.8% 1.7% 1.7% 1.7% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 2.0% 2.0%US 2.8% 2.8% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.7% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4%Indonesia 6.1% 6.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.8% 6.9% 7.0% 6.8% 6.6% 6.4% 6.0% 5.5% 5.5%China 10.3% 9.6% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 8.5% 8.5% 8.5% 7.5% 7.5% 7.5%Source: IMF World Economic Outlook for 2011-2016; Nathan Associates inc. own estimates for 2016-2030.Alternative assumptions regarding future GDP growth are developed and applied in thealternative scenarios discuss later in this chapter.Based on the regression model and these GDP projections, Table 4-3 presents the BaseCase forecast of Indonesian international container traffic through 2030. Internationalcontainers handled at Indonesian ports are projected to increase from 6.2 million TEUin 2009 to 10.7 million TEU in 2015 and to reach 15.7 million TEU in 2020. Withcontinued growth through 2030, the total volume of international containers isprojected to reach 29.4 million TEU that year. In terms of average annual rates ofgrowth, from 2009 to 2015, the international container volume is projected to increaseat an average rate of 9.5 percent, declining slightly to 8.0 percent from 2015 to 2020and 6.5 percent from 2020 to 2030.From 2009 to 2020, Indonesian GDP has been projected to grow at an overall averagerate of 6.5 percent, as compared to the average growth rate of international containertraffic during this period of 8.8 percent. Thus the implicit elasticity of container growthrelative to GDP is 1.35 which is considered to be at the lower end of expected values.Tanjung Priok in Jakarta is by far the largest container port in Indonesia for handlinginternational containers, accounting for 50 percent of the national volume. WithinTanjung Priok, the specialized container terminal of Jakarta International ContainerTerminal (JICT) handles only international traffic and accounts for more than 50percent of the international containers at Tanjung Priok. As can be seen from Table 4-4,the ratio of TEU per box handled at JICT has remained relatively flat from 2000 through2009 at a ratio of approximately 1.5. This means that there is roughly an equaldistribution of 20-foot and 40-foot boxes handled at the terminal. It would beexpected that due to the efficiencies and cost-savings achieved with the handling of40-foot containers, during the forecast period, the ratio of TEU per box would increaseto 1.6 or 1.65 as experienced in other major international container ports. One of theimpediments to the greater use of 40-foot containers is the narrow roads andmaneuverability issues. Nonetheless, over time, it is expected those impedimentswould be removed or mitigated. 41
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 4-3 Base Case Forecast of International ContainerTraffic at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 (TEU)Year TEU2009 6,199,3332010 6,926,3832011 7,557,3762012 8,248,6752013 8,997,2602014 9,809,0232015 10,689,3822016 11,644,3302017 12,602,7022018 13,613,9652019 14,680,0352020 15,727,1372021 16,789,7362022 17,918,2582023 19,116,9752024 20,390,4442025 21,682,3522026 23,052,6392027 24,506,3382028 26,048,8152029 27,685,7992030 29,423,403Average Annual Growth Rate2009-15 9.5%2015-20 8.0%2020-30 6.5%Source: Nathan Associates Inc.Table 4-4 Characteristics of Container Traffic at JICT, 2000-2009Item 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009TEU 1,596,366 1,265,103 1,509,013 1,502,883 1,636,290 1,470,467 1,619,495 1,821,282 1,985,781 1,676,886Box 1,037,379 842,939 1,013,087 1,002,155 1,133,202 994,352 1,085,977 1,212,584 1,340,898 1,128,040TEU/ Box 1.54 1.50 1.49 1.50 1.44 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.48 1.49Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. from data provided by Pelindo II.4.2.2 Forecast of Domestic Container FlowsA regression model was also prepared to project the future volume of containers onIndonesian domestic trade flows. The model consists of a simple regression of numberof domestic TEU as the dependent variable and Indonesia’s GDP in constant US$ of2000 as the independent variable. The data for Indonesia’s GDP is the same as thatused for the international container forecast described earlier. 42
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEThe resulting regression model and the statistical results are presented in Table 4-5.The model has a correlation coefficient (R-squared) of 86 percent and the IndonesianGDP variable has t-statistic of 10.4.Table 4-5 Regression Equation and Statistics for Forecast of Indonesian DomesticContainer Traffic Regression StatisticsMultiple R 0.926R Square 0.857Adjusted R Square 0.849Standard Error 421,697.504Observations 20ANOVA df SS MS F Significance FRegression 1 1.91812E+13 1.9181E+13 107.863086 4.97275E-09Residual 18 3.20092E+12 1.7783E+11Total 19 2.23821E+13 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95%Intercept (2,635,746) 424,646 (6.21) 0.00 (3,527,894) (1,743,597)Indonesia GDP 24,376 2,347 10.39 0.00 19,445 29,307Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc.The resulting Base Case forecast of Indonesian domestic container traffic is presentedin Table 4-6. The volume of domestic containers is projected to increase from 2.7million TEU in 2009 to 6.6 million TEU in 2015 and to reach 10 million TEU by 2020. Interms of average annual rate of growth, the projection results in an average rate of15.4 percent from 2009 to 2015, 8.8 percent from 2015 to 2020 and 8.2 percent from2020 to 2030. The high rate from 2009 to 2015 is due the fact that the volume ofdomestic containers in 2009 was at a depressed level. If 2009 had been a typical year,then the average growth rate from 2009 to 2015 would be around 10 percent.As mentioned earlier, it is difficult to obtain comprehensive information about thecomposition of container traffic in Indonesia. Table 4-7 presents data provided byPelindo II for containers handled at its port excluding the JICT terminal. As such, thisdata provides an interesting look at the composition of domestic containers handled atPelindo II ports. The ports included in this data set are Tanjung Priok (excluding JICT),Panjang, Palaembang, Teluk Bayer, Pontianak, Banten, Jambi, Sunda Kelapa, Bengalu,Balam, and Panadan. 43
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 4-6 Base Case Forecast of Domestic ContainerTraffic at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 (TEU) Year TEU 2009 2,772,205 2010 4,049,710 2011 4,464,208 2012 4,925,705 2013 5,426,651 2014 5,970,863 2015 6,562,567 2016 7,206,449 2017 7,875,719 2018 8,569,475 2019 9,286,609 2020 10,001,951 2021 10,697,024 2022 11,430,326 2023 12,203,960 2024 13,020,144 2025 13,802,939 2026 14,624,873 2027 15,487,904 2028 16,394,086 2029 17,345,578 2030 18,344,644 Average Annual Growth Rate 2009-15 15.4% 2015-20 8.8% 2020-30 6.3% Source: Nathan Associates Inc.As can be seen from Table 4-7, tons per TEU at these ports consistently averagedaround 10 tons while the ratio of TEU per box has remained at about 1.24 from 2002through 2009. This means that the mix of container was roughly 75 percent 20-footcontainers and 25 percent 40-foot containers. The percent of TEU that are empty hasaveraged around 20 percent while generally ranging from 15 percent to 25 percent.For the forecast, we have assumed a national average factor of 10 tons per TEU forboth international and domestic trade flows. While we believe the ratio of TEU per boxwill increase somewhat over time, it does not affect the container forecast in thisreport that are presented in terms of TEU. The ratio of TEU per box, however, issignificant in assessing port capacity and investment requirements to be presented inChapter 5. 44
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 4-7 Characteristics of Container Traffic at Pelindo II Ports excluding JICT, 2000- 2009 Item 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Tons in containers (000s) 12,136 9,991 15,102 16,752 19,819 22,564 21,901 23,645 26,683 26,005 Boxes (000s) Full 20 424.8 388.9 660.7 780.9 991.9 1,111.4 1,094.2 1,065.4 1,115.3 1,187.8 Full 40 209.8 177.3 230.9 259.9 321.9 402.8 370.7 384.6 427.1 424.1 Empty 20 220.6 155.7 212.6 225.1 239.8 234.1 262.4 345.9 342.4 404.4 Empty 40 58.4 47.6 60.7 54.4 49.0 56.0 66.2 70.1 74.2 77.6 Total 913.6 769.4 1,164.8 1,320.2 1,602.7 1,804.2 1,793.4 1,866.0 1,959.0 2,093.9 TEUs (000s) 1,180.9 994.2 1,456.4 1,634.4 1,973.6 2,262.9 2,230.3 2,320.6 2,460.4 2,595.7 Tons/TEU 10.3 10.0 10.4 10.2 10.0 10.0 9.8 10.2 10.8 10.0 TEU/Box 1.29 1.29 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.25 1.24 1.24 1.26 1.24 Percent Empty 28.6% 25.2% 22.9% 20.4% 17.1% 15.3% 17.7% 20.9% 19.9% 21.6% Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. from data provided by Pelindo II. The combined container traffic for Indonesian international and domestic trade is presented in Figure 4-2. Total container traffic is forecast to double from 8.8 million TEU in 2009 to 17.2 million TEU in 2015 and to reach nearly 26 million TEU by 2020. This corresponds to an overall annual growth rate of 11.8 percent from 2009 to 2015 and 8.3 percent from 2015 to 2020. Figure 4-2 Indonesian Base Case Container Forecast for Domestic and International Trade, 2009-2030 (000’s TEU) 50,000000s TEUs 45,000 Domestic 40,000 International 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Year 45
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEThe Base Case container forecast indicates the Indonesia will experience sustained highlevels of container traffic growth over the next 10 years. For both domestic andinternational trade flows, we believe the forecasted rates of growth are justified takinginto account the following considerations:  Both the Government of Indonesia and independent multilateral organizations such as the IMF are forecasting real GDP growth for Indonesia of at least 6.5- 7.0 percent for the next decade.  Implementation of economic development corridors will accelerate growth and also directly affect the volume of container traffic due to o overall higher GDP growth of at least one percent per year due to accelerated program o policies for promoting and facilitating increased value-added will mean that commodities previously exported in bulk may soon be shifted to further processed materials and products that are traditionally shipped in containers.  Indonesia has a history of high growth of container traffic dating back to 1990.  There remains substantial potential for domestic general cargo traffic and some further international general cargo traffic to be shifted to more efficient container transport.  Favorable demographic conditions means that productive age population will continue to increase faster than overall population resulting in a larger productive workforce and lower dependency ratios.  Projected Increases in GDP per capita will generate a burgeoning middleclass that in the next 10 years could be double or triple in size. The growing middle class will have greater demand for manufactured and consumer products that are important determinants of key segments of container traffic.The confluence of the considerations above are also mutually supporting in somerespects. For example, the policy of shifting to increased value added not only affectsthe type of cargo to be traded but also reinforces the growth in GDP and GDP percapita and the burgeoning middle class.It is important to note that the container forecasts presented herein do not include anyinternational transshipment traffic. There are several reasons for this. First, there is nohistory of Indonesian ports serving as international container transshipment hubs, asthis business has been dominated by Singapore and Malaysia within the region that arelocated on major international trade routes and have efficient port operationsdeveloped for the transshipment market. Second, the focus of the present study ismore on the development requirements of Indonesian ports to support nationaleconomic growth, and as such, on ports that accommodate Indonesian foreign anddomestic trade flows. The development of an international container transshipmenthub in Indonesia should be regarded as a commercial investment decision that shouldbe implemented with private sector financing if market conditions warrant. 46
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE4.3 Other Cargo Types and Commodity GroupsIn this section, we present the forecast for other cargo types and commodities handledat Indonesian ports. Again, the forecasts are presented separately for internationaland domestic trade flows.The forecast of other cargo types was not based on regression analysis due to the lackof adequate time series of port traffic by cargo type. Instead, the forecast has beenprepared taking into consideration national trends in production, consumption andforeign and domestic trade for each cargo type/ commodity A discussion of theassumptions and approach used to prepare the forecast of other cargo types andcommodities is presented in the sections below.Table 4-8 presents the forecast for total cargo handled at Indonesian ports by cargotype and commodity from 2009 through 2030. Total port traffic is forecast to increasefrom 1.0 billion tons in 2009 to 1.3 billion tons in 2015 and 1.5 billion tons in 2020. Thecorresponding annual average rate of growth is 4.5 percent from 2009 to 2015 and 3.7percent from 2015 to 2020. These figures include cargo that is carried in containers.As can be seen from Table 4-8, the annual growth rates for other cargo types (withsome notable exceptions) are generally less than 5 percent.4.3.1 General CargoAs shown in Table 4-8, the growth rates for domestic and international general cargotraffic are about one-third of those forecast for containers. This reflects the recentgrowth rates experienced for international general cargo traffic and the expectationthat there will be further containerization of domestic general cargo. From 2009 to2015, international general cargo is forecast to increase at an annual rate of 3 percentwhile domestic general cargo is forecast at an annual rate of 5 percent. Duringsubsequent forecast periods, general cargo is still forecast to increase but at furtherreduced rates of growth.4.3.2 Dry BulkWithin the dry bulk cargo type, we discuss the forecast separately for cement, coal,iron ore, fertilizer, grains and other dry bulk.CementIn 2009, Indonesian cement factories produced 37 million tons of cement, 37 milliontons were sold in domestic market, and 4 million tons of cement/clinker were sold inoverseas markets. In 2009, utilization of production capacity of the nine Indonesiancement companies averaged 82 percent. The Indonesia Cement Association preparesforecasts cement industry sales which are forecast to increase to 49 million tons in2015 corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 4.8 percent. JICA prepared aregression model of domestic cement sales relative to construction GDP which resultedin a forecast 113 million tons of domestic cement sales by 2030, corresponding to anaverage growth rate of 5.7 percent. 47
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 4-8 Base Case Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 (000’s tons) 2009 2015 2020 2030 Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of TradeType of cargo Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic TotalGeneral Cargo 32,840 110,859 143,699 39,213 148,562 187,775 43,294 180,748 224,043 50,245 242,911 293,155Container 61,000 27,223 88,222 106,894 65,626 172,519 157,271 100,020 257,291 294,234 183,446 477,680Dry Bulk 312,852 247,514 560,366 328,918 342,135 671,053 310,318 438,906 749,224 284,436 675,731 960,167 Cement 144 14,941 15,085 6,700 21,925 28,625 8,757 28,655 37,411 14,264 48,947 63,210 Coal 279,303 139,349 418,652 279,303 203,330 482,633 250,000 272,101 522,101 200,000 443,224 643,224 Iron Ore 10,531 91 10,623 13,714 400 14,114 16,686 1,000 17,686 23,537 2,000 25,537 Fertilizer 5,162 30,665 35,828 7,323 39,934 47,257 9,346 48,586 57,932 14,514 68,536 83,050 Grain 3,832 2,343 6,175 4,316 2,639 6,954 4,672 2,885 7,557 5,422 3,348 8,770 Other Dry Bulk 13,879 60,124 74,003 17,562 73,907 91,469 20,858 85,679 106,537 26,700 109,676 136,376Liquid Bulk 136,723 39,349 176,072 178,042 52,718 230,759 216,653 65,700 282,353 315,952 97,252 413,204 Petroleum & Products 91,110 385 91,495 118,649 501 119,151 144,355 610 144,965 213,681 903 214,584 CPO 22,438 38,485 60,923 30,069 51,574 81,643 37,471 64,271 101,742 55,467 95,136 150,603 Other Liquid Bulk 23,175 479 23,654 29,323 642 29,965 34,827 819 35,646 46,805 1,213 48,017Total 543,415 424,946 968,361 653,066 609,040 1,262,107 727,537 785,374 1,512,911 944,867 1,199,340 2,144,207Average annual growth rate (%)General Cargo - - - 3.0 5.0 4.6 2.0 4.0 3.6 1.5 3.0 2.7Container - - - 9.8 15.8 11.8 8.0 8.8 8.3 6.5 6.3 6.4Dry Bulk - - - 0.8 5.5 3.0 (1.2) 5.1 2.2 (0.9) 4.4 2.5 Cement - - - 89.7 6.6 11.3 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.0 5.5 5.4 Coal - - - - 6.5 2.4 (2.2) 6.0 1.6 (2.2) 5.0 2.1 Iron Ore - - - 4.5 27.9 4.9 4.0 20.1 4.6 3.5 7.2 3.7 Fertilizer - - - 6.0 4.5 4.7 5.0 4.0 4.2 4.5 3.5 3.7 Grain - - - 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 Other Dry Bulk - - - 4.0 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.1 2.5 2.5 2.5Liquid Bulk - - - Petroleum & Products - - - 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 CPO - - - 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 Other Liquid Bulk - - - 4.0 5.0 4.0 3.5 5.0 3.5 3.0 4.0 3.0Total - - - 3.1 6.2 4.5 2.2 5.2 3.7 2.6 4.3 3.5Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. In order to increase the utilization rate of the manufacturing plants, Indonesian cement companies expanded overseas markets after the economic crisis in 1998 and about 7 to 9 million tons of cement/clinker, which were nearly 20 percent of the production capacity, were annually exported to overseas market. With the increase of the domestic demand, export volume decreased significantly, and in 2009 the export volume of cement/clinker dropped to 4 million tons, which were equivalent to 8.4 percent of the total production capacity. Considering these situations surrounding the Indonesian cement market, JICA study team assumed that 5 percent of the cement production capacity will be sold to overseas markets in the form of cement and clinker. 48
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREECoalIndonesia is one of the world leading producers of coal and leads the world in exportsof thermal coal. In 2010, coal production in Indonesia totaled 325 million tons, of which265 million tons were exported and 60 million tons were consumed domestically.Trends in Indonesian coal production, exports and domestic consumption from 1996 to2010 is shown in Figure 4-3.Figure 4-3 Indonesian Coal Production, Exports and Domestic Consumption, 1996-2010 (million tons)The Government of Indonesia has a policy to encourage further consumption of coal asan energy source as part of its overall energy strategy to diversify from crudepetroleum and petroleum products. Also, the further development of the coal sector inIndonesia is a priority of the MP3EI. Potential areas of expansion in Central Kalimantanand inland locations in Sumatera will require development of costly inlandtransportation systems. It is expected that until such inland transport systems aredeveloped, coal production in Indonesia will increase modestly at an annual rate of 2.4percent. As domestic consumption increases with the implementation of the nationalenergy policy, Indonesian exports of coal are expected to remain flat or decline slightly.Obviously, major new investments in inland transport system and coal production willalso require additional port capacity for the shipment of coal. Those considerations areincluded in the High Growth traffic scenario. 49
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEIron OreLarge quantities of iron ore reserves are located in Kalimantan. However, the nationaliron ore production is mostly exported and not used in domestic steelmaking asIndonesia does not currently process iron ore into sponge iron or iron pellet. As such,and also due to the ferrous content of the iron ore, the domestic steel company PT.Krakatau Steel imports iron ore from Chile, Brazil and other countries. Hence,Indonesian port traffic for iron ore is in foreign trade, both for imports and exports.Iron ore port traffic is forecast to increase at an annual rate of 4.9 percent from 2009to 2015 and 4.6 percent from 2015 to 2020 reflecting the increased demand for steeldomestically and the resulting requirement for increased iron ore imports as well asmodest increases in iron ore production and exports. It is possible that, due to thepolicy of increasing value added, Indonesia may develop an iron ore processing facilityand shipped exports as pellets or sponge iron. This would remain, however, a dry bulkcargo.FertilizerThe increased use of fertilizer in Indonesian agriculture is a significant component ofthe MP3EI plans for increasing yields of Indonesian principal crops. In 2011, Indonesianproduction of urea fertilizer is estimated at 7.1 million tons, about 81 percent of theestimated production capacity of 8.8 million tons. Other major types of fertilizerproduced in Indonesia are ammonia-based products and nitrogen-phosphorous andpotassium (NPK) products.Information on the number and capacity of Indonesian fertilizer plants in 2010 isshown in Table 4-9 below, while Figure 4-4 presents the location and capacity of ureafertilizer plants. Fertilizer port traffic is forecast to increase at an annual rate of 4.7percent from 2009 to 2015 and by 4.2 percent from 2015 to 2020.GrainsGrain traffic handled at Indonesian ports consists of foreign imports of wheat and othergrains and domestic shipments of rice, corn and other common crops. The major grainthat is imported is wheat. Presently Indonesian imports a total of about four and a halfmillion tons of wheat annually, and more than half are passing through Tanjung Priok.Historical trends of Indonesian import of wheat were obtained by JICA from the FAOstatistics, and its future volume was forecast by a regression model, in which totalpopulation in Indonesia served as a regressor (R=0.90). JICA forecast that Indonesia willimport a total of about 7 million tons of wheat in 2030 as both population and percapita GDP increase. Currently Indonesia’s per capita wheat flour consumption isaround 15kg/capita, and the forecast above results in around 20 kg/capita in 2030compared to 71 kg per capita in Singapore and 40 kg per capita in Malaysia in 2002. 50
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 4-9 Indonesian Fertilizer Plants and Annual Capacity (000’s ton)Source: Indonesia Fertilizer Producers Association (APPI), Presentation on APPIExperience, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Dec 8-10, 2009.Figure 4-4 Indonesian Urea Plants and Annual Capacity, 2010 (000’s tons)Source: Indonesia Fertilizer Producers Association (APPI), Presentation on APPIExperience, Kota Kinbalu, Malaysia, Dec 8-10, 2009 51
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEOther Dry BulkOther dry bulk commodities include other ores and minerals, sand and aggregates usedfor construction, chemical products, iron and steel and forestry products. This categoryof port traffic is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 3.6 percent from 2009to 2015 and 3.1 percent from 2015 to 2020.4.3.3 Liquid BulkWithin the liquid bulk cargo type, we discuss the forecast separately for petroleum andpetroleum products, CPO and other liquid bulk.Petroleum and Petroleum ProductsIndonesia is currently a net importer of both crude oil and refined products.Indonesias crude oil production has been declining since 1998, due to the maturationof the countrys largest oil fields and failure to develop new, comparable resources.Indonesia was a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)from 1962 to 2009. In 2004, the country became a net oil importer (see Figure 4-5) andin January 2009, suspended its OPEC membership.The Indonesian government announced a basic policy on energy through presidentialdecree No. 05 of Year 2006 and Blue Print: National Energy Policy 2006 – 2025.According to the government policies, the share of petroleum shall decrease from 54.5percent in 2005 to 20 percent in 2025 while that of coal shall increase to 33 percentfrom 16.8 percent at present. Sales of petroleum in the domestic market and importvolume of petroleum product have been decreasing since 2004.Figure 4-5 Indonesian Crude Oil Production and Consumption, 1999-2009. 52
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEThe Technical Report on the Development of the National Port Master Plan prepared aforecast of future petroleum port volumes taking into consideration:  Crude oil production has been falling consistently since 1990 and at an escalating rate in recent years. Although the average rate of decline between 1996 and 2008 was 3.8 percent, year‐to‐year declines have been 4 percent to 5 percent in most recent years. Increasing rates of decline are a common feature in mature oil fields such as Indonesia’s. They projected crude oil production to decline at 4 percent a year between 2009 and 2030.  Crude oil exports have fallen at 6 percent a year over 1996 to 2008 but have been stable in recent years. We projected these exports to continue to decline, but at a modest rate of 1 percent a year.  Crude oil imports have been falling slowly in recent years. They projected these imports to continue to decline at a modest rate of 1 percent a year. Because crude oil imports are projected to decline at 1 percent a year, we used the same rate of decline for product exports.  Apparent domestic demand increased slowly between 1996 and 2008, at about 1 percent a year. Indonesian consumption figures from the U.S. Department of Energy for the same period increased at 2.5 percent a year. Before the oil subsidy reduction in 2005, typical year‐to‐year growth rates in consumption were between 5 percent and 7 percent.  We expect generally a low growth rate in future because of the probable removal of fuel subsidies and the likely high world price of crude oil in the long term, perhaps US$100 a barrel in today’s dollars. Under these circumstances, petroleum demand in Indonesia will increase but at a modest rate. The factors affecting demand will be increasing population and rising per capita incomes. They estimated that demand will grow at 3.0 percent a year between 2009 and 2030.Crude Palm Oil (CPO)Indonesia is the largest producer of palm oil in the world with 19.5 million tons in 2009.Malaysia is a close second at 17.5 million tons in 2009. Together these two countriesaccount for about 82 percent of global CPO production.Crude palm oil is an important commodity highlighted in the MP3EI for the economiccorridors of Sumatra and Kalimantan. More than 70 percent of Indonesian CPOproduction area is in Sumatra, although in recent years, the production area inKalimantan has been growing rapidly.In 2009, Sumatra had approximately five million hectares of palm oil plantations, ofwhich 75 percent were mature plantations. However, further expansion of palm oilplantations in both Sumatra and Kalimantan is limited due to environmentalconsideration. Hence, the strategy is to improve palm oil yields that are substantiallybelow those achieved in Malaysia.According to the MP3EI report, the low productivity for small holders is primarilycaused by: 53
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE  Use of low quality seeds. Research shows that the use of higher quality seeds can increase yields by up to 47 percent from current levels;  Inadequate use of fertilizer due to high prices for fertilizers;  Time between Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) to the old mill (above 48 hours) decreases the productivity of CPO produced. Given the importance of CPO to the economic corridor goals and objectives for Sumatra and Kalimantan, it is believed that CPO production and shipments will increase at an average annual rate of 5.0 percent from 2009 to 2015 and 4.5 percent from 2015 to 2020, based on the assumption that new areas being brought under production are limited. The rate of growth for CPO production is thus assumed to be approximately equal to the long-term growth rate of global CPO demand. Other Liquid Bulk Other liquid bulk products include chemical products and other edible oils and products, such as vegetable oil and molasses. These other liquid bulk products are shipped as international trade and consist roughly of 60 percent exports and 40 percent imports. Indonesian port traffic of other liquid bulk products is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 4.0 percent from 2009 to 2015 and by 3.5 percent from 2015 to 2020. 4.4 Alternative Traffic Scenarios In this section, we present the forecasts of Indonesian port traffic through 2030 for alternative assumptions regarding macroeconomic assumptions for Indonesia and trade partners. The alternative GDP growth rates used for the three scenarios is presented in Table 4-10 below. Table 4-10 GDP Growth Assumptions for Alternative Traffic Scenarios, 2010-2030 (%)Scenario 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2025 2030High GrowthEurope 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.3US 2.8 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.7Indonesia 6.1 6.2 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.5China 10.3 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.5 7.5Base CaseEurope 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0US 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4Indonesia 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.0 5.5 5.5 5.5China 10.3 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5Low GrowthEurope 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5US 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0Indonesia 6.1 6.2 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5China 10.3 9.6 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.5 7.5 6.5Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. 54
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Using the same regression models as the Base Case Scenario, forecasts of international and domestic container traffic were prepared after applying the trade-weighted GDP for each region/ country. As can be seen from Table 4-11, under the High Growth Scenario total Indonesian container traffic would reach 57 million TEU by 2030 as compared to 48 million forecasts for the Base Case Scenario and 42 million for the Low Growth Scenario. Figure 4-6 presents the forecasts for total container trade for the three scenarios graphically. Table 4-11 Indonesian Container Traffic under Alternative Growth Scenario, 2009- 2030 (000’s TEU) Low Growth Base Case High Growth Year InternationalDomestic Total InternationalDomestic Total InternationalDomestic Total 2009 6.199 2.772 8.972 6.199 2.772 8.972 6.199 2.772 8.972 2010 6.926 4.050 10.976 6.926 4.050 10.976 6.926 4.050 10.976 2011 7.548 4.464 12.012 7.557 4.464 12.022 7.577 4.464 12.041 2012 8.172 4.890 13.062 8.249 4.926 13.174 8.308 4.961 13.269 2013 8.838 5.342 14.180 8.997 5.427 14.424 9.107 5.502 14.609 2014 9.549 5.820 15.370 9.809 5.971 15.780 9.981 6.093 16.073 2015 10.308 6.328 16.636 10.689 6.563 17.252 10.937 6.736 17.673 2016 11.099 6.866 17.965 11.644 7.206 18.851 11.984 7.439 19.423 2017 11.904 7.388 19.293 12.603 7.876 20.478 13.033 8.195 21.228 2018 12.761 7.939 20.701 13.614 8.569 22.183 14.161 9.007 23.168 2019 13.673 8.521 22.194 14.680 9.287 23.967 15.375 9.880 25.255 2020 14.585 9.079 23.664 15.727 10.002 25.729 16.603 10.756 27.359 2021 15.527 9.665 25.191 16.790 10.697 27.487 17.883 11.694 29.577 2022 16.524 10.280 26.804 17.918 11.430 29.349 19.252 12.697 31.949 2023 17.582 10.925 28.508 19.117 12.204 31.321 20.716 13.770 34.486 2024 18.704 11.604 30.307 20.390 13.020 33.411 22.282 14.919 37.201 2025 19.894 12.316 32.209 21.682 13.803 35.485 23.958 16.147 40.106 2026 21.014 12.988 34.003 23.053 14.625 37.678 25.678 17.368 43.046 2027 22.195 13.691 35.887 24.506 15.488 39.994 27.513 18.669 46.182 2028 23.439 14.426 37.865 26.049 16.394 42.443 29.472 20.053 49.525 2029 24.750 15.194 39.944 27.686 17.346 45.031 31.563 21.528 53.091 2030 26.132 15.996 42.128 29.423 18.345 47.768 33.790 23.099 56.889Average Annual Growth Rate2009-15 8,8% 14,7% 10,8% 9,5% 15,4% 11,5% 9,9% 15,9% 12,0%2015-20 7,2% 7,5% 7,3% 8,0% 8,8% 8,3% 8,7% 9,8% 9,1%2020-30 6,0% 5,8% 5,9% 6,5% 6,3% 6,4% 7,4% 7,9% 7,6%Source: Nathan Associates Inc. 55
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 4-6 Forecast of Indonesian Total Container Traffic under Alternative GrowthScenarios, 2015-2030 (000’s TEU) 60,000 Low Growth 000s TEUs Base Case 50,000 High Growth 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 - 2015 2020 2025 2030 YearFigure 4-7 presents the forecast of total Indonesian traffic by cargo type for the threescenarios. Total traffic is forecast to reach 2.7 billion tons by 2030 for the High GrowthScenario as compared to 2.1 billion tons in the Base Case Scenario and 1.8 billion tonsin the Low Growth Scenario.Figure 4-7 Forecast of Total Indonesian Port Traffic by Cargo Type Under AlternativeGrowth Scenarios, 2015-2030 (000’s tons) 56
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 4-12 and Table 4-13 provide further detail regarding the alternative traffic forecast by cargo type for the High Growth Scenario and Low Growth Scenario, respectively. Table 4-12 High Growth Scenario Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 (000’s tons) 2009 2015 2020 2030 Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of TradeType of cargo Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic TotalGeneral Cargo 32,840 110,859 143,699 40,369 152,858 193,226 46,799 190,488 237,287 59,906 268,703 328,609Container 61,000 27,223 88,222 109,370 67,360 176,730 166,030 107,560 273,590 337,900 230,990 568,890Dry Bulk 312,852 255,914 568,766 503,082 346,293 849,375 575,209 449,686 1,024,895 758,098 634,983 1,393,081 Cement 144 14,941 15,085 6,706 22,676 29,382 9,188 30,345 39,533 15,694 53,327 69,021 Coal 279,303 139,349 418,652 314,541 203,330 517,871 330,586 272,101 602,687 365,172 365,681 730,854 Iron Ore 10,531 91 10,623 151,783 400 152,184 198,375 1,000 199,375 323,131 2,479 325,611 Fertilizer 5,162 30,665 35,828 7,532 41,095 48,627 9,845 52,448 62,293 16,036 85,433 101,468 Grain 3,832 2,343 6,175 4,444 2,717 7,161 4,907 3,000 7,907 5,981 3,657 9,638 Other Dry Bulk 13,879 60,124 74,003 18,075 76,076 94,150 22,309 90,791 113,101 32,083 124,406 156,489Liquid Bulk 136,723 39,349 176,072 184,105 55,769 239,873 231,466 74,563 306,029 360,024 121,407 481,430 Petroleum & Products 91,110 385 91,495 122,097 516 122,612 152,155 643 152,797 236,291 998 237,290 CPO 22,438 38,485 60,923 31,829 54,592 86,421 42,594 73,057 115,651 69,381 119,002 188,383 Other Liquid Bulk 23,175 479 23,654 30,179 661 30,840 36,718 863 37,581 54,352 1,406 55,758Total 543,415 433,346 976,761 836,925 622,280 1,459,205 1,019,504 822,298 1,841,802 1,515,928 1,256,082 2,772,010Average annual growth rate (%)General Cargo - - - 3.5 5.5 5.1 3.0 4.5 4.2 2.5 3.5 3.3Container - - - 10.2 16.3 12.3 8.7 9.8 9.1 7.4 7.9 7.6Dry Bulk - - - 8.2 5.2 6.9 2.7 5.4 3.8 2.8 3.5 3.1 Cement - - - 89.7 7.2 11.8 6.5 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.7 Coal - - - 2.0 6.5 3.6 1.0 6.0 3.1 1.0 3.0 1.9 Iron Ore - - - 56.0 27.9 55.8 5.5 20.1 5.6 5.0 9.5 5.0 Fertilizer - - - 6.5 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 Grain - - - 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Other Dry Bulk - - - 4.5 4.0 4.1 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.2 3.3Liquid Bulk - - - Petroleum & Products - - - 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 CPO - - - 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 Other Liquid Bulk - - - 4.5 5.5 4.5 4.0 5.5 4.0 4.0 5.0 4.0Total - - - 7.5 6.2 6.9 4.0 5.7 4.8 4.0 4.3 4.2Source: Prepared by Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 57
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 4-13 Low Growth Scenario Forecast of Total Cargo Handled at Indonesian Ports, 2009-2030 (000’s tons) 2009 2015 2020 2030 Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of Trade Type of TradeType of cargo Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic Total Foreign Domestic TotalGeneral Cargo 32,840 110,859 143,699 36,983 140,272 177,256 40,434 166,600 207,033 46,009 203,084 249,092Container 61,000 27,223 88,222 103,080 63,280 166,360 145,850 90,790 236,640 261,320 159,960 421,280Dry Bulk 312,852 255,914 568,766 289,314 314,218 603,532 261,307 385,699 647,005 217,576 545,654 763,230 Cement 144 14,941 15,085 182 19,458 19,640 227 24,248 24,475 352 37,656 38,008 Coal 279,303 139,349 418,652 247,419 181,468 428,887 212,467 231,605 444,072 156,678 342,832 499,510 Iron Ore 10,531 91 10,623 13,714 123 13,837 16,288 156 16,445 19,855 267 20,123 Fertilizer 5,162 30,665 35,828 6,723 38,802 45,524 8,101 46,084 54,185 11,427 63,146 74,573 Grain 3,832 2,343 6,175 4,215 2,577 6,792 4,541 2,776 7,317 5,270 3,222 8,492 Other Dry Bulk 13,879 60,124 74,003 17,061 71,791 88,852 19,683 80,829 100,512 23,993 98,530 122,524Liquid Bulk 136,723 39,349 176,072 172,491 50,354 222,846 206,052 59,813 265,866 284,072 80,423 364,496 Petroleum & Products 91,110 385 91,495 115,284 487 115,771 138,917 587 139,504 195,956 828 196,784 CPO 22,438 38,485 60,923 28,720 49,261 77,981 34,111 58,507 92,617 45,842 78,628 124,470 Other Liquid Bulk 23,175 479 23,654 28,488 606 29,094 33,025 720 33,745 42,275 968 43,242Total 543,415 433,346 976,761 601,869 568,125 1,169,994 653,643 702,902 1,356,544 808,977 989,121 1,798,098Average annual growth rate (%)General Cargo - - - 2.0 4.0 3.6 1.8 3.5 3.2 1.3 2.0 1.9Container - - - 9.1 15.1 11.2 7.2 7.5 7.3 6.0 5.8 5.9Dry Bulk - - - (1.3) 3.5 1.0 (2.0) 4.2 1.4 (1.8) 3.5 1.7 Cement - - - 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 Coal - - - (2.0) 4.5 0.4 (3.0) 5.0 0.7 (3.0) 4.0 1.2 Iron Ore - - - 4.5 5.0 4.5 3.5 5.0 3.5 2.0 5.5 2.0 Fertilizer - - - 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.2 Grain - - - 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Other Dry Bulk - - - 3.5 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.4 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0Liquid Bulk - - - Petroleum & Products - - - 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5 CPO - - - 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 Other Liquid Bulk - - - 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5Total - - - 1.7 4.6 3.1 1.7 4.3 3.0 2.2 3.5 2.9 4.5 Implications of Indonesian Port Traffic Forecast for 2009-2030 The Indonesian port traffic forecast presented in this report has a number of key implications that need to be considered for the future development of the national port system. These include:  By 2020 Indonesia container traffic will be more than double 2009 volumes and will double again by 2030.  New and expanded container terminals are urgently required in many locations.  Increased container volumes will likely lead to a need for new container hub ports such as in Kuala Tanjung and bulk facilities at Balikpapan/ Maloy5. Feasibility of development of a new container hub ports needs further study. 5 These container hub ports will more likely serve as domestic container distribution centers to other Indonesian ports, rather than handle international transshipment containers. 58
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE  Slower growth of dry and liquid bulk traffic means that total cargo tonnage will only increase by 50 percent by 2020 and another 50 percent by 2030.  Additional bulk port capacity will be needed in some locations and may be undertaken by the private sector.The high rates of forecast traffic growth should serve as an important opportunity forIndonesia to expand and modernize it ports system to meet the coming demand and toenhance competitiveness with other nations and regions. 59
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 5. Port Location and Development PlanThis chapter presents the investment requirements prepared for Indonesian portsystem through 2030. It builds upon the information on historic port traffic andoperational performance presented in Chapter 3 and the projections of port trafficthrough 2030 presented in Chapter 4.5.1 Approach and MethodologyThe approach of estimating Indonesia’s port sector investment requirements through2030 using the most rigorous methodology feasible taking into account the quantityand accuracy of data, port master planning and investment prioritization assignments.Identification of port development requirement, first of all, will be based on portcapacity aassessment approach. Because of port demand projection in national level,the port capacity approach is lack of detailed development scheme in individual portlevel. Therefore, it will be adopted also port development program proposed byPelindo as main port operator in Indonesia, as far as the projects are still in line withthe government policy. The identification of port development requirement willtherefore follow development scenario approach based on government policy.The government policy which will be considered are: (a) Prioritized Actions forConnectivity and Port Infrastructure Development to Support the Program of IndonesiaEconomic Corridor 2030, (b) Blueprint of Multimodal Transport/ IntermodalTransportation to support National Logistic System, (c) Strategic port developmenttarget, such as promoting international hub port6 (in Kuala Tanjung, Batam, Bitung orSorong ), national heritage port and maritime centre (Sunda Kelapa) and tourism port(Benoa Bali) and terminal passenger/ cruise ship in Tanah Ampo Bali.The methodology employed consisted of the following steps listed in Figure 5-1.5.2 Port Facilities and Capacity AssessmentIn this section, we present an analysis of the capacity of existing facilities at Indonesia’smain ports and a comparison of estimated capacity with forecasted traffic through2030. Physical requirements for additional port facilities are identified and thecorresponding investment requirements are estimated.6 Subject to further feasibility studies 60
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-1 Investment Requirement MethodologyStep 1 Collect and analyze information on existing and planned port facilities, and separate terminalStep 2 Review cargo handling productivity and estimate terminal capacity, and compare with existing throughput (calculate capacity utilization)Step 3 Identify potential for productivity improvements over time due to improved operations and more and higher capacity equipments, and recalculate terminal capacity based on assumed productivity increases.Step 4 Estimate additional facilities based on projected port demand and recalculated port capacity.Step 5 Identification of port development requirement, by combining the estimation additional port facilities based on capacity approach, and the port development scenario proposed by port operator, and accommodating the action plan specified on Sislognas blueprint and MP3EI document.Step 6 Estimate investment required for identified port development (in specific development phase), using unit cost for construction of main port facilities or unit cost based port capacity. Allocate also investment requirement for other small ports.Step 7 Estimate indicative funding requirement, by identify potential for private sector investment (i.e. commercial terminal) and requirement for public investment (other terminal, basic infrastructures, lands)As described in Chapter 4, international and domestic container traffic is projected toexperience the highest rate of growth during the forecast period through 2030. Assuch, the principal focus of this chapter is on assessing the investment requirementsfor expanded and new container facilities. However, in order to have a completeprofile of Indonesia’s port sector investment requirements, the; requirements for CPO,petroleum and other cargoes are summarized incorporated from the DWA analysispresented in IndII 2010 Technical Report on the Development of the National PortMaster Plan.5.2.1 Container and General Cargo Port FacilitiesThe NPMP Revision Team collected information on container and general cargo portfacilities from several sources. The primary source was an inventory of port facilitiesprovided by DGST, organized by region and province. This inventory included currentdata on berth length and depth for each port and specific facilities within the port.Other information was obtained from a 2006 compendium of information onIndonesia’s main ports and summaries for 26 ports presented by DWA in the 2010 IndIITechnical Report on the Development of the National Port Master Plan.We compiled and compared information on general cargo and container terminal berthlength and depth; however, information on depth did not appear up-to-date oraccurate and was not used in the analysis. 61
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 5-1 presents information collected on container and general cargo facilities at 22main Indonesian container ports. The ports are grouped by region that corresponds toeconomic development corridors used in the MP3EI.Table 5-1 Container and General Cargo Berth Facilities at Selected Indonesian Ports,2011 (meters) Container General CargoRegion and port TPK Conventional Total Container Conventional TotalNorth SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 850 242 2,180 3,272Teluk Bayur 222 - 838 1,060Pekanbaru - 181 181 362Batam - 428 1,714 2,142West KalimantanPontianak 405 - 422 827South SumateraPalembang 266 - 475 741Panjang 848 532 1,380Jambi - 88 350 438East-South KalimantanBalikpapan - 98 491 589Samarinda - 234 703 937Banjarmasin 240 - 625 865South SulawesiMakassar 850 210 735 1,795JavaTg. Perak 1,870 235 7,281 9,385Tg. Emas 495 494 577 1,566Tg. Priok 3,308 800 5,845 9,953Bali- NTBenoa - 41 206 247The EastBitung 225 - 1,187 1,412Jayapura - 86 128 214Merauke - 102 152 254Ambon - 58 851 909Pantoloan - 30 573 603Sorong - 85 226 310Total above ports 9,579 3,411 26,272 39,261Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 62
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEThere are 11 Indonesian ports that have specialized container terminals with totalberth length of 9.6 km. Another 3.4 km of conventional berths are estimated to beused at the main Indonesian container ports listed in Table 5-2. Those ports also haveconventional berths for general cargo that total 26.3 km.Tanjung Priok has the most berth facilities dedicated to container operations at 3,308m followed by Tanjung Perak at 1,870 m. The ports of Belawan, Makassar and Panjangeach have approximately 860 m of berths of specialized container terminals.These 22 ports handled 8.7 million TEU in 2009 or 98 percent of Indonesia’s totalcontainer traffic. The location of each port and the container traffic volumes for 2009and forecast through 2030 is presented graphically in Figure 5-2. The forecast ofgeneral cargo and container traffic from 2009 to 2030 is also shown in Table 5-2.Table 5-2 General Cargo and Container Traffic Forecast at Main Indonesian ContainerPorts, 2009-2030 (Base Scenario) GenCar (000 tons) Container (000 TEU)Region and port 2009 2015 2020 2030 2009 2015 2020 2030North SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 4,062.8 5,309.0 6,334.4 8,288.4 888.4 1,737.3 2,591.0 4,810.4Teluk Bayur 927.4 1,211.8 1,445.9 1,891.9 42.1 82.3 122.7 227.7Pekanbaru 229.7 300.2 358.2 468.7 73.1 143.0 213.3 396.0Batam 2,305.8 3,013.0 3,594.9 4,703.9 104.2 203.7 303.8 564.0West KalimantanPontianak 338.8 442.7 528.2 691.1 99.2 194.1 289.4 537.4South SumateraPalembang 296.1 386.9 461.7 604.1 62.0 121.2 180.8 335.7Panjang 760.4 993.7 1,185.6 1,551.3 301.7 590.0 880.0 1,633.7Jambi 140.8 183.9 219.5 287.2 32.0 62.5 93.2 173.0East-South KalimantanBalikpapan 924.7 1,208.3 1,441.7 1,886.4 38.1 74.5 111.1 206.2Samarinda 639.0 835.0 996.3 1,303.7 95.0 185.9 277.2 514.6Banjarmasin 809.4 1,057.6 1,261.9 1,651.2 118.0 230.8 344.1 638.9South SulawesiMakassar 1,166.1 1,523.8 1,818.1 2,379.0 456.2 892.0 1,330.4 2,469.9JavaTg. Perak 3,763.7 4,918.1 5,867.9 7,678.1 1,744.3 3,411.1 5,087.2 9,444.7Tg. Emas 703.9 919.8 1,097.4 1,436.0 575.2 1,124.9 1,677.6 3,114.6Tg. Priok 6,686.0 8,736.7 10,424.1 13,639.8 3,922.8 7,671.0 11,440.4 21,239.9Bali- NTBenoa 10.0 13.0 15.6 20.3 5.7 11.2 16.7 31.0The EastBitung 1,043.2 1,363.1 1,626.5 2,128.3 62.6 122.3 182.5 338.8Jayapura 63.7 83.3 99.4 130.0 27.8 54.4 81.1 150.5Merauke 100.8 131.7 157.2 205.7 10.1 19.8 29.5 54.8Ambon 307.4 401.6 479.2 627.8 15.2 29.8 44.4 82.5Pantoloan 10.9 14.3 17.0 22.3 3.4 6.6 9.9 18.4Sorong 319.3 417.3 497.8 651.4 22.0 42.9 64.0 118.9Total above ports 25,610 33,465 39,929 52,247 8,699 17,011 25,370 47,102Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 63
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-2 Location and Forecasted Container Traffic at Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2009-2030 (TEU) 64
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEPort Productivity FactorsThe common methodology for calculating capacity of container terminals is based onseparating the terminals into its main components, calculating the capacities of each,and identifying the most constraining one as that of the entire terminals. Typically, themain terminal components include:  Berth (Pier, Dock) – where ships are moored and shore cranes transfer containers between ship-board and shore (first point of rest);  Container Yard (container yard)– where containers are transported to/from ship-side are temporary stored and trucks and railcars are loaded/unloaded; and  Gate – where containers, trucks and railcars are processed underway to/from the terminal, including pre-gate parking for trucks.Sometimes the list above is expanded to include three additional components outsidethe terminal: the access channel and turning basin on the water side, and the road andrail connections to the hinterland on the land side.The capacity of the container terminal is determined by its most restricted component(“bottleneck”). In most port areas worldwide, there is acute shortage of waterfrontarea. Hence, the container yard, which typically consumes about 70 – 80 percent ofthe waterfront area, is the most restricting component and the determiningcomponent of the overall terminal capacity. The gate usually does not restrict capacitysince it consumes relatively small land area. Also, in some cases, the gate and the pre-gate parking area can be located away from the waterfront area where there is plentyof land. The berth, despite being the most expensive terminal component, usually hasa much larger capacity than the yard.Berth capacity is a function of berth productivity and the time that the berth isexpected to operate at this level of productivity. This time is also measured as apercentage of the available (usually calendar) time and therefore defined as berthutilization. Berth productivity, in turn, is a function of crane productivity and theaverage number of cranes that can serve this berth.Terminal capacity is simply the product of berth capacity multiplied by the number ofberths. The key factor in the above formula is berth utilization. Defining this utilizationlevel is based on a trade-off between ship and terminal time (who waits for whom).This trade-off is often analyzed using a queuing simulation model whereby the waitingtime is defined as a fraction of the working time (e.g., 10 percent), or as an absolutevalue (e.g., 4 hours).The concept of capacity is closely related with the concepts of productivity andutilization. Operating the same terminal at higher crane productivity would result in ahigher capacity. This can be seen from the formula above whereby increase in craneproductivity results in a higher berth capacity (and vice-versa) without increasing thenumber of berths or cranes. This is not the case with utilization, however. Increasing 65
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEutilization beyond a certain level, whether of the berth or the yard, usually results incongestion and lower operational performance and level of service to terminal users.This in turn would result in increasing the waiting times of ships and trucks along withoverall system cost.Table 5-3 presents an outlook for berth capacity indicators developed by NathanAssociates Inc. taking into account industry trends and expected developments forcontainer ports worldwide.Table 5-3 Container Terminal Berth Capacity Indicators, 2009-2025 Berth Depth Berths Design Berth Berth-m Length Alongside per Ship Capacity CapacityYear Type of Berth (m) (m) Terminal (TEU) (TEU/ Berth) (TEU/m)2009 Multipurpose 150 10-11 2 1,000 100,000 6672009 Sub Panamax 250 12 3 3,000 350,000 1,4002012 Panamax 280 14 3 4,500 450,000 1,6072012 Panamax 280 14 4 4,500 495,000 1,7682014 Post Panamax I 300 15 3 5,700 500,000 1,6672014 Post Panamax I 300 15 4 5,700 550,000 1,8332017 Post Panamax II 350 16 4 8,000 700,000 2,0002025 Post Panamax III 400 16-18 4 12,000 1,000,000 2,500Source: Nathan Associates Inc.For this report, the approach used to estimate port capacity for this report is based onan overall factor for throughput per meter of berth. The productivity factor is affectedby a number of variables, including:  Volume of containers or general cargo handled;  Composition of traffic between international and domestic trades;  Size and type of vessels served;  Adequacy of space available in container yard or dock area/ storage facilities;  Capacity and quantity of cranes and other handling equipment;  Training and operational performance of operators;  Traffic flow and level of congestion in and near port;  Hours worked;  Increased use of 40-foot containers.It is not possible to account for the variability of all of these factors for all of the portsassessed in this report. However, from observations of port the performance inIndonesia and elsewhere, the overall productivity of ports often falls into discretecategories based on the size and type of the terminals analyzed. This is because often anumber of the above factors are inter-related and mutually supporting. For examplethe greater volume of traffic and the larger vessels will tend to call at ports that arecapable of accommodating them. Thus the type and quantity of cranes and other cargohandling equipment is correlated to the type and size of terminal. Similarly, the training 66
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEand operating performance of port operators is frequently correlated to the volume ofport traffic.The productivity factors presented in Table 5-4 are based on experience in Indonesia asdeveloped from the following sources:  DWA, 2010 IndII Technical Report on the Development of the National Port Master Plan;  JICA, Study on the Development of Domestic Sea Transportation and Maritime Industry in the Republic of Indonesia (STRAMINDO), March 2004;  Nathan Associates experience in Indonesia and other similar ports worldwide.The resulting productivity factors were calibrated with actual 2009 port throughputs toreflect the level of port utilization for various types and sizes of Indonesian ports.Table 5-4 Assumed Indonesian Port Productivity Factors by Type of Facility, 2009-2030Type of cargo and terminal 2009 2015 2020 2030Containers (TEU/ m of berth)Specialized Terminal Tanjung Priok 1,250 1,625 2,031 2,031 Other ports over 750,000 TEU 1,000 1,300 1,625 1,625 Other ports 300,000-750,000 TEU 750 975 1,219 1,219 Other ports under 300,000 TEU 650 845 1,056 1,056Conventional Terminal 500 650 813 813General cargo (tons/ m of berth) 1,800 2,520 3,528 4,939Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text.We have incorporated improvements in the productivity factors over time. This is toreflect:  projected increases in traffic volumes;  increased vessel sizes;  provision of higher capacity cranes and more overall cargo-handling equipment;  improved training and performance of operators.Container productivity is assumed to improve by 30 percent between 2009 and 2015and another 25 percent between 2015and 2020. General cargo productivity is assumedto increase by 40 percent during each of the periods shown from 2009 through 2030.This is due to factors cited above, plus the greater use of unitized or palletized cargohandling in place of individual bags for break-bulk cargo. Even still, the rate of generalcargo handling per meter of berth is only 4.9 thousand tons in 2030, as compared tothe handling of containerized cargo at conventional terminals of 8.1 thousand tons permeter of berth (assuming an average of 10 tons per TEU). Cargo at a specializedcontainer terminal has an assumed productivity in 2030 of over 20 thousand tons permeter of berth. 67
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEContainer Capacity and Requirements for Additional CapacityWe have applied the port productivity factors described in the section above to theestimates of existing meters of berth by type at each of the 22 main container ports.The results are presented in Table 5-5.The analysis indicates that many of Indonesia’s main port are approaching the limits oftheir effective capacity given current productivity factors. For containers, the ports ofBelawan, Tanjung Emas, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok are each operating at around 90percent of effective capacity, while the ports of Pekanbaru and Samarinda, are eachoperating at around 80 percent of effective capacity.With the exceptions of Balikpapan and Belawan, general cargo operations generallyhave sufficient or excess capacity.Table 5-5 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2009 Container General Cargo TPK Conventional Total Container ConventionalRegion and port Length TEU/ m Capacity Length TEU/ m Capacity Total Capacity Length Tons/ m Capacity Capacity (000 teu) (000 teu) Capacity Utiliz. % (000 tons) Utiliz. % (000 teu)North SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 850 1,000 850 242 500 121 971 91% 2,180 1,800 3,924 104%Teluk Bayur 222 650 144 - 500 - 144 29% 838 1,800 1,508 61%Pekanbaru - 650 - 181 500 91 91 81% 181 1,800 326 71%Batam - 650 - 428 500 214 214 49% 1,714 1,800 3,084 75%West KalimantanPontianak 405 650 263 - 500 - 263 38% 422 1,800 760 45%South SumateraPalembang 266 650 173 - 500 - 173 36% 475 1,800 855 35%Panjang 848 650 551 500 - 551 55% 532 1,800 958 79%Jambi - 650 - 88 500 44 44 73% 350 1,800 631 22%East-South Kalimantan 650 500 1,800Balikpapan - 650 - 98 500 49 49 78% 491 1,800 884 105%Samarinda - 650 - 234 500 117 117 81% 703 1,800 1,265 51%Banjarmasin 240 650 156 - 500 - 156 76% 625 1,800 1,125 72%South SulawesiMakassar 850 750 638 210 500 105 743 61% 735 1,800 1,323 88%JavaTg. Perak 1,870 1,000 1,870 235 500 117 1,987 88% 7,281 1,800 13,105 29%Tg. Emas 495 750 371 494 500 247 618 93% 577 1,800 1,038 68%Tg. Priok 3,308 1,250 4,135 800 500 400 4,535 87% 5,845 1,800 10,521 64%Bali- NTBenoa - 650 - 41 500 21 21 28% 206 1,800 371 3%The East 650 500 1,800Bitung 225 650 146 - 500 - 146 43% 1,187 1,800 2,137 49%Jayapura - 650 - 86 500 43 43 65% 128 1,800 231 28%Merauke - 650 - 102 500 51 51 20% 152 1,800 274 37%Ambon - 650 - 58 500 29 29 53% 851 1,800 1,533 20%Pantoloan - 650 - 30 500 15 15 23% 573 1,800 1,031 1%Sorong - 650 - 85 500 42 42 52% 226 1,800 406 79%Total above ports 9,579 971 9,298 3,411 500 1,705 11,003 79% 26,272 1,800 47,289 54%Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 68
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETables 5-6 through 5-8 present the capacity analysis for the main Indonesian containerports for 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. By 2015, the growth in forecastedcontainer traffic results seven Indonesian port requiring additional capacity.The largest increase is needed for Tanjung Priok that will need to increase capacity by1.8 million TEU and Tanjung Perak that will need to add 0.8 million TEU of capacity 7.Belawan/Kuala Tanjung will also require a substantial capacity increase of 0.4 millionTEU. In terms of meters of berth, Tanjung Priok will require an additional 1,200 m;Tanjung Perak, 800 m; and Belawan/Kuala Tanjung 400 m8.The ports of Tanjung Emas, Banjarmasin and Pekanbaru will also need to add containercapacity in 2015; however, it seems likely that this could be accomplished byconverting some under-utilized conventional general cargo berths for containeroperations. This is typically done by demolishing warehouses and sheds on the quay,strengthening the quay for mobile cranes and adding ancillary container handlingequipment. It should be noted, that for this report, an engineering assessment of thefeasibility of converting general cargo berths for container operations has not beenconducted.The capacity analysis for 2020 shown in Table 3-7 assumes that the additional capacityneeded for 2015 had been provided. It then shows that with the continued robustgrowth of container traffic, six ports again will need to expand container capacity tomeet demand. As in 2015, the ports of Tanjung Priok, Tanjung Perak, Belawan/KualaTanjung and Tanjung Emas will need to bring on-line new container berths. In addition,the ports of Pekanbaru and Balikpapan will each now need to add a new berth of a tleast 200 m.By 2030, 16 of Indonesian main container ports will need to provide additionalcapacity. This includes accommodation for 9.4 million TEU at Tanjung Priok, 4.3 millionTEU at Tanjung Perak 1.9 million TEU at Belawan/Kuala Tanjung and 0.9 million TEU atMakassar.7 While the names of the existing ports are used to identify the areas where additional container capacity is needed, the capacity may well be provided by the development and construction of a new port in the area. However, the location of new ports will be determined by a masterplan study that looks at several alternatives. Master plan studies for specific ports arebeyond the scope of this present study.8 While the requirements for capacity expansion are expressed here in terms of meters of berth, there will also need to be additional yard capacity and cargo handling equipment provided. These elements are included in the unit investment costs presented later in this chapter. 69
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 5-6 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2015 Container General Cargo Additional TPK Conventional Total Cont. Conventional Cont. CapacityRegion and port Length TEU/ m Capacity Length TEU/ Capacity Total Capacity Capacity Length Tons/ Capacity Capacity TEU Berth (000 teu) m (000 teu) (000 teu) Utiliz. % m (000 tons) Utiliz. % (000s) (m)North SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 850 1300 1,105 242 650 157 1,262 138% 2,180 2,520 5,493 97% 475 400Teluk Bayur 222 845 188 - 650 - 188 44% 838 2,520 2,112 57% - -Pekanbaru - 845 - 217 650 141 141 101% 145 2,520 365 82% 2 36Batam 845 - 428 650 278 278 73% 1,714 2,520 4,318 70% - -West KalimantanPontianak 405 845 342 - 650 - 342 57% 422 2,520 1,063 42% - -South SumateraPalembang 266 845 225 - 650 - 225 54% 475 2,520 1,197 32% - -Panjang 848 975 827 - 650 - 827 71% 532 2,520 1,341 74% - -Jambi - 845 - 88 650 57 57 110% 350 2,520 883 21% 6 -East-South Kalimantan 845 650 2,520Balikpapan - 845 - 98 650 64 64 117% 491 2,520 1,238 98% 11 -Samarinda - 845 - 234 650 152 152 122% 703 2,520 1,771 47% 34 200Banjarmasin 240 845 203 156 650 102 304 76% 469 2,520 1,181 90% - 156South SulawesiMakassar 850 1300 1,105 210 650 137 1,242 72% 735 2,520 1,852 82% - -JavaTg. Perak 1,870 1300 2,431 235 650 152 2,583 132% 7,281 2,520 18,347 27% 828 800Tg. Emas 495 1300 644 687 650 446 1,090 103% 384 2,520 969 95% 35 192Tg. Priok 3,308 1625 5,376 800 650 520 5,896 130% 5,845 2,520 14,729 59% 1,776 1,200Bali- NTBenoa - 845 - 41 650 27 27 42% 206 2,520 519 3% - -The East 845 650 2,520Bitung 225 845 190 - 650 - 190 64% 1,187 2,520 2,991 46% - -Jayapura - 845 - 86 650 56 56 98% 128 2,520 324 26% - -Merauke - 845 - 102 650 66 66 30% 152 2,520 384 34% - -Ambon - 845 - 58 650 37 37 80% 851 2,520 2,146 19% - -Pantoloan - 845 - 30 650 20 20 34% 573 2,520 1,444 1% - -Sorong - 845 - 85 650 55 55 78% 197 2,520 497 84% - -Total above ports 3,165 2,985Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 70
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 5-7 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2020 Container General Cargo Additional Cont. TPK Conventional Total Cont. Conventional CapacityRegion and port Length TEU/ m Capacity Length TEU/ m Capacity Total Capacity Length Tons/ m Capacity Capacity TEU Berth (000 teu) (000 teu) Capacity Utiliz. % (000 tons) Utiliz. % (000s) (m) (000 teu)North SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 1,250 1,625 2,031 242 813 197 2,228 116% 2,180 3,528 7,690 82% 363 400Teluk Bayur 222 1,056 234 - 813 - 234 52% 838 3,528 2,956 49% - -Pekanbaru - 1,056 - 217 813 176 176 121% 145 3,528 511 70% 37 200Batam - 1,056 - 428 813 348 348 87% 1,714 3,528 6,046 59% - -West KalimantanPontianak 405 1,056 428 - 813 - 428 68% 422 3,528 1,489 35% - -South SumateraPalembang 266 1,056 281 - 813 - 281 64% 475 3,528 1,676 28% - -Panjang 848 1,625 1,378 - 813 - 1,378 64% 532 3,528 1,877 63% - -Jambi - 1,056 - 88 813 71 71 131% 350 3,528 1,236 18% 22 -East-South Kalimantan 1,056 813 3,528Balikpapan - 1,056 - 98 813 79 79 140% 491 3,528 1,733 83% 32 200Samarinda 200 1,056 211 234 813 190 402 69% 703 3,528 2,479 40% - -Banjarmasin 240 1,056 254 156 813 127 380 90% 469 3,528 1,654 76% - -South SulawesiMakassar 850 1,625 1,381 210 813 171 1,552 86% 735 3,528 2,593 70% - -JavaTg. Perak 2,670 1,625 4,339 235 813 191 4,529 112% 7,281 3,528 25,686 23% 558 400Tg. Emas 495 1,625 804 687 813 558 1,362 123% 384 3,528 1,356 81% 315 200Tg. Priok 4,508 2,031 9,157 800 813 650 9,807 117% 5,845 3,528 20,621 51% 1,634 1,000Bali- NTBenoa - 1,056 - 41 813 33 33 50% 206 3,528 727 2% - -The East 1,056 813 3,528Bitung 225 1,056 238 - 813 - 238 77% 1,187 3,528 4,188 39% - -Jayapura - 1,056 - 86 813 70 70 117% 128 3,528 453 22% 12 -Merauke - 1,056 - 102 813 83 83 36% 152 3,528 538 29% - -Ambon - 1,056 - 58 813 47 47 95% 851 3,528 3,004 16% - -Pantoloan - 1,056 - 30 813 24 24 40% 573 3,528 2,021 1% - -Sorong - 1,056 - 85 813 69 69 93% 197 3,528 696 71% - - 71Total above ports 2,972 2,400Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text.
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Table 5-8 Capacity Analysis for Main Indonesian Container Ports, 2030 Container General Cargo Additional Cont. TPK Conventional Total Cont. Conventional CapacityRegion and port Length TEU/ m Capacity Length TEU/ m Capacity Total Capacity Length Tons/ m Capacity Capacity TEU Berth (000 teu) (000 teu) Capacity Utiliz. % (000 tons) Utiliz. % (000s) (m) (000 teu)North SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung 1,650 1,625 2,681 242 813 197 2,878 167% 2,180 4,939 10,766 77% 1,932 1,200Teluk Bayur 222 1,056 234 - 813 - 234 97% 838 4,939 4,139 46% - -Pekanbaru 200 1,219 244 217 813 176 420 94% 145 4,939 715 66% - -Batam - 1,219 - 428 813 348 348 162% 1,714 4,939 8,464 56% 216 200West KalimantanPontianak 405 1,219 494 - 813 - 494 109% 422 4,939 2,084 33% 44 200South SumateraPalembang 266 1,056 281 - 813 - 281 119% 475 4,939 2,346 26% 55 200Panjang 848 1,625 1,378 - 813 - 1,378 119% 532 4,939 2,628 59% 256 200Jambi - 1,056 - 88 813 71 71 243% 350 4,939 1,731 17% 102 200East-South Kalimantan 1,056 813 4,939Balikpapan 200 1,056 211 98 813 79 291 71% 491 4,939 2,426 78% - -Samarinda 200 1,219 244 234 813 190 434 119% 703 4,939 3,471 38% 81 200Banjarmasin 240 1,219 293 156 813 127 419 152% 469 4,939 2,315 71% 219 200South SulawesiMakassar 850 1,625 1,381 210 813 171 1,552 159% 735 4,939 3,630 66% 918 600JavaTg. Perak 3,070 1,625 4,989 235 813 191 5,179 182% 7,281 4,939 35,960 21% 4,265 2,800Tg. Emas 695 1,625 1,129 687 813 558 1,687 185% 384 4,939 1,899 76% 1,427 1,000Tg. Priok 5,508 2,031 11,188 800 813 650 11,838 179% 5,845 4,939 28,870 47% 9,402 4,800Bali- NTBenoa - 1,056 - 41 813 33 33 93% 206 4,939 1,017 2% - -The East 1,056 813 4,939Bitung 225 1,056 238 - 813 - 238 143% 1,187 4,939 5,863 36% 101 200Jayapura - 1,056 - 86 813 70 70 216% 128 4,939 634 21% 81 200Merauke - 1,056 - 102 813 83 83 66% 152 4,939 753 27% - -Ambon - 1,056 - 58 813 47 47 176% 851 4,939 4,205 15% 36 200Pantoloan - 1,056 - 30 813 24 24 75% 573 4,939 2,829 1% - -Sorong - 1,056 - 85 813 69 69 173% 197 4,939 975 67% 50 200Total above ports 19,185 12,600Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 72
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE5.3 Strategic Port Development Plan Identified by Government and PelindosAs stated in Section 5.2, the identification of port development requirement was initiallybased on an assessment of port capacity relative to forecasted traffic for the largestIndonesian ports. However, an analysis of capicty expansion requirements for all Indonesianports was not possible within the framework of this study. Therefore the port developmentprogram proposed by Pelindo as main port operator in Indonesia also provides an indicationof priority port investments consistent with government strategy.The government strategies which have been considered are:  Prioritized Actions for Connectivity and Port Infrastructure Development to Support the Program of Indonesia Economic Corridor 2030,  Blueprint of Multimodal Transport / Intermodal Transportation to support National Logistic System,  Strategic port development target, such as promoting international hub port (in Kuala Tanjung, Batam, Bitung or Sorong), national heritage port and maritime centre (Sunda Kelapa) and tourism port (Benoa Bali) and terminal passenger/ cruise ship in Tanah Ampo Bali.The location of these strategic ports within the economic development corridors ispresented in Appendix B.Figure 5-3 through 5-8 provides a summary of the port planning parameters and strategiesfor port devlopemts in each of the six economic development corridors through 2030. Thesummary includes forecasts of port traffic by type of cargo, design ships and productivitytargets, strategic investments and key port business enterprises. These planning parametersand strategies were used to identify specific port development requiriements for thestrategic ports.The port development requirements based theseplanning parameters and strategies arepresented in Appendix C for the 100 strategic ports. 73
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-3 Sumatra Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 74
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-4 Java Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 75
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-5 Kalimantan Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 76
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-6 Bali and Nusa Tenggaraa Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 77
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-7 Sulawesi Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 78
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-8 Papua – Kepulauan Maluku Economic Development Corridor: Port Planning Parameters and Strategies through 2030 79
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE5.4 National Port Development PlanThis section describes determination of investment requirements based on portdevelopment plans indicated in Sections 5.2 and 5.3 and unit investment cost as statedbelow.5.4.1 Unit Investment CostsIn this section, we first estimate unit investment costs for container port development andconstruction followed by the presentation of investment requirements by port and timeperiod.For this report, we have adopted the unit costs for container terminal development andconstruction presented in the DWA 2010 IndII Technical Report on the Development of theNational Port Master Plan. For that study, DGST developed rough cost estimates for thedevelopments identified as being required for the major cargoes and ports. Costs wereestimated for each port terminal facility (including directly‐related infrastructure) for eachport and cargo category by developing measures of physical requirements for port terminalfacilities and applying unit construction costs. The unit costs were from the DGST records ofconstruction costs from past projects and were cross‐checked with some international unitcosts from recent projects. The values are presented in constant US dollars of 2010.The differentiation in unit costs for specific ports resulted in the range of unit cost estimatesshown In Table 5-9. As can be seen, the cost of land acquisition varies from a low of US$50,000 per hectare for Pelabuhan Ratu, a small fishing village in West Java, to US$ 500,000per hectare for Tangerang near Jakarta. A major factor is the cost of reclamation that variesfrom US$ 100,000 per hectare in Palembang to US$ 5 million per hectare in Tanjung Perak.Container handling and equipment unit costs shown in Table 5-8 are for a package ofequipment including gantry cranes and associated yard equipment.Table 5-9 Range of Unit Cost Estimates for Container Terminal Development andConstruction (US$ of 2010) No Description Unit Min Max 1 Preparation & Earth Work Land Acquisition Ha 50,000 500,000 Reclamation Ha 100,000 5,000,000 Break Water m 1,000 100,000 Dredging m3 7 8 2 Quay Side Concrete Slab m2 2,500 2,500 Approach Trestle m2 15,000 15,000 Trestle, 1 Unit m2 2,500 2,500 Trestle, 2 Unit m2 1,500 3,000 Trestle, 3 Unit m2 2,500 2,500 Trestle, 4 Unit m2 1,400 1,500 Trestle, 5 Unit m2 1,500 1,500 Jetty/Wharf m2 2,000 5,000 Dolphin m2 3 Storage and Pavement Pavement Ha 500,000 500,000 4 Buildings m2 300 300 5 Handling Equipment unit 8,000,000 16,300,000Total CostSource: IndII, 2010 Technical Report on the Development ofthe National Port Master Plan. 80
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEThe corresponding calculation of total direct unit cost per meter of berth for developmentand construction of container terminals is summarized in Table 5-9. These were calculatedby dividing the total investment cost by the meters of berth constructed. Due to the cost ofland reclamation, the highest total unit cost per meter of berth is at Tanjung Perak at US$872,000 per m followed by Balikpapan at US$ 832,000. Most other ports have total unitinvestment costs in the range of US$ 400,000 to US$ 600,000 per meter of berth. For portsthat did not have specific investment costs estimates, unit costs were used from thereference port as shown in Table 5-10.Table 5-10 Unit Investment Cost for Indonesian Container Terminal Development (US$ 000of 2010) Reference Cost per mRegion and Port port of berthNorth SumateraBelawan/Kuala Tanjung Belawan 546Teluk Bayur Belawan 546Pekanbaru Belawan 546Batam Belawan 546West Kalimantan Belawan 546Pontianak Pontianak 501South SumateraPalembang Palembang 771Panjang Panjang 400Jambi Panjang 400East-South KalimantanBalikpapan Balikpapan 832Samarinda Pontianak 501Banjarmasin Banjarmasin 602South SulawesiMakassar Makasar 499JavaTg. Perak Tg. Perak 872Tg. Emas Tg. Priok 610Tg. Priok Tg. Priok 610Bali- NTBenoa Tg. Perak 872The EastBitung Bitung 656Jayapura Sorong 407Merauke Sorong 407Ambon Ambon 439Pantoloan Bitung 656Sorong Sorong 407Source: Nathan Associates Inc. as described in text. 81
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE5.4.2 Investment RequirementsIn this section, we present a summary of Indonesian port investment requirements for allcargo types through 2030. This is followed by a discussion of short-term improvements thatcan be implemented for Tanjung Priok and Tanjung Perak to relieve near-term capacityconstraints before additional berths and terminals are constructed ad operational.The estimates of container investment requirements are based on those presented inChapter 3, while those for other cargo types are extracted from the DWA, 2010 IndIITechnical Report on the Development of the National Port Master Plan. 9 To determine totalport investment requirement, port development program proposed by Pelindo and thegovernment plan are also considered, which consistent with the government strategy asstated in Section 5.3.Table 5-11 provides the detailed breakdown of the total port investment requirementthrough 2030 by region and port as well as type of cargo. Figure 5-9 depicts the distributionof port sector investment requirements by economic corridor and period, while Figure 5-10shows the distribution of port sector investment requirements by economic corridor andtype of facility.Annex D provides the detailed breakdown of the total port investment requirement through2030 by economic corridor and port as well as type of port facilities. Total investment of US$46,112 billion consist of US$ 12,114 billion (2011-2015), US$ 11.954 billion (2016-2020) andUS$ 22.044 billion (2021-2030).5.5 Port Sector FinancingIt is estimated that about 68 percent of the total investment in new Indonesian port facilitiescould be provided by the private sector under long-term concession arrangements, mainlyfor commercial port terminal such as container terminal, bulk terminal and othercommercial port facilities. The remaining 32 percent of the investment for land provision,common port infrastructure such as channel deepening and breakwaters, provision ofuncommercial port terminal, rehabilitation and development of new small ports, will needto be provided by the public sector. Table 5-12 provides an indication of the amount offunding that may need to be generated by the private and public sectors during the 2011-2030 periods.Indonesia will have to mobilize somewhere between US$ 40-50 billion in port sectorfinancing in order to meet the requirements for developing necessary port capacity through2030. It is clear that the majority of the financing will have to be generated by the privatesector. Public sector investment will need to be targeted towards strategic investment thatcan leverage private sector funding or provide port infrastructure for common use thatshould not be under the control of the private sector, such as port access channels andbreakwaters. In this chapter, we examine options for generating private sector and publicsector financing for port sector development.9 The DWA 2010 IndII Technical Report on Development of the National Port Master Plan added a high contingency allowance of 40 percent on top of the direct investment costs. We have not included this contingency as the unit direct investment cost factors are deemed sufficient for preparation of an order of magnitude estimate of investment requirements. 82
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 5-11 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Port Facility 2011-2030 andTotal 2011-2030 (US$ million, 2011)Note: *) Other terminal: conventional (general cargo) terminal, car terminal, multipurpose terminaland passanger terminal 83
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEFigure 5-9 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Period (US$ million) Note: (US$ Mill.)Figure 5-10 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Type of Port Facility 2011-2030 (US$ million) Note: (US$ Mill.) 84
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 5-12 Indicative Funding Requirements by Private and Public Sector for Developmentof Port Facilities, 2011-2030 Total Government Private No Stage US$ million % US$ million % US$ million % 1 2011-2015 12,114 100 5,148 42.5 6,966 57.5 2 2016-2020 11,954 100 3,303 27.6 8,650 72.4 3 2021-2030 22,044 100 6,161 27.9 15,883 72.1 Total 46,112 100 14,613 31.7 31,499 68.3Note: It is estimated that part of 2011-2015 private sector funding of US$ 12,114 million isfinanced by SOE (Pelindos) which is amount to US$ 3,521 millions.In some developed countries with abundant access to capital financial markets, a highlyprofitable project may have no difficulty attracting private sector investment. In these cases,traditional project financing vehicles such as loan syndications prepared with multi-lateralinvestment bank support may be obtained. Other vehicles include loans from internationalcommercial banks and equity and debt participation by specialized infrastructure investmentfunds.However, in developing markets, attracting private sector financing and investment is oftena critical hurdle to overcome due to perceptions about project, market and country risks,lack of depth of capital markets and competing requirements for scarce project financing.5.5.1. Conditions for Attracting Private Sector Investment in PortsA successful strategy for attracting private sector investment in Indonesian ports depends onan amalgam of general factors which influence the investment environment and specificpolicy, regulatory and institutional measures which governments must implement to providean enabling environment. In this section, we identify attributes that are conducive toattracting private sector investment in ports.Generally, a country’s policy, legal and regulatory framework can be regarded as reflectingbest practice if it meets the following criteria:  A formal private sector investment policy is in place. An approved, documented policy is important in signaling government’s commitment to develop a stable and attractive investment environment. This enhances the interest of potential investors and also influences their perception of risk positively.  Comprehensive enabling laws. Legislation is an important vehicle to translate government’s policy commitments into practice. Generally, countries should adopt a general private sector investment law or sector-specific laws in order to place its investment regime on a sound legal footing. 85
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Clear project identification and preparation procedures. Good project preparation is critical for attracting private sector investment. The law must require a project proposal to be thoroughly screened to verify that it is affordable, represents value for money and is financially- viable. A well prepared project will, in turn, once it is bid, attract the interest of qualified investors with sufficient technical and financial resources to implement a project successfully. Competitive bidding procedures. As a general rule, private sector investment in public ports must be competitively bid to ensure that government derives the full benefit from the competitive process in terms of price, services and quality. Additionally, provision should be made for equal treatment of potential investors, opportunity to challenge rules and bid awards and specific rules on unsolicited proposals. Clear identification of contracting authorities. The law must specifically identify the government entities which are empowered to enter into private sector investment arrangements. Freedom of contract. Legislation should not impose unnecessary restrictions on the ability of the parties to negotiate contractual terms. This is important to allow flexibility in the allocation of risks to ensure a financially efficient approach and secure the best possible value for money for government. Performance monitoring framework. Legislation must establish a clear management and monitoring framework. As many private sector port investments have a lifespan of many years or even decades, it is important that government allocate clear responsibility for monitoring implementation and contract compliance. At the same time, the private investor should be fully aware of the oversight procedures that will apply and of the frequency and nature of its performance monitoring obligations. Statutory authority for tariff collection (and/or payments by government). The ability to collect user charges or fees from port users is critical to the investor’s perception of the financial risks associated with a project (where applicable). The law must, therefore, expressly permit the private investor to collect tariffs (or alternatively, make clear provision for the investor to be reimbursed through payments by government). Clear rules on tariff regulation. Port sector investments can be long term in nature (20 – 30 years). Over this period there will be a need for regular adjustment in the tariffs or charges levied by the private party for the service. While procedures for tariff adjustment can be regulated by contract, the law must provide clear guidelines on how tariffs may be adjusted and what criteria will be applied, as discussed in Chapter 1. Comprehensive regulatory framework for safety and environmental regulation. As private sector investments in ports entail the provision of a public service, it is necessary that the public interest be protected through effective safety and environmental regulation. The private investor must be fully aware of which safety and environmental standards apply and how they will be enforced. Effective protection of investor’s rights. The law must protect the investor against arbitrary government action that may impact revenue flows, restrict access to finance or otherwise or deprive him of the benefit if his investment. This includes a requirement that the parties should be free to agree on appropriate methods of dispute resolution. A country’s membership to MIGA helps to provide such guarantee. Institutional capacity. The identification, preparation, procurement and management of private sector investments require a combination of high-level legal, 86
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE financial and technical skills. The ability of government to manage its program is an important factor influencing investors both in their decisions to invest and in their perception of the project risks. Countries that have established dedicated private sector investment units in order to build capacity have generally been more successful in attracting private investment.  Independent regulation. The law must provide for regulators that are sufficiently autonomous to ensure that regulatory decisions are not influenced by political interference or pressure from interest groups.In the section that follows we examine Indonesia’s legal and regulatory framework that setsthe environment for attracting private sector investment in ports.5.5.2. Indonesia’s Legal Framework for Private Sector Investment in PortsAs Indicated in the Chapter 2, the Law introduces the concept of private sector participation,but fails to give strong direction to ensure a concerted effort in developing time-bound plansto secure greater private investment. PAs (and PMUs) face a particular challenge to developcapacity to implement private investment programs, especially given their limited capacity,uncertainty about the future role of Pelindos, and lack of clarity about their control over portland. Pelindos need to be restructured to assume the role of PBEs, but the Law fails to spellout how this is to be achieved.The investment required for development of new or expanded liquid bulk and dry bulkterminals in Indonesia would typically come from private sector businesses or associationsof companies that seek to handle their own bulk cargo. However, several restrictive andinflexible provisions are likely to discourage private investors from investing in specialterminals. These include:  The short validity period of a special terminal permit. As mentioned in Chapter 2, five years is too short for investors to recover investments of this magnitude, especially given the risk that a permit may not be renewed. This risk is exacerbated by the fact that the legislation does not stipulate the specific grounds permits will not be renewed or provide for a transparent review procedure.  The ban on handling non-proprietary cargoes.  Large up-front investment in planning and preparation costs to obtain a construction license. The potential investor is required to invest in preparing engineering drawings for both land and water side facilities, construction plans, an environmental impact assessment and related documents without any guarantee that the license application will be favorably considered.  Inflexible provisions governing construction. Regulations oblige the special terminal operator to complete construction no longer than one year after the license is issued10. This may well not be feasible in the case of many terminals.  Constraints on operational flexibility. The operator must seek the Minister’s approval to embark on 24 hour operations11.Proprietary cargo handling is authorized for Own Interest Terminals12, but cargo handlingcan be extended to third party cargoes only after obtaining a concession from the Port10 Art 119 (GR 61)11 GR 61 Art 126 87
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAuthority or Port Management Unit.13 But the concession cannot be awarded unless it isshown additional capacity is needed14, among other requirements. However, this avenuecould be a solution to enhancing competition as long as the Law regarding Pelindojurisdiction is clarified.15Certain port facilities such as container terminals that are often situated within a broaderport with other cargo facilities typically have the government providing funding for shareditems such as breakwaters, channel dredging and access, turning basins and road access.Depending on the circumstances, these items may represent 25-30 percent of containerterminal development costs. On the other hand, specialized dry and liquid bulk terminalsmay often be developed separate from other port cargo facilities. As such, the governmentrole may typically be limited to provision of road and land access. Passenger facilities such asa cruise or ferry terminal that serve multiple port users, typically need a greater degree ofpublic sector participation often up to 50 percent of the total investment. As shown in Table8-1, as much as 80 percent of the total port sector investment requirement of US$ 19.2billion may be expected to be provided by the private sector.As long-term investments, private sector participation in port development and constructionrequires access to long-term financing. However, the lack of prior experience and expertiseto assess port infrastructure projects and the maturity mismatch between assets andliabilities hinder Indonesian banks from providing the financing.While foreign port sector investors can get access to long-term financing in the capitalmarkets, it is often difficult for potential Indonesian investors to get long-term financingfrom banks. Recognizing this problem, Indonesia established PT Indonesia InfrastructureFinance (PT IIF), a non-bank financial institution focused on providing long term funding forinfrastructure projects. PT IIF was established on January 15, 2010 by the Ministry ofFinance through PT SMI 16. The purpose of PT IIF is to enhance funding options forinfrastructure projects by providing funding towards commercially feasible, mainly private,infrastructure projects through debt instruments, equity participation or infrastructurefinancing guarantee for credit enhancement. Its financing capacity is supported by equitycommitments of its founding shareholders: PT SMI (Rp600bn); ADB (Rp400bn); IFC(Rp400bn) and DEG (Rp200bn) (a total of US$176mn). The fund may seek more cashinfusions to ramp up its initial capital to Rp 2 trillion (US$220mn) 17.12 GR 61 Art 139(1)13 GR 61 Art 140(1)14 GR 61 Art 140(2)(a)15 The position of the Pelindos on this issue is perhaps characterized by one Pelindo principal’scomment, in referring to the plan for a new terminal, that competition can be accomplished ifterminals compete only on the basis of service, as opposed to both cost and service. In fact,competing on only one or the other does not promote competition and attempts to justify monopolypricing. Additionally, by definition, a monopoly operator has monopoly control over informationprovided to regulators. Applications for tariff increases can be justified on the basis of informationprovided by the operator, but regulators are hard-pressed to determine the accuracy of theinformation provided.16 PT IIF via PERPRES No.9/2009 on Finance Institution and MOF Decree No.100/PMK.010 /2009concerning Infrastructure Finance Company.17 Morgan Stanley, Indonesia Infrastructure, A US$250bn Opportunity, May 2011. 88
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEPT IIF will also receive ADB and World Bank loans, each worth the equivalent of Rp1 trillion(US$110mn). Debt issuance to raise another Rp 2 trillion (US$220mn) is planned. PT IIF canleverage its funding by taking on up to Rp 30 trillion (US$3.3bn) in debt, normally taking a 25percent portion of the total cost for projects 18.In many developed countries, long-term financing can also be provided by the pension andinsurance sectors. As Indonesia continues to develop its capital markets, these sectors mayalso serve as an alternative funding source.Inadequate project preparation has been an impediment for private investors. The ability tohire international consultants for feasibility studies and prepare bidding documents ofinternational standards through a new facility developed by BAPPENAS should help in thisarena. BAPPENAS’ Project Development Facility (PDF) is in operation and has an initialfunding of US$33mn from ADB and the Dutch government. The function of PDF is to conductproject preparation with detailed feasibility studies and internationally recognized biddingdocuments before it is offered to the market. PDF funds project preparation and transactionunder the various government contracting agencies.5.5.3. Framework of Government Support and GuaranteeDue to the budgetary constraints, the interaction between public and private parties isgoverned by three sets of laws and regulations, namely PPP regulations, sector-specificregulations, and other general regulations governing business activities in Indonesia.There are four principal investment policies in this category:a. Government Policies on Infrastructure ProvisionsGovernment aims to concentrate on (i) maintaining and upgrading the existinginfrastructure, (ii) focusing on the development of infrastructure which areeconomically feasible but financially non-viable, (iii) providing subsidies andcompensation for Public Service Obligation (PSO) in infrastructure services, and (iv)fulfilling the financing gap for infrastructure development, GoI will offer PPP Projectsto the market.b. Regulations in the Acceleration of Infrastructure DevelopmentRegulations for the acceleration of infrastructure development are shown in Table 5.13. PPPregulation mainly refers to Presidential Regulation No. 67/2005 concerning theInfrastructure Provision through Public-Private Partnership, as amended by PresidentialRegulations No. 56/2011 and No. 13/2010 which allowed government to providegovernment support and guarantee.In addition, two other regulations on government guarantee refer to Presidential RegulationNo. 78/2010 concerning Infrastructure Guarantee through Infrastructure Guarantee Fundand Ministry of Finance Regulation No. 260/2010 concerning the Implementation ofInfrastructure Guarantee through Infrastructure Guarantee Fund.Further, based on the MoU between Ministry of Finance, Bappenas, and NationalInvestment Agency (BKPM), Ministry of Finance will provide (i) provision of bridging fund18 Ibid. 89
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEthrough the Government Investment Unit (PIP), (ii) guarantee for infrastructure risksthrough the Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund/IIGF (PT Penjaminan InfrastrukturIndonesia/PT PII;, and (iii) project development services through PT Sarana MultiInfrastruktur (PT SMI).Table 5-13 Legal Basis for Private Sector InvestmentNo. PSP / PPP Regulations DescriptionPPP Schemes and Guidelines 1 Presidential Regulation No. 67 Public Private Partnership in Provision of Infrastructure Year 2005 2 Presidential Regulation No. 13 Amendment to Presidential Regulation No. 67 Year 2005 on Year 2010 Public Private Partnership in Provision of Infrastructure 3 Presidential Regulation No. 56 Second Amendment to Presidential Regulation No. 67 Year Year 2011 2005 on Public Private Partnership in Provision of Infrastructure 4 Regulation of Minister of Operating Guidelines Manual for Public and Private National Development Planning Partnership in Provision of Infrastructure / Head of Bappenas No. 4 Year 2010 5 Regulation of Minister of Guidelines for Implementing Public Private Partnership in Transportation No. PM 83 Provision of Transport Infrastructure Tahun 2010Risk Management, Government Support, and Guarantee 6 Regulation of Minister of Implementing Guidelines for Risk Management and Finance 38/PMK.01/2006 Mitigation for Provision of Infrastructure 7 Presidential Regulation No. 78 Infrastructure Guarantee in Public Private Partnership Year 2010 Project under the Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund 8 Regulation of Minister of Guidelines for Implementing Infrastructure Guarantee in Finance No. Public Private Partnership Project 260/PMK.011/2010PPP Book, Organisation, and Procedures9 Regulation of Minister of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Book National Development Planning / Head of Bappenas No. 3 Year 200910 Public Private Partnership Book, Sector of Transportation, 2010-2014, Ministry of Transportation (2010)11 Presidential Regulation No. 42 Committee for Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Year 2005 Provision (KKPPI)12 Presidential Regulation No. 12 Amendment to Presidential Regulation No. 42 Year 2005 on Year 2011 Committee for Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision (KKPPI)13 Regulation of Minister of Organisation and Working Procedures of the Committee of Coordinating Economic Affairs Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision (KKPPI) as Head of the Committee of Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision No. PER-01/M.EKON/05/200614 Regulation of Minister of Procedures and Criteria for Preparation of Priority List of Coordinating Economic Affairs Public Private Partnership (PPP) Infrastructure Project as Head of the Committee of Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision No. 90
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE PER-3/M.EKON/06/200615 Regulation of Minister of Procedures for Evaluation of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Coordinating Economic Affairs in Provision of Infrastructure which Requires Government as Head of the Committee of Support Policy for Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision No. No. PER-4/M.EKON/06/2006Regional Cooperation16 Government Regulation No. 50 Procedures for Implementing Regional Cooperation Year 2007Land Acquisition17 Presidential Regulation No. 36 Land Acquisition for Implementing Development for Public Year 2005 Interest18 Presidential Regulation No. 65 Amendment to Presidential Regulation No. 36/2006 on Land Year 2006 Acquisition for Implementing Development for Public Interest19 Regulation of Head of National Implementing Guidelines for Presidential Regulation No. 36 Land Agency No. 3 Year 2007 Year 2005 on Land Acquisition for Implementing Development for Public Interest (as amended by Presidential Regulation No. 65 Year 2006 on Amendment to Presidential Regulation No. 36 Year 2005 on Land Acquisition for Implementing Development for Public Interest)c. Role of the Indonesia Infrastructure Fund (IIF) in Provision of Financing in InfrastructureIndonesia Infrastructure Fund (IIF) is established to satisfy offering long term, mainly localcurrency and financing for infrastructure. To mobilise domestic currency financing ofappropriate tenor, terms and price for creditworthy infrastructure projects by:  Using its good credit rating to borrow from domestic institutional investors and banks looking for long-term placements with risk margins higher than sovereign and large corporate offerings, and;  Providing financial products which meet the needs of infrastructure PPP and wholly private projects.d. Role of the Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF) in Provision of CriticalSupport for Indonesia’s Infrastructure DevelopmentIIGF is established to satisfy the following objectives:  To provide a political risk guarantee for PPP Infrastructure Projects;  To improve creditworthiness and quality of PPP infrastructure projects by; providing a credible guarantee on political risk;  To improve the governance and transparency of guarantee provisions;  To protect Government contingent liability vis-à-vis guarantees (ring-fencing the contingent liability exposure of the State Budget.5.5.4. Possible Sources of Funding for Public Sector Investment19The intention of Shipping Law No. 17 is that basic infrastructure investment in ports will beundertaken by the Port Authority. The new Indonesian Port Authorities, however, will be19 Portions of this section are adapted from DWA, 2010 INDII Technical Report on Development of theNational Port Master Plan. 91
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEnew institutions that will have little in the way of financial assets and no track record ofoperations. They will generate little cash flow and have essentially no borrowing capacity intheir early years of existence. We therefore believe the only main source of infrastructurefunding in the short term is the Government of Indonesia.Until the Port Authorities have established strong cash flows and balance sheets, thepossible sources of funding for port infrastructure investment are:  Government of Indonesia fiscal income.  General Government of Indonesia borrowing.  Loans from international financial institutions.  Loans from bilateral financial institutions.The first two sources of financing are in the category of Government general revenue. Thesecond two ‐ loans from international and bilateral financial institutions ‐ involvecommitments by the institutions and probably some form of sovereign guarantee.International and bilateral financing will probably also involve Government payments ofprincipal and interest on the loans although if structured properly the Port Authorities maybe able to service the loans out of their cash flow. Even if the Port Authorities do make theloan payments, however, it is still Government revenue because Port Authority income isdefined as Government revenue in both the Law and GR 61 regarding Port Affairs.In the longer term sources of Port Authority infrastructure financing should evolve fromincreasingly strong financial statements of the Port Authorities. This will of course onlyhappen if they are allowed to retain their earnings, including those from port authoritycharges (e.g. port dues), leases, and concession fees. If so, the Port Authorities couldaccumulate retained earnings and develop cash flow that can support borrowing. 92
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEChapter 6. Legal, Regulatory and Administrative ActionsNeededThe course of the National Port Master Plan preparation highlighted areas in legislation,regulation, and policy that needed to be strengthened in order to facilitate Indonesia’sprogress towards a competitive port system. The Government of Indonesia (“GOI”) appearsto recognize this and has alluded to the need to revise legislation to accelerate theseparation of the regulatory role of port authorities from the operating functions of thePelindos. The GOI has also set December 2011 as the target date for the separation of thesefunctional areas20. Nevertheless, the process of adopting a new Law may take longer andhence both interim and longer term actions are proposed here that may be undertaken toimprove the Law’s effectiveness. This requires a number of implementation actions in thefollowing areas:  Subsidiary regulations required by the Law on Shipping;  Subsidiary regulations required under Government Regulation on Port Affairs; and  Actions to support policy implementation.6.1 Subsidiary Regulations under the Law on ShippingIn numerous areas, the Law on Shipping identifies a need for subsidiary rules to implementpolicies, programs and administrative actions. Some areas are now covered in GR 61, asshown in Table 6-1, while in other areas, subsidiary regulations still need to be promulgated.6.2 Subsidiary Regulations Required under Government Regulation on Port AffairsWhile GR 61 contains a wide-ranging set of provisions giving effect to the Law, it in turnmandates the Minister of Transport to issue regulations with regard to a long list of topics(see Table 6-2).6.3 Policy ActionsPort policy requires certain actions for effective policy implementation (Table 6-3). TheMinistry of Transport will assure that an integrated planning process is in place and that theport sector is fully represented in the Ministry’s planning deliberations. Mechanisms alsoneed to be developed to assure continuous open dialogue with stakeholders on the range ofpolicy, planning, and regulatory issues.Finally, the ministerial regulations such that port authorities have management autonomyreflected in modernized port organizations. Pursuing the status of Indonesia public serviceorganization21 for port authorities is an obvious remedy for achieving the needed autonomy.20 See Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia’s Development 2011 – 2025, p 179.21 Badan Layanan Umum (Public Service Organization). A public service organization is a stand-aloneorganization within the public service with features that provide a measure of independence andfinancial self-sufficiency. This status would thus providing Port Authorities with the structure andautonomy enjoyed by the modernized port organizations previously described. 93
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREETable 6-1 Regulatory Mandates for the Ministry in Shipping Law No. 17 of 2008Regulations Proposed for Law on ShippingNo. Subject Matters to be Promulgated (Ministerial Regulations) Target Date Remarks 1 Guidance for Commercial Port Tariff and Provincial and Local Port 4th Quarter Article 110 of the Tariff 2012 Shipping Law 2 Design and Execution of Dredging and Reclamation / Certification 4th Quarter Article 197 of the of Service Providers 2012 Shipping Law 3 Designation of Compulsory Pilotage Areas, Training and 4th Quarter Article 198 of the Examination of Pilots and Pilotage Operations 2012 Shipping Law 4 Port Security 4th Quarter Article 212 of the 2012 Shipping Law 5 Port Operations (ship repair, cargo transfer, towage, hazardous 4th Quarter Article 216 of the goods handling) 2012 Shipping Law 6 Port Pollution 4th Quarter Article 238 of the 2012 Shipping Law 7 Shipping and Port Information System 4th Quarter Article 272 of the 2012 Shipping LawTable 6-2 Scope of Government Regulation No. 61 of 2009 No. Subject Matters to be Promulgated (Ministerial Regulations Time Target Remark 1 Port Location Procedures 4th Quarter Article 19 of GR 2012 61/ 2009 2 Procedures for Formulation and Evaluation of Port Master Plans 4th Quarter Article 29 of GR 2012 61 3 Procedures for Formulation and Evaluation of Port Working Areas 4th Quarter Article 36 of GR and Port Interest Areas 2012 61 4 Procedures for Provision, Maintenance, Standards, and 2nd Quarter Article 67 of GR Specifications for Breakwaters, Port Basins, Navigational 2013 61 Channels, Road Networks and Port Security and Order 5 Requirements and Procedures for Granting and Revoking 2nd Quarter Article 78 of GR Concessions 2012 61 6 Port Development Licensing 2nd Quarter Article 86 of GR 2012 61 7 Port Expansion Licensing 2nd Quarter Article 93 of GR 2012 61 8 Requirements and Procedures for Port Operations, Operational 2nd Quarter Article 104 of Improvement and Capacity Upgrades Licensing 2012 GR 61 9 Procedures for Port Location, Construction and Operational 4th Quarter Article 109 of Licenses for Dry Ports 2012 GR 61 10 Requirements and Procedures for Special Terminals (location 4th Quarter Article 134 of approval, construction and operational licenses, third party use, 2012 GR 61 operational improvement, change of status to port, license revocation, transfer to government control) 94
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE No. Subject Matters to be Promulgated (Ministerial Regulations Time Target Remark 11 Procedures for Approval of Own-Interest Terminals 4th Quarter Article 144 of 2012 GR 61 12 Type, Structure and Classification of Port Business Entity Tariff 4th Quarter Article 148 of for Port Services, Mechanism for determining tariff for use of port 2012 GR 61 land and waters 13 Procedures for Determining Foreign Trade Status of Port and 4th Quarter Article 153 of Special Terminals 2012 GR 61 14 Procedures for Data Processing and Reporting and Preparation 4th Quarter Article 161 of of Port Information System 2012 GR 61Table 6-3 Actions for Policy Implementation No. Subject Matters to be Promulgated Time Target Remark 1 Establish stakeholder/port user committees in each 4th Quarter Essential for port policy port authority jurisdiction to serve as a consultative 2012 formulation, implementation, mechanism with the Ministry of Transport on policy and review formulation, review, and implementation 2 Incorporate integrated planning considerations in 4th Quarter Essential for integrated port master plan guidelines 2012 planning, facilitation, and performance monitoring policy area 3 Issue internal mandate in the Ministry to engage 1st Quarter Essential for integrated with other government agencies and port users to 2012 planning, facilitation, and continuously review port sector performance and performance monitoring adopt practices to to eliminante constraints to good policy area performance 4 Issue a set of performance indicators for planning 4th Quarter Essential for integrated and performance monitoring purposes and establish 2012 planning, facilitation, and procedure for publishing indicators performance monitoring policy area 5 Issue”light handed” tariff policy 4th Quarter Essential to tariff regulation 2012 policy area 6 Establish procedure for submitting tariffs for 4th Quarter Essential to tariff regulation approval in the case of port authorities and PMUs 2012 policy area and for review in the case of port business entities 7 Develop and publish tariff and service agreement 4th Quarter Essential to tariff regulation review process; review process to consider 2012 policy area anticompetitive effects 8 Consider development of memorandum of 4th Quarter Essential to Promoting Port understanding with KPPU as to the monitoring and 2012 Sector Competition policy promotion of port sectror competition area 9 Incorporate consideration of competition effects in 4th Quarter Essential to Promoting Port national and local master plan formulation and 2012 Sector Competition policy review. area 10 Introduce complaint and dispute resolution 2nd Quarter Essential to Promoting Port procedure for addressing complaints regarding 2013 Sector Competition policy tariffs and anticompetitive behavior area 11 Assess training requirements for DGST, port 4th Quarter Essential to Enhance Labor 95
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE No. Subject Matters to be Promulgated Time Target Remark authorities/PMUs, labor cooperatives, and port 2012 Competitiveness policy area business entities and develop strategy for meeting training needs 12 Engage in memorandums of understanding with 4th Quarter Essential to Enhance Labor training centers, vocational institutes, and higher 2012 Competitiveness policy area education institutions to promote port sector careers and the development of port-centric curriculums 13 Engage in dialogue with labor coops to formulate 2nd Quarter Essential to Enhance Labor incentives for increasing productivity 2012 Competitiveness policy area 14 Develop and implement strategy for recruitment and 4th Quarter Essential to Enhance Labor retention of women workers in the port sector 2012 Competitiveness policy area 15 Issue regulations which entrust port authorities with 4th Quarter Essential to Supporting effective powers to oversee landside safety and 2012 Effective Safety Regulation security policy area 16 Promulgate framework setting forth port authority 2nd Quarter Essential to Supporting obligations for safety regulation compliance 2012 Effective Safety Regulation policy area 17 Promulgate port environmental protection code to 4th Quarter Essential to Supporting be agreed to between Ministry and port 2012 Effective Enironmental authorities/PMUs Regulation policy area 18 Issue regulations to provide for harbor master with 4th Quarter Essential to Supporting sufficient authority to manage and control pollution 2012 Effective Enironmental in ports Regulation policy area 19 Engage partners and enter into cooperative 2nd Quarter Essential to Supporting agreements to assure effective emergency 2012 Effective Enironmental response in the prot sector Regulation policy area 20 Establish autonomous status for port authorities and 4th Quarter Essential for effective PMUs 2013 management of port sector6.4 Short-Term Initiatives for Facilitating Policy ImplementationWhile actions for policy implementation are what is needed to effect policy, there are also anumber of initiatives, intended for the short-term, that can be implemented to facilitatepolicy implementation, generally focusing on port performance, including administration,labor, and development. These are identified in Table 6-4.Table 6-4 Near-term Initiatives for Facilitating Policy ImplementationNo. Subject Matters to be Time Remark Promulgated Target1 Preparation of a Port 4th Essential for empowering of Port Authority/PA and Port Administration Operations Quarter Management Unit/PMU Toolkit for Port Authority and 2012 Port Management Unit:  Model Concession and Other Form of Agreements  Model Licenses  Tariff Financial 96
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Subject Matters to be Time Remark Promulgated Target Analysis Model  Port Operational Performance Indicator System2 Intensify collaboration with 4th Essential to enhance capabilities of PA, PMU and DGST higher education institutions Quarter personnel and Pelindo training centers 2012 addressing topics related to:  Planning analysis  Trade forecasting methodology  Operations analysis  Capacity assessment  Port market assessments and Tariff analysis3 Assessment of Port Labor 4th Essential to enhance labor performance Competitiveness Quarter 20124 Formulation of strategies for 4th Essential to facilitate management of ports at regional level divesting small ports Quarter (addressing asset transfer, port 2012 management, and capacity building)5 Streamlining approval 4th Essential for ease of regulatory burden on the private procedures and regulatory Quarter sector and clarification of government agency bottlenecks (in view of the 2012 responsibilities scope of regulatory responsibilities of the Minister/DGST, PA/PMU, and regional governments)6 Assessment on transferring 4th Essential for empowering of Port Authority port land and water Quarter management rights to port 2012 authorities7 Option assessment and 2th Essential for empowering port implementation of flexible and Quarter authority autonomous port authorities 2013 (including BLU/Badan Layanan Umum)8 Assessment of development of 4th Essential for future port international Quarter development hub ports (including Kuala 2012 Tanjung and Bitung)9 Design and implementation of 4th Essential for developing data base of port statistics, a Port Information System Quarter facilities, accesses, and services (a web based Port 2012 Information System that is integrated with the National Shipping Information System, incl. NSW applications) 97
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Subject Matters to be Time Remark Promulgated Target10 Prepare Port Master Plan 2nd Essential for developing PSP / PPP port model projects and/or feasibility Study for PSP Quarter / PPP model projects 201311 Optimisation of traffic mitigation 2nd Essential for smoothness of strategic port operations strategies with port operations Quarter requirements (including 2012 Tanjung Priok, Tanjung Perak, and Belawan ports) 98
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix 1. Port HierarchyAppendix A-1 Port Hierarchy No. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030Province : Nangroe Aceh Darussalam 1 Aceh Barat Meulaboh Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Aceh Jaya Calang Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Banda Aceh Malahayati Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Aceh Barat Daya Susoh Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 5 Aceh Selatan Tapaktuan Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Aceh Selatan Sibade Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Aceh Timur Idi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Langsa Kuala Langsa Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Aceh Utara Kuala Beukah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 10 Aceh Utara Lhokseumawe Collector Collector Collector Collector 11 Pidie Sigli Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 12 Sabang Sabang Main Main Main Main 13 Sabang Ule Lheu Collector Collector Collector Collector 14 Simeulue Sibigo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 15 Simeulue Sinabang Collector Collector Collector Collector 16 Aceh Selatan P. Banyak Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 17 Aceh Singkil P. Serok Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 18 Aceh Singkil Singkil Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 19 Aceh Singkil Gosong telaga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Sumatera Utara 1 Batubara Kuala Tanjung Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Batubara Pangkalan Dodek Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 3 Batubara Perupuk Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Batubara Tanjung Tiram Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Batubara Teluk Nibung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Serdang Bedagai Sialang Buah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 7 Serdang Bedagai Pantai Cermin Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Tanjung Balai 8 Asahan Collector Collector Collector Collector Asahan 9 Langkat Pangkalan Susu Collector Collector Collector Collector 10 Langkat Pulau KampaI Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 11 Langkat Tanjung Pura Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 12 Langkat Tapak Kuda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 99
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203013 Langkat Kuala SaraMain Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder14 Deli Serdang Belawan Main Main Main Main15 Deli Serdang Pantai Labu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Deli Serdang Percut Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional17 Deli Serdang Rantau Panjang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional18 Deli Serdang Tanjung Beringin Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder19 Labuhan Batu Labuhan Bilik Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional20 Labuhan Batu Sel Barombang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder21 Labuhan Batu Teluk. Lidong Collector Collector Collector Collector22 Labuhan Batu Tg. Sarang Elang Collector Collector Collector Collector Natal/Sikara-23 Mandailing Natal Collector Collector Collector Collector kara24 Mandailing Natal Sikara-Kara Collector Collector Collector Collector25 Nias Gunung Sitoli Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional26 Nias Lahawa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional27 Nias Sirombu Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Mainlau Tanah28 Nias Selatan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Masa29 Nias Selatan Mainlau Tello Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional30 Nias Selatan Teluk Dalam Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder31 Tapanuli Tengah Barus Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder32 Tapanuli Tengah Manduamas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder33 Tapanuli Tengah Sibolga Collector Collector Collector Collector Oswald Siahaan/34 Tapanuli Tengah Collector Collector Collector Collector Labuhan Angin35 Mandailing Natal Batahan Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Riau 1 Rokan Hilir Bagan Siapi-api Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 2 Rokan Hilir Panipahan Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Rokan Hilir Sinaboi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Rokan Hilir Pancur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Rokan Hilir Penyalaman Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 6 Kep.Meranti Bandul Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Kep.Meranti Melibur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Kep.Meranti Selat Panjang Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Kep.Meranti Tanjung Samak Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Kep.Meranti Tanjung Kedadu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Bengkalis Batu Panjang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Bengkalis Bengkalis Collector Collector Collector Collector 100
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203013 Bengkalis Buatan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder14 Siak Sel Apit Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder15 Bengkalis Sungai Pakning Collector Collector Collector Collector Kurau/16 Siak Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Sei Lalang17 Siak Sungai Siak Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Siak Tanjung Buton Collector Collector Collector Collector19 Dumai Dumai Main Main Main Main20 Dumai Tanjung Medang Collector Collector Collector Collector Kuala Enok21 Indragiri Hilir (including Collector Collector Collector Collector Pembuangan) Regional Regional Regional Regional22 Indragiri Hilir Kuala Gaung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder23 Indragiri Hilir Kuala Mandah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder24 Indragiri Hilir Kuala Raya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder25 Indragiri Hilir Concong Luar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder26 Indragiri Hilir Bekawan Luar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder27 Indragiri Hilir Sungai Buluh Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder28 Indragiri Hilir Perigi Raya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder29 Indragiri Hilir Pulau Kijang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder30 Indragiri Hilir Sapat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder31 Indragiri Hilir Tambilahan Collector Collector Collector Collector32 Indragiri Hilir Sungai Guntung Collector Collector Collector Collector33 Indragiri Hulu Rengat Collector Collector Collector Collector34 Palalawan Penyalai Collector Collector Collector Collector Pekanbaru35 Pekanbaru (including Collector Collector Collector Collector Perawang)Province: Riau Batam/ 1 Batam Main Main Main Main Batu Ampar Batam/ 2 Batam Main Main Main Main Sekupang 3 Batam Kabil Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Batam Nogsa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Batam Pulau Bulan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Batam Pulau Sambu Collector Collector Collector Collector 7 Batam Tanjung Sauh - Main Main Main 8 Karimun P Buku Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder9 Karimun Meral Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Karimun Pos Telaga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Karimun Moro Collector Collector Collector Collector 101
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Regional Regional Regional Regional12 Karimun Pasir Panjang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Sikumbang13 Karimun Collector Collector Collector Collector Kundur14 Karimun Tanjung Batu Collector Collector Collector Collector Urung/Tg.15 Karimun Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Berlian16 Karimun Malarko Collector Collector Collector Collector Tg. Balai17 Karimun Main Main Main Main Karimun Regional Regional Regional Regional18 Lingga Dabo Singkep Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder19 Lingga Daik Lingga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Lingga Panuba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder21 Lingga Sei Buluh Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Lingga Senayang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder23 Bintan Lagol Collector Collector Collector Collector24 Bintan Lobam Main Main Main Main25 Bintan Sei Kolak Kijang Collector Collector Collector Collector26 Bintan Tanjung Uban Collector Collector Collector Collector27 Bintan Tambelan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder28 Bintan Tanjung Berakit Collector Collector Collector Collector29 Kep. Anambas Letung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder30 Kep.Anambas Matak Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder31 Kep. Anambas Tarempa Collector Collector Collector Collector32 Natuna Anoa Natuna Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder33 Natuna Kakap Natuna Collector Collector Collector Collector34 Natuna Midai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder35 Natuna Ranai Collector Collector Collector Collector36 Natuna Maro Sulit Collector Collector Collector Collector37 Natuna Sedanau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Natuna Selat Lampa Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional39 Natuna Serasan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder40 Natuna Udang Natuna Collector Collector Collector Collector41 Natuna Belion Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder42 Natuna Belida Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder43 Natuna Hang Tuah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder45 Tg. Pinang Batu Enam Collector Collector Collector Collector46 Tg. Pinang Tanjung Pinang Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Sumatera Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Kep. Mentawai Muara Siberut Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Muara 2 Kep. Mentawai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Sikabaluan 102
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Kep. Mentawai Pokai Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 Kep. Mentawai Sikakap Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Kep. Mentawai Siuban Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Kep. Mentawai Tapak/Baka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Kep. Mentawai Tua Pejat Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Padang Muara Padang Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Padang Teluk Bayur Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Pasaman Barat Air Bangis Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional11 Pasaman Barat Sasak Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder12 Pasaman Barat Teluk Tapang Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional13 Pesisir Selatan Muara Haji Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Pesisir Selatan Carocok Painan Feeder Feeder Feeder FeederProvince: Jambi 1 Jambi Jambi Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Jambi Pangkal Duri Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 3 Jambi Sungai Jembat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Tg. Jabung Barat Kuala Tungkal Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Tg. Jabung Timur Air Hitam Laut Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kuala Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Tg. Jabung Timur Mandahara Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Tg. Jabung Timur Lambur Luar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 8 Tg. Jabung Timur Muara delli Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 9 Tg. Jabung Timur Muara Sabak Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Tg. Jabung Timur Nipah Panjang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder11 Tg. Jabung Timur Pamusiran Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Tg. Jabung Timur Simbur Naik Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder13 Tg. Jabung Timur Sungai Lokan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder14 Tg. Jabung Timur Talang Duku Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Bengkulu 1 Kaur Pulau Baai Collector Collector Collector Collector Bintuhan/ Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Kaur Linau Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Malakoni/P. Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Bengkulu Selatan Enggano Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 Muko - Muko Muko-Muko Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Bangka Belitung 1 Bangka Belinyu Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Bangka Lok. Palembang Regional Regional Regional Regional 103
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Bangka Sungai Liat Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 Bangka Barat Muntok Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Bangka Tengah Pangkal Balam Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Bangka Tengah Sungai Salam Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Bangka Selatan Tanjung Sadai Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 8 Bangka Selatan Toboali Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder9 Belitung Timur Manggar Collector Collector Collector Collector10 Belitung Tanjung Pandan Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Belitung Tanjung Batu Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Sumatera Selatan Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Banyu Asin Tanjung Api-Api Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Banyu Asin Karang Agung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 OKI Sungai Lumpur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 OKI Sungai Lais Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 OKI Kuala Duabelas Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 OKI Sungai Batang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 7 OKI Sugihan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Boom Baru/ 8 Palembang Main Main Main Main PalembangProvince: Lampung 1 Bandar Lampung Teluk Betung Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Lampung Barat Krui Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Lampung Selatan Kalianda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Lampung Selatan Lagundi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Lampung Selatan P. Sambesi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Lampung Selatan Panjang Main Main Main Main 7 Lampung Tengah Way Seputih Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 8 Lampung Timur Kuala Penat Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Labuhan Regional Regional Regional Regional 9 Lampung Timur Maringgai Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder10 Lampung Timur Way Penat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional11 Lampung Timur Way Sekampung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder12 Lampung Utara Masuji Regional Regional Regional Regional 104
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder13 Tanggamus Kota Agung Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Tanggamus P. Tabuan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional15 Tulang Bawang Teladas Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional16 Tulang Bawang Manggala Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder17 Tulang Bawang Sungai Burung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder18 Tulang Bawang Tulang Bawang Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional19 Tulang Bawang Kelumbayan Feeder Feeder Feeder FeederProvince: Jawa Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Bekasi Muara Gembong Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Ciamis Pengandaran Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 3 Cirebon Cirebon Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Cirebon Muara Gebang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 5 Indramayu Eretan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Indramayu Indramayu Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Indramayu Balongan Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Subang Pamanukan Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Karawang Cilamaya Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Sukabumi Pelabuhan Ratu Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional11 Sukabumi Muara Citewis Feeder Feeder Feeder FeederProvince: Banten 1 Lebak M. Binuangan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Pandeglang Labuhan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 3 Serang Anyer Lor Collector Collector Collector Collector 4 Cilegon Banten Main Main Main Main 5 Cilegon Cigading Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Serang Karangantu Collector Collector Collector Collector 7 Serang Bojonegara Collector Collector Collector Collector Kresek/ 8 Tangerang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kronjo 9 Tangerang Muara Dadap Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: DKI Jakarta 1 Jakarta Utara Kalibaru Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Jakarta Utara Muara Baru Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Jakarta Utara Sunda Kelapa Collector Collector Collector Collector 105
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Tg. Priok (including Tarumanegara, 4 Jakarta Utara Main Main Main Main Marunda Center, FRSU LNG (Bekasi)) 5 Jakarta Utara Marunda Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Jakarta Utara Muara Angke Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder P.Kelapa/Kep. 7 Kep. Seribu Collector Collector Collector Collector SeribuProvince: Jawa Tengah 1 Batang Batang Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Brebes Brebes Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 3 Brebes Luwut Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Cilacap Tanjung Intan Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Jepara Jepara Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Jepara Karimun Jawa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Pati Juwana Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Pekalongan Wiradesa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Pemalang Pemalang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Rembang Rembang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder11 Rembang Sluke Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Semarang Tanjung Emas Main Main Main Main13 Tegal Tegal Collector Collector Collector Collector14 Kendal Kendal Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Jawa Timur 1 Bangkalan Kamal Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Bangkalan Sepulu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Bangkalan Glimandangi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Bangkalan Telaga Biru Collector Collector Collector Collector Banyu Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Banyu Wangi Wangi/Boom Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Banyu Wangi Tanjung Wangi Collector Collector Collector Collector 7 Gresik Bawean Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Gresik Gresik Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Gresik Masalembo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Lamongan Brondong Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Pamekasan Branta Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional12 Pamekasan Pasean Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 106
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203013 Pasuruan Pasuruan Collector Collector Collector Collector Probolinggo/14 Probolinggo Collector Collector Collector Collector Tg.Tembaga15 Probolinggo Paiton Collector Collector Collector Collector Sampang/16 Sampang Collector Collector Collector Collector Tadan17 Sampang Tanlok Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional18 Situbondo Panarukan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder19 Situbondo Besuki Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Situbondo Jangkar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder21 Situbondo Kalbut Collector Collector Collector Collector22 Sumanep Gayam Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional23 Sumanep Kaliangat Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder24 Sumanep Kangean Collector Collector Collector Collector25 Sumenep P. Raas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder26 Sumenep Sapudi Collector Collector Collector Collector27 Sumanep Sepekan Collector Collector Collector Collector28 Sumenep Keramaian Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tanjung Perak (including Teluk29 Surabaya Lamong, Socah Main Main Main Main dan Tanjung Bulupandan) Regional Regional Regional Regional30 Tuban Tuban Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional31 Tuban Tg. Awar-awar Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 32 Pacitan Pacitan Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Bali 1 Klungkung Kusamba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Nusa 2 Klungkung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Lembongan 3 Klungkung Nusa Penida Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Buleleng Buleleng Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 5 Buleleng Celukan Bawang Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Buleleng Pos Sangsit Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Jembrana Gilimanuk Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Denpasar Benoa Main Main Main Main 9 Denpasar Sanur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Karangasem Labuhan Lalang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Karangasem Padang Baai Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Karangasem Labuan Collector Collector Collector Collector 107
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Amuk/Tanah ampoProvince: Nusa Tenggara Barat 1 Bima Bima Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Bima Sape Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Bima Waworada Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Dompu/ Regional Regional Regional Regional 4 Dompu Campi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Dompu Calabahi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Dompu Kempo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Lombok Barat Lembar Collector Collector Collector Collector Pemenang/Tanju Regional Regional Regional Regional 8 Lombok Barat ng Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 9 Lombok Barat Belang Collector Collector Collector Collector10 Lombok Barat Senggigi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Lombok Barat Bangko -Bangko Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional12 Lombok Timur Labuhan Haji Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder13 Lombok Timur Labuhan Lombok Collector Collector Collector Collector14 Lombok Timur Tg. Luar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional15 Lombok Utara Carik Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder16 Sumbawa Barat Labuhan Lalar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 Sumbawa Barat Badas Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Sumbawa Barat Benete Collector Collector Collector Collector19 Sumbawa Alas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Mataram Ampenan Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Nusa Tenggara Timur Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Alor Baranusa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 2 Alor Kabir Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Alor Kalabahi Collector Collector Collector Collector 4 Alor Kolana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Alor Atapupu Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Alor Paitoko Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Ende Maritaing Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Ende Pulau Ende Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Flores Timur Ippi Collector Collector Collector Collector10 Flores Timur Waiwadan Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Flores Timur Waiwarang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Flores Timur Ende Collector Collector Collector Collector 108
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203013 Flores Timur Dulionang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Flores Timur Menanga Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder15 Lembata Balauring Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Lembata Larantuka Collector Collector Collector Collector17 Lembata Leoleba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder18 Lembata Lembata Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder19 Lembata Lamakera Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Sabu Timur Biu Collector Collector Collector Collector21 Rote Ndao Batutua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Rote Ndao Baa/Rote Collector Collector Collector Collector23 Rote Ndao Ndao Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder24 Rote Ndao Oelaba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Papele/25 Rote Ndao Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder P. Baru Regional Regional Regional Regional26 Rote Ndao Papela Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder27 Kupang Naikliu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder28 Kupang Raijua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional29 Kupang Seba Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Tenau/30 Kupang Main Main Main Main Kupang31 Manggarai Barat Komodo Collector Collector Collector Collector32 Manggarai Barat Labuhan Bajo Collector Collector Collector Collector33 Manggarai Timur Mborong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder34 Manggarai Barat Nangalili Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional35 Manggarai Reo Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder36 Manggarai Robek Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder37 Manggarai Waiwole Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Ngada Aimere Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional39 Ngada Maropokot Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional40 Ngada Maumbawa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional41 Sikka Wuring Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder42 Sikka Maumere Collector Collector Collector Collector43 Sikka Maurole Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional44 Sikka Piru Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional45 Sikka Palue Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder46 Sumba Barat Rua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder47 Sumba Barat Waikelo Regional Regional Regional Regional 109
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Daya Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder48 Sumba Timur Baing Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder49 Sumba Timur Waingapu Collector Collector Collector Collector Timor Tengah 50 Wini Collector Collector Collector Collector UtaraProvince: Kalimantan Barat 1 Ketapang Air Hitam Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Ketapang Kendawangan Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Ketapang Ketapang Collector Collector Collector Collector Teluk 4 Ketapang Melano/Teluk Collector Collector Collector Collector Batang 5 Pontianak Pontianak Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Pontianak Mempawah Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Kubu Raya Paloh/Sakura Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 8 Sambas Jaruju Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder9 Sambas Sambas Collector Collector Collector Collector10 Sambas Sintete Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Kubu Utara Singkawang Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Kubu Utara Teluk Air Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional13 Kayong Utara Karimata Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder14 Kayong Utara Tg. Satai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder15 Kayong Utara Sukadana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Kalimantan Tengah Kumai Kota Waringin 1 (including Collector Collector Collector Collector Barat Bumiharjo) Kota Waringin 2 Pangkalan Bun Collector Collector Collector Collector Barat Kota Waringin Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Natal Kuini Barat Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 Sukamara Sukamara Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Sukamara Kuala Jelay Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kota Waringin Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Kuala Pembuang Timur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Kota Waringin Pegatan Regional Regional Regional Regional 7 Timur Mendawai Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Kota Waringin 8 Sampit Main Main Main Main Timur Kota Waringin Regional Regional Regional Regional 9 Samuda Timur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder10 Kapuas Behaur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Kapuas Kuala Kapuas Collector Collector Collector Collector 110
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203012 Kapuas Pulang Pisau Collector Collector Collector Collector13 Kapuas Batanjung Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Palangka-raya Kereng Bengkirai Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional15 Palangka-raya Teluk Sebangau Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional16 Palangka-raya Kahayan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional17 Barito Selatan Kelanis Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional18 Barito Selatan Rangga Ilung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Teluk Sigintung/19 Seruyan Collector Collector Collector Collector SeruyanProvince: Kalimantan Selatan 1 Banjarmasin Banjarmasin Main Main Main Main Gunung Batu 2 Kotabaru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Besar 3 Kotabaru Stagen Collector Collector Collector Collector 4 Kotabaru Kota Baru Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Kotabaru Sebuku Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Kotabaru Mekar Putih Main Main Main Main Satui/ 7 Tanah Bumbu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Sel Danau Simp. Empat 8 Tanah Bumbu Collector Collector Collector Collector Batu Licin Regional Regional Regional Regional 9 Tanah Bumbu Pegatan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Tanah Bumbu Sungai Loban Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder11 Tanah Laut Kintap Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Tanah Laut Pelaihari Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Kalimantan Timur 1 Balikpapan Balikpapan Main Main Main Main 2 Balikpapan Kampung Baru Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Berau Talisayan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Berau Tanjung Redep Collector Collector Collector Collector 5 Bontang Lhok Tuan Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Bontang Tanjung Laut Collector Collector Collector Collector 7 Bontang Tanjung Santan Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Nunukan Nunukan Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional 9 Bulungan Tanjung Selor Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder10 Tarakan Tarakan Collector Collector Collector Collector Kutai11 Kuala Semboja Collector Collector Collector Collector Kertanegara 111
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Kutai Regional Regional Regional Regional12 Sabulu Kertanegara Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder13 Kutai Timur Sangata Collector Collector Collector Collector14 Kutai Timur Maloy Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional15 Kutai Timur Sangkulirang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder16 Nunukan Sungai Nyamuk Collector Collector Collector Collector17 Paser Tanah Grogot Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Paser Teluk Adang Collector Collector Collector Collector Samarinda (including19 Samarinda Collector Collector Collector Collector Palaran, Tanjung Isuy) Penajam Paser20 Penajam Paser Collector Collector Collector Collector Utara21 Tana Tidung Pulau Bunyu Collector Collector Collector Collector22 Tana Tidung Sesayap Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Sulawesi Utara Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Bitung Air Tembaga Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 2 Bitung Bitung Main. Main. Main. Main. 3 Minahasa Kora-Kora Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Minahasa Utara Montehage Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Munte/ Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Minahasa Utara Likupang Barat Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 6 Minahasa Utara Gangga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Minahasa Utara Bangka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Minahasa Utara Talise Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Minahasa Utara Nain Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Minahasa Utara Wori Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Minahasa Utara Likupang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Minahasa12 Amurang Collector Collector Collector Collector Selatan Minahasa13 Kema Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Minahasa14 Belang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Minahasa15 Tumbak Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan16 B. Mangondow Ketabunan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 B. Mangondow Molibagu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder18 B. Mangandow Torosik Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder B. Mangondow19 Labuhan Uki Collector Collector Collector Collector Utara B. Mangondow20 Boroko Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Utara 112
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203021 Manado Manado Collector Collector Collector Collector Kep Siau22 Togalondang Biaro Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Biaro Kep Siau Regional Regional Regional Regional23 Togalondang Sawang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Biaro Kep Siau24 Togalondang Pehe Collector Collector Collector Collector Biaro Kep Siau Regional Regional Regional Regional25 Togalondang Tagulandang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Biaro Kep Siau26 Togalondang Ulu Siau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Biaro27 Kep. Sangihe Marore Collector Collector Collector Collector28 Kep. Sangihe Petta Collector Collector Collector Collector29 Kep. Sangihe Tahuna Collector Collector Collector Collector30 Kep. Sangihe Tamako Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder31 Kep. Sangihe Kawaluso Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder32 Kep. Sangihe Kep. Talaud Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional33 Kep.Sangihe Makalehi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder34 Kep.Sangihe Pananaru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder35 Kep.Sangihe Para Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder36 Kep.Sangihe Kahakitang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder37 Kep.Sangihe Kalama Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Kep.Sangihe Lipang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder39 Kep.Sangihe Bukide Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder40 Kep.Sangihe Matutuang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional41 Kep.Sangihe Kawio Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder42 Kep.Talaud Gemeh Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional43 Kep.Talaud Kokorotan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional44 Kep.Talaud Intata Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder45 Kep. Talaud Beo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder46 Kep. Talaud Essang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder47 Kep. Talaud Karatung Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional48 Kep. Talaud Lirung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder49 Kep. Talaud Mangarang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder50 Kep. Talaud Marampit Collector Collector Collector Collector51 Kep. Talaud Melangoane Collector Collector Collector Collector 113
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203052 Kep. Talaud Miangas Collector Collector Collector Collector53 Kep. Talaud Dapalan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder54 Kep. Talaud Rainis Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Gorontalo 1 Pohuwato Lemito Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 2 Pohuwato Marisa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Pohuwato Papayato Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Gorontalo Anggrek Collector Collector Collector Collector Bumbulan/ 5 Gorontalo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tambalo 6 Gorontalo Gentuma Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Gorontalo Gorontalo Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Gorontalo Kwandangan Collector Collector Collector Collector 9 Gorontalo Tolinggula Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Bualemo Tilamuta Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder11 Bualemo Wongosari Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Sulawesi Tengah 1 Banggai Banggai Collector Collector Collector Collector 2 Banggai Bunta Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Banggai Luwuk Collector Collector Collector Collector 4 Banggai Pagimana Collector Collector Collector Collector Sabang/P. Regional Regional Regional Regional 5 Banggai Peleng Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Banggai Salakan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 7 Banggai Tinakin Laut Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Banggai Dodung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Banggai Liana Banggai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Banggai Tangkiang Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Morowali Bungku Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Morowali Kolonedale Collector Collector Collector Collector13 Morowali Wosu Collector Collector Collector Collector14 Morowali Menuai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional15 Morowali Sambalagi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder16 Morowali Baturube Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 Buol Kumaligon Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder18 Buol Lokodidi Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional19 Buol Palele Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder20 Buol Leok Collector Collector Collector Collector21 Parigi Moutong Moutong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Parigi Moutong Parigi Regional Regional Regional Regional 114
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder23 Donggala Donggala Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional24 Donggala Sabang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder25 Donggala Wani Collector Collector Collector Collector26 Donggala Ogoamas Collector Collector Collector Collector27 Palu Pantoloan Main Main Main Main28 Poso Poso Collector Collector Collector Collector29 Tojo Una-Una Ampana Collector Collector Collector Collector30 Tojo Una-Una Wakai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder31 Tojo Una-Una Popoli Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder32 Tojo Una-Una Mantangisi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder33 Toli-Toli Ogotua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder34 Toli-Toli Toli-toli Collector Collector Collector Collector Banggai35 Lampio (I,II,III) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai36 Posisi/Banggai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai37 Lokotoy Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai38 Matanga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai39 Kapela Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai40 Gonggong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai41 Bungin (III,IV) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai42 Gasuang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai43 Ndindibung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai Mbuang-44 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Mbuang Banggai Panapat/45 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Mandel Banggai Panapat/46 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Dendek Banggai Panapat/47 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Konalu Banggai48 Panapat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai49 Kokondang (I,II) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai50 Toropot Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai51 Paisubebe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan 115
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Banggai52 Kaukes Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai53 Timpaus Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai54 Kasuari Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai55 Sonit (I,II) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai56 Komba-Komba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai57 Oluno Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai58 Bulagi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai59 Lupamenteng Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai60 Bolonan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai61 Lolantang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai62 Palapat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai63 Lumbilumbia Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai64 Batangono Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai65 Lalengan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai66 Tataba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai67 Popisi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai68 Tolulos Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai69 Kindandal Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai70 Liang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai71 Boyomoute Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai72 Salakan (I,II) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai73 Bulungkobit Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai74 Bungin (I,II) Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai75 Bakalan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai76 Tinangkung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan 116
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Banggai77 Tebing Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 78 Kalumbatan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 79 Mansalean Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 80 Paisulamo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 81 Alasan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 82 Padingtian Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 83 Talas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 84 Lipulalongo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 85 Lalong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 86 Sasabobok Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 87 Tabulan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 88 Mbeleang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 89 Kalupapi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 90 Togong Sagu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 91 Tadono Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 92 Lantibun Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Banggai 93 Ponding - Poding Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder KepulauanProvince: Sulawesi Selatan 1 Bantaeng Bantaeng Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Awarange/ 2 Barru Collector Collector Collector Collector Barru 3 Barru Pancana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Barru Labuange Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Barru Garongkong Collector Collector Collector Collector 6 Bone Bajoe Collector Collector Collector Collector Barebbo/ 7 Bone Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kading 8 Bone Uloe/Cendrana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Bone Wartuo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Bone Tujuh-Tujuh Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder11 Bone Pattirobajo Regional Regional Regional Regional 117
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder12 Bone Lapangkong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Bira/13 Bulukumba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tanah Beru14 Bulukumba Bulukumba Collector Collector Collector Collector15 Bulukumba Kajang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Jeneponto Jeneponto Collector Collector Collector Collector17 Luwu Malili Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Luwu Larompong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder19 Luwu Ulo-Ulo/Belopa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Luwu Siwa Collector Collector Collector Collector21 Luwu Maccini Baji Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Luwu Timur Wotu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional23 Luwu Timur Lampia Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional24 Luwu Timur Belantang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Tanjung Regional Regional Regional Regional25 Luwu Timur Mangkasa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder26 Luwu Utara Coppasolo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Pangkajene27 Biringkasi Collector Collector Collector Collector Kepulauan Pangkajene28 S.Pangkajene Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Pangkajene29 P.Balang Lompo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Pangkajene30 P. Kalukalukuang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Pangkajene31 P.Sapuka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Galesong/ Regional Regional Regional Regional32 Takalar takalar Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder33 Palopo Palopo Collector Collector Collector Collector34 Pinrang Kayuanging Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional35 Pinrang Marabombang Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder36 Pinrang Langnga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder37 Pinrang Ujung Lero Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Selayar Bonerate Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional39 Selayar Jampea Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder40 Selayar Pammatata Collector Collector Collector Collector41 Selayar Selayar Collector Collector Collector Collector42 Selayar Bone Lohe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder43 Selayar Appatana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 118
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203044 Selayar Batongmata Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder45 Selayar Padang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Benteng/46 Selayar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Rauf Rahman47 Selayar Kayuadi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder48 Selayar Kalatoa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder49 Selayar Biropa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder50 Selayar P.Jinto Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder51 Sinjai Burung Leo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder52 Sinjai Kambuna Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Sinjai/53 Sinjai Collector Collector Collector Collector Larea-rea54 Makasar Makassar Main Main Main Main55 Makasar Paotere Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional56 Wajo Wajo Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Jalang/ Regional Regional Regional Regional57 Wajo Cendrane Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder58 Wajo Doping Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder59 Wajo Danggae Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder60 Pare-pare Pare-Pare Collector Collector Collector Collector61 Pare-pare Capa Ujung Collector Collector Collector Collector62 Pangkajene Liukang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Sulawesi Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Majene Majene Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 2 Majene Mulunda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Majene Palipi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Majene Pamboang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Majene Sendana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 6 Mamuju Belang-belang Collector Collector Collector Collector 7 Mamuju Budong-Budong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Mamuju Kaluku Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder9 Mamuju Mamuju Collector Collector Collector Collector10 Mamuju Sampaga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Mamuju Tapalang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Mamuju Utara Pasang Kayu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder13 Polewali Mandar Campalagiang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Polewali Mandar Polewali Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder15 Polewali Mandar Tinambung Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 16 Morowali Ulunambo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Sulawesi Tenggara 1 Buton Banabungi Regional Regional Regional Regional 119
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder2 Buton Siompu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder3 Buton Dongkala Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder4 Buton Wamengkoli Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional5 Buton Lawele Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional6 Buton Keledupa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder7 Buton Labuhan Belanda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional8 Buton Lasalimu Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder9 Buton Maligano Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Buton Papeliya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Buton Waha/ Usuku Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Buton Wanci Collector Collector Collector Collector13 Bau-Bau Bau--Bau Collector Collector Collector Collector14 Bombana Sikeli Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder15 Bombana Kasipute Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Bombana Boepinang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 Kendari Bungkutoko Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Kendari Kendari Collector Collector Collector Collector19 Kendari Langara Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Kendari Munse Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder21 Kendari Torobulu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional22 Konawe Utara Molawe Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder23 Konawe Utara Konawe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder24 Konawe Utara Matarape Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder25 Konawe Utara Lameluru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional26 Konawe Selatan Lapuko Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder27 Kolaka Dawi-dawi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder28 Kolaka Kolaka Collector Collector Collector Collector29 Kolaka Wollo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder30 Kolaka Pomalaa Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional31 Kolaka Rante Angin Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional32 Kolaka Tangke Tada Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder33 Kolaka Toari Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder34 Kolaka Utara Lasusua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder35 Kolaka Utara Malombo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional36 Kolaka Utara lo Oloho Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 120
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203037 Kolaka Utara Watunohu Collector Collector Collector Collector38 Muna Borange Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder39 Muna Raha Collector Collector Collector Collector40 Muna Tempo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional41 Muna Ereke Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional42 Muna Telaga Raya Feeder Feeder Feeder FeederProvince:: Maluku Utara Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Tidore Kep. Gita/Payahe Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 2 Tidore Kep. Soa-siu Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional 3 Halmahera Barat Matui Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 4 Halmahera Barat Ibu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Halmahera Barat Kedi/ Loloda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Jailolo Regional Regional Regional Regional 6 Halmahera Barat (Including Ujung Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Pulau) 7 Halmahera Utara Tobelo Collector Collector Collector Collector 8 Halmahera Utara Bobane Igo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Halmahera Utara Salimuli Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Halmahera Utara Tolonuwo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Halmahera Utara Dama Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Halmahera Utara Kao Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder13 Halmahera Utara P. Amutu Besar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Halmahera Utara Galela Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder15 Halmahera Utara Bataka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Halmahera16 Pigaraja Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera17 Loleo Jaya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera18 Pelita Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera19 Taneti Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera20 Lelei Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera21 Lata-lata Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera22 Busua Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera23 Laluin Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan24 Halmahera Makian Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 121
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Selatan Halmahera25 Dolik Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera26 Fulai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera27 Doro Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera28 Kotiti Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera29 Tawa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera30 Gane Dalam Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera31 Posi-Posi Gane Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera32 Wosi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera33 Bisui Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera Regional Regional Regional Regional34 Obilatu Selatan Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Halmahera35 Mandopolo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera36 Pasipalele Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera37 Wayaloar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera38 Wayauwa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera39 Labuha Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera40 Babang Collector Collector Collector Collector Selatan Halmahera41 Laiwui Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera42 Saketa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera43 Pulau Kayoa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera44 Guruaping Kayoa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Selatan Halmahera45 Mafa Collector Collector Collector Collector Selatan Halmahera46 P. Gebe Collector Collector Collector Collector Tengah Halmahera47 Patani Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tengah Halmahera48 Weda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tengah49 Halmahera Mesa Regional Regional Regional Regional 122
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Tengah Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Halmahera Regional Regional Regional Regional50 Banemo Tengah Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Halmahera51 Paniti Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tengah Halmahera52 Gemia Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tengah Halmahera Regional Regional Regional Regional53 Manitingting Timur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Halmahera54 Lolasita Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera55 Akelamo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera56 Sepo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera57 Dorosagu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera58 Subaim Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera Regional Regional Regional Regional59 Buli Timur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Halmahera60 Wasile Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Halmahera Regional Regional Regional Regional61 Bicoli Timur Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional62 Pulau Morotai Daruba Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder63 Pulau Morotai Bere - Bere Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder64 Pulau Morotai Posi-Posi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder65 Pulau Morotai Wayabula Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder66 Pulau Morotai Sopi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder67 Ternate Ternate/A.Yani Main Main Main Main Regional Regional Regional Regional68 Ternate Bastiong Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional69 Ternate Dufa-Dufa Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder70 Ternate Sulamadaha Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder71 Ternate Hiri Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional72 Ternate Miyau Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder73 Ternate Moti Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder74 Ternate Tifure Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tidore75 Galala Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore76 Guruaping Oba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore77 Mangole Collector Collector Collector Collector Kepulauan 123
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Tidore78 Goto Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore79 Rum Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore80 Maitara Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore81 Mare Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore82 Sofifi Collector Collector Collector Collector Kepulauan Tidore83 Somadehe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore84 Maidi/Lifofa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore85 Loleo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Tidore86 Lola Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Kepulauan Regional Regional Regional Regional87 Kepulauan Sula Sanana Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder88 Kepulauan Sula Bobong Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder89 Kepulauan Sula Dofa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder90 Kepulauan Sula Penu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder91 Kepulauan Sula Samuya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder92 Kepulauan Sula Loseng Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder93 Kepulauan Sula Pas Ipa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder94 Kepulauan Sula Nggele Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder95 Kepulauan Sula Lede Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder96 Kepulauan Sula Bapenu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional97 Kepulauan Sula Tikong Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder98 Kepulauan Sula Jorjoga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder99 Kepulauan Sula Malbufa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder100 Kepulauan Sula Kabau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder101 Kepulauan Sula Fuata Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder102 Kepulauan Sula Waitina Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional103 Kepulauan Sula Baruakol Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional104 Kepulauan Sula Gela Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional105 Kepulauan Sula Falabisahaya Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Province: Maluku1 Ambon Ambon Main Main Main Main Maluku2 Adault Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Barat3 Maluku Larat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 124
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Tenggara Barat Maluku4 Saumlaki Collector Collector Collector Collector Tenggara Barat Maluku5 Seira Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Barat Maluku6 Mahaleta Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Barat Maluku7 Sera Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Barat Maluku Barat Dawera/8 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Dawelor Maluku Barat9 Hila/Romang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional10 Ilwaki Daya Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Maluku Barat11 Kaiwatu/Moa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat12 Serwaru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional13 Tepa Daya Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Maluku Barat Regional Regional Regional Regional14 Wonreli Daya Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Maluku Barat15 Wulur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat16 Marsela Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat17 Serwaru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya Maluku Barat18 Lirang Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Daya19 Maluku Tengah Wolu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional20 Maluku Tengah Kabisadar Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder21 Maluku Tengah Hitu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Maluku Tengah Kobisonta Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder23 Maluku Tengah Amahai Collector Collector Collector Collector24 Maluku Tengah Saparua/Haria Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder25 Maluku Tengah Tulehu Collector Collector Collector Collector Regional Regional Regional Regional26 Maluku Tengah Wahai Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder27 Maluku Tengah Banda Naira Collector Collector Collector Collector28 Maluku Tengah Kesui Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Maluku29 Tehoru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Maluku30 Elat Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara Maluku31 Kur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Tenggara 125
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 2030 Seram Bagian32 Bula Collector Collector Collector Collector Timur Seram Bagian33 Geser Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Seram Bagian34 Bemo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Timur Seram Bagian35 Upisera Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian36 Kairatu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian Kataloka/37 Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Ondor Seram Bagian38 Lakor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian39 Waimeteng Piru Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian40 Taniwel Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian41 Hatu Piru Collector Collector Collector Collector Barat Seram Bagian42 Pelita Jaya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian43 Lokki Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian44 Waisala Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian45 Wailey Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian46 Manipa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian47 Toyando Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian48 Waisarisa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Seram Bagian49 Larokis Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Barat Batu Goyang/50 Kepulauan Aru Collector Collector Collector Collector Kalar-kalar51 Kepulauan Aru Dobo Collector Collector Collector Collector52 Tual Tual Collector Collector Collector Collector53 Buru Selatan Air Buaya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional54 Buru Selatan Leksula Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional55 Buru Selatan Namrole Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder56 Buru Selatan Wamsisi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder57 Buru Selatan Tifu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional58 Buru Selatan Fogi Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 126
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203059 Buru Selatan Ambalau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder60 Buru Namlea Collector Collector Collector Collector61 Buru Waplau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder62 Buru Ilath Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder63 Buru Bilorro Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local FeederProvince: Papua Barat 1 Kaimana Adijaya Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 2 Kaimana Etna Collector Collector Collector Collector 3 Kaimana Kaimana Collector Collector Collector Collector 4 Kaimana Kanoka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Kaimana Lobo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 6 Kaimana P.Adi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Kaimana Senini Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Kaimana Susunu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Fak-fak Bomberai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Fak-fak Fak-fak Collector Collector Collector Collector11 Fak-fak Karas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder12 Fak-fak Kokas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder13 Fak-fak Sagan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder14 Fak-fak Selasi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder15 Fak-fak Weti Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Tambrauw Saukorem Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 Teluk Bintuni Arandai Collector Collector Collector Collector18 Teluk Bintuni Babo Collector Collector Collector Collector19 Teluk Bintuni Bintuni Collector Collector Collector Collector20 Monokwari Monokwari Collector Collector Collector Collector21 Monokwari Oransbari Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Monokwari Ransiki Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder23 Teluk Wondana Wasior Collector Collector Collector Collector24 Teluk Wondana Windesi Collector Collector Collector Collector25 Raja Ampat Fatanlap Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder26 Raja Ampat Kabare Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder27 Raja Ampat Kalobo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder28 Raja Ampat Sailolof Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder29 Raja Ampat Saonek Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder30 Raja Ampat Pam Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder31 Raja Ampat Waigama Collector Collector Collector Collector32 Sorong Arar Collector Collector Collector Collector33 Sorong Makbon Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder34 Sorong Mega Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder35 Sorong Muarana Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 127
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203036 Sorong Kasim Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder37 Sorong Kiamano Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Sorong Salawati Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder39 Sorong Sausapor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder40 Sorong Seget Local Feeder Main Main Main41 Sorong Sele Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder42 Sorong Sorong Main Main Main Main43 Sorong Selatan Inawatan Collector Collector Collector Collector44 Sorong Selatan Konda Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder45 Sorong Selatan Taminabuan Collector Collector Collector CollectorProvince: Papua Regional Regional Regional Regional 1 Boven Digul Prabu Alaska Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder 2 Boven Digul Asiki Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 3 Boven Digul Anggamburan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 4 Boven Digul Cabang Tiga Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 5 Boven Digul Eci Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 6 Boven Digul Gantenteri Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 7 Boven Digul Tanah merah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 8 Boven Digul Tanah miring Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 9 Boven Digul Kaptel Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder10 Boven Digul Mindiptanah Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder11 Biak Numfor Biak Collector Collector Collector Collector12 Biak Numfor Korem Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder13 Biak Numfor Bosnik Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder14 Biak Numfor Wardo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder15 Biak Numfor Manggari Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder16 Biak Numfor Padaido Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder17 Biak Numfor Warsa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder18 Supiori Janggerbun Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder19 Supiori Kameri Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder20 Supiori Korido Collector Collector Collector Collector21 Supiori Miosbipondi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder22 Supiori Numfor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional23 Supiori Marsram Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder24 Sarmi Armopa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder25 Sarmi Bagusa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder26 Sarmi Kasonaweja Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder27 Sarmi Sarmi Collector Collector Collector Collector28 Sarmi Takar Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder29 Sarmi Teba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder30 Sarmi Wakde Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 128
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203031 Sarmi Apauwer Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder32 Jayapura Depapre Collector Collector Collector Collector33 Jayapura Betaf Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder34 Jayapura Demta Collector Collector Collector Collector35 Jayapura Jayapura Main Main Main Main36 Jayapura Metabor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder37 Jayapura Yanma Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder38 Asmat Agats Collector Collector Collector Collector39 Asmat Atsy Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder40 Asmat Jipawer Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder41 Asmat Pirimapun Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder42 Asmat Sawaerma Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder43 Asmat Yamas Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder44 Asmat Yaosakor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder45 Asmat Kamur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder46 Mappi Kepi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder47 Mappi Bade Collector Collector Collector Collector48 Mappi Bayun Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder49 Mappi Moor Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder50 Merauke Arambu Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder51 Merauke Bian Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder52 Merauke Bulaka Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder53 Merauke Bupul Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder54 Merauke Kimaan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder55 Merauke Kumbe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder56 Merauke Merauke Main Main Main Main57 Merauke Muting Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder58 Merauke Okaba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder59 Merauke Semanggi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder60 Merauke Senggo Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Pomako I & II61 Mimika (including Collector Collector Collector Collector Timika)62 Mimika Ammapare Collector Collector Collector Collector63 Mimika Hiripau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder64 Mimika Kokonao Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder65 Mimika fvg Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder66 Nabire Kuatisora Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder67 Nabire Nabire/Tlk.Kimi Collector Collector Collector Collector68 Nabire Napan Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder69 Nabire Nusa Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder70 Nabire Wanggur Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 129
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREENo. Regency / Port Name Port Hierarchy Municipality 2011 2015 2020 203071 Nabire Wapoga Collector Collector Collector Collector72 Yapen Ambai Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder73 Yapen Ansus Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder74 Yapen Dawai Collector Collector Collector Collector75 Yapen Poom Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Regional Regional Regional Regional76 Yapen Serui Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder77 Yapen Sumberbaba Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder78 Yapen Wainapi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder79 Yapen Owe Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder80 Waropen Waren Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder81 Waropen Kalpuri Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder82 Waropen Barapasi Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder83 Waropen P Nau Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder Local Feeder 130
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix B: Strategic Ports by Economic CorridorAppendix B-1 Strategic Ports within Sumatra Economic CorridorAppendix B-2 Strategic Ports within Java Economic Corridor 131
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE Appendix B-3 Strategic Ports within Kalimantan Economic CorridorAppendix B-4 Strategic Ports within Sulawesi Economic Corridor 132
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix B-5 Strategic Ports within Bali –Nusa Tenggara Economic CorridorAppendix B-6 Strategic Ports within Papua – Kepulauan Maluku Economic Corridor 133
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix C: Port Development Plan 134
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix C-1 Port Physical Development Plan by Economic Corridor and Type of Port Facilities, 2011-2030 135
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  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 142
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREEAppendix C-2 Port Sector Investment by Economic Corridor and Type of Facility, 2011-2030 (US$ millions) 143
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 144
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 145
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 146
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 147
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 148
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 149
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 150
  • TECHNICAL PAPER TO SUPPORT NPMP DECREE 151