Welcome to the Road Safety EngineeringWorkshop – Surabaya, 30th & 31th May 2012
An introduction to road safety                engineeringSurabaya30th & 31th May 2012     Phillip Jordan, Consultant  Road...
My Objectives:• To outline briefly the problem of road safety -  globally and in Indonesia• To outline “road safety engine...
A Global Problem• 1.3 million deaths each year on roads of the world (about  3600 per day, or 150 per hour, or more than 2...
A Global ProblemThe WHO predicts that by 2020 there will be 2.3 milliontraffic crash deaths worldwide, constituting 27.4% ...
An Indonesian Problem•   Some 34,000 deaths each year on the roads of Indonesia•   Over 250,000 are injured (that’s 700 pe...
An Indonesian ProblemMotorcyclists              Males
An Indonesian Problem
Victoria had a serious safety problem 40 years ago• In 1970, 1061 people died on the roads of Victoria  (a rate of about 9...
What is road safety engineering?Road safety engineering is:“the modification of the physical road environment,using proven...
What is road safety engineering?    A profession that combines:•   Traffic engineering•   Road design•   Human factors•   ...
What is road safety engineering?The two main processes in RSE are:• Blackspot investigation (a reactive process) – relies ...
Some engineers in the past have blamed all crasheson the human – the drivers, the pedestrians, themotorcyclists.These engi...
Crashes involve....                                         • Humans                                         • Vehicles   ...
The Haddon Matrix                    Introduction to road safety engineering
If you have a location on a highway where many          crashes occur, you might.....• Do nothing – its not your job!• Bla...
If you have a location on a highway where many          crashes occur, you might.....• Or maybe you are enlightened and yo...
• If so – you will be acting responsibly and will be  helping to reduce the crashes and the crash severity  at your proble...
Many differences, many                        similarities• There are many different roads around the world• There are man...
Many differences, many                    similarities• Some countries drive on the left side, some drive on  the right si...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Roads and users may differ, but   safety is a global problem                                                Which country ...
Many differences, many                           similarities   What lessons are there for Indonesia from other countries?...
What is a Road Crash?“a rare, random, multi-factorial event inwhich one or more road users has failed tocope with their en...
Road crash definition   road crashes are :-       rare - 1 in 200 people injured every year        random - impossible ...
These are crashes –  they are not “accidents”       We should use the word “CRASH”Accident implies that :• the cause was u...
We should use the word “CRASH”But a road crash:•   Can have “things” done to prevent it•   Is within our “control”•   Can ...
Road safety is a global problem      Introduction to road safety engineering
Road safety is a global problem      Introduction to road safety engineering
Please remember…….Road safety engineers can make a vitalcontribution to road safety in Indonesia.
Putting the road into road safetyLESSON 1: Engineers can improve safety bymaking low cost improvements at blackspots      ...
We eliminate blackspots with treatments such as:•   Signs•   Line markings•   Intersection improvements•   Street lighting...
 warn   inform   guide   control   forgiveIntroduction to road safety engineering
Road safety engineers should....             ..... create a road   environment which warns,          informs, guides and  ...
Road safety engineers should....   warn   inform   guide   control   forgive
Road safety engineers should.... •   warn •   inform •   guide •   control •   forgive               SHOULD ONLY BE USED I...
Road safety engineers should… warn inform guide control forgive                                                  What...
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive              TOO GENERAL
LESSON 2: Engineers improve safety by   correctly using warning signsGood warning signs must be:     - specific (not gener...
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                                      RHS     ...
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                       Confirmation signage
LESSON 3: Engineers improve safety by     providing good, timely informationGood information is:      - provided when and ...
Road safety engineers should....                              Guide post o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive      ...
Road safety engineers should....                                                  ?? o warn o inform o guide o control o f...
Road safety engineers should…  warn  inform  guide  control  forgive             Plastic guide post                  ...
Road safety engineers should…                                                           R/C guide posts                   ...
LESSON 4: Engineers improve safety by   providing good guidance to road usersGood guidance must be:     - continuous throu...
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                     Speed restriction sign
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                         Traffic signals
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                         Roundabout
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                      Railway crossing signals
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                               Regulatory traffic s...
Road safety engineers should....                                                   ??o warno informo guideo controlo forgi...
LESSON 5: Engineers improve safety by    providing correct traffic controlGood traffic control must be:      - enforceable...
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                         Sealed shoulders
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                      Driveable roadsides
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                                             X...
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                                             X     ...
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                         Crash cushions
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                         Crash barriers
Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive                     Wire rope safety barriers
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                                              ...
Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive                                              ...
Road safety engineers should....    o warn    o inform    o guide    o control    o forgive                     Slip based...
Road safety engineers should....                                                   ??o warno informo guideo controlo forgi...
LESSON 6: Engineers improve safety by    providing a forgiving roadA “forgiving” road is one that:      - does all that is...
LESSON 7: Engineers improve safety by installing   crash barriers only where really necessaryBarriers should only be the l...
There will be more on these topics in the      remainder of this workshop             Introduction to road safety engineer...
Road safety engineering – has    a big future in Indonesia:I look forward to detailing the blackspotprocess next – are the...
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1 intro to road safety engineering

  1. 1. Welcome to the Road Safety EngineeringWorkshop – Surabaya, 30th & 31th May 2012
  2. 2. An introduction to road safety engineeringSurabaya30th & 31th May 2012 Phillip Jordan, Consultant Road Safety International Pty Ltd
  3. 3. My Objectives:• To outline briefly the problem of road safety - globally and in Indonesia• To outline “road safety engineering”• To emphasise the important role of the road in road safety• To encourage you to design, construct and manage safer roads Introduction to road safety engineering
  4. 4. A Global Problem• 1.3 million deaths each year on roads of the world (about 3600 per day, or 150 per hour, or more than 2 per minute !)• Over 15 million are seriously injured Introduction to road safety engineering
  5. 5. A Global ProblemThe WHO predicts that by 2020 there will be 2.3 milliontraffic crash deaths worldwide, constituting 27.4% of allinjury related deaths90% of these will occur in low and middle incomecountriesFor example, Indonesia had 34,000 fatalities in2011(Police figures)By 2020 that may be up to 60,000 deaths Global road safety - Phillip Jordan
  6. 6. An Indonesian Problem• Some 34,000 deaths each year on the roads of Indonesia• Over 250,000 are injured (that’s 700 per day)• 61% of deaths are motorcyclists• 15 -20% of deaths are pedestrians• Numbers are increasing! Introduction to road safety engineering
  7. 7. An Indonesian ProblemMotorcyclists Males
  8. 8. An Indonesian Problem
  9. 9. Victoria had a serious safety problem 40 years ago• In 1970, 1061 people died on the roads of Victoria (a rate of about 9 deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles)• Legislation, public awareness, engineering and co- ordination between agencies has reduced this figure.• In 2011, 287 people died on Victoria’s roads (a rate of 0.9 deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles) There is hope ! Introduction to road safety engineering
  10. 10. What is road safety engineering?Road safety engineering is:“the modification of the physical road environment,using proven processes and techniques, thatendeavours to reduce risk for all road users” Introduction to road safety engineering
  11. 11. What is road safety engineering? A profession that combines:• Traffic engineering• Road design• Human factors• Detailed analysis• Reactive processes• Proactive processes• Lots of judgment Introduction to road safety engineering
  12. 12. What is road safety engineering?The two main processes in RSE are:• Blackspot investigation (a reactive process) – relies on the crash record for a site, and aims to reduce the crash frequency and/or severity at that site.• Road safety audit (a proactive process) – takes the same skills but applies them during the design stages of a new road project to prevent crashes. Introduction to road safety engineering
  13. 13. Some engineers in the past have blamed all crasheson the human – the drivers, the pedestrians, themotorcyclists.These engineers have not understood that they havea vital role to play in reducing crashes.Improvements to the road are some of the most cost-effective things to do to improve safety.For example – in Australia, the National Road Safety Strategy has roadimprovements (blackspots etc) to be the highest priority Introduction to road safety engineering
  14. 14. Crashes involve.... • Humans • Vehicles • Roads Introduction to road safety engineering
  15. 15. The Haddon Matrix Introduction to road safety engineering
  16. 16. If you have a location on a highway where many crashes occur, you might.....• Do nothing – its not your job!• Blame the drivers/riders• Ask the Police to enforce the road rules there• Work with the local community and teachers to educate drivers/riders and pedestrians about road safety• Ask DGLT to inspect all the vehicles at the location and take the unsafe ones off the road• Ask the local hospital to improve their emergency services Introduction to road safety engineering
  17. 17. If you have a location on a highway where many crashes occur, you might.....• Or maybe you are enlightened and you will understand that you have a blackspot on your highway.• You will get as much Police crash data as possible.• You will read it, prepare a collision diagram and a crash factor grid.• You will be a detective and look for patterns in the crashes (types of crashes, time of day, weather conditions, day vs night)• Then you will develop low cost countermeasures that address the main patterns of crashes Introduction to road safety engineering
  18. 18. • If so – you will be acting responsibly and will be helping to reduce the crashes and the crash severity at your problem site• This is what crash investigation is all about. Introduction to road safety engineering
  19. 19. Many differences, many similarities• There are many different roads around the world• There are many different road users also Introduction to road safety engineering
  20. 20. Many differences, many similarities• Some countries drive on the left side, some drive on the right side.• A few drive on both sides!!! - joking• Some countries have good crash reporting systems, some do not.• Some have many motorcycles – some do not• Some have many different road users – some don’t.• What lessons are there for Indonesia from other countries? Introduction to road safety engineering
  21. 21. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  22. 22. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  23. 23. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  24. 24. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  25. 25. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  26. 26. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  27. 27. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  28. 28. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  29. 29. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  30. 30. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  31. 31. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  32. 32. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  33. 33. Roads and users may differ, but safety is a global problem Which country is this? Introduction to road safety engineering
  34. 34. Many differences, many similarities What lessons are there for Indonesia from other countries?1. Road safety is a business – you must show economic benefits from your work.2. Road crashes cost the Indonesian community a lot of money – almost 3% of GDP.3. Road safety takes a long time to improve – but the sooner we start, the sooner Indonesia will benefit from safer roads and lower trauma costs.4. You can have a life long career in road safety engineering.5. Improving blackspots is one of the most cost effective things you can do. Introduction to road safety engineering
  35. 35. What is a Road Crash?“a rare, random, multi-factorial event inwhich one or more road users has failed tocope with their environment.” Introduction to road safety engineering
  36. 36. Road crash definition road crashes are :-  rare - 1 in 200 people injured every year  random - impossible to predict where and when the next crash will happen  multi-factor - combination of behavioural, vehicle and highway factors. Introduction to road safety engineering
  37. 37. These are crashes – they are not “accidents” We should use the word “CRASH”Accident implies that :• the cause was unpredictable• no human could have done anything to prevent it• it is outside of our “control”• It was in the “hands of the gods” Introduction to road safety engineering
  38. 38. We should use the word “CRASH”But a road crash:• Can have “things” done to prevent it• Is within our “control”• Can be prevented• Is related closely to risk, and is predictable Introduction to road safety engineering
  39. 39. Road safety is a global problem Introduction to road safety engineering
  40. 40. Road safety is a global problem Introduction to road safety engineering
  41. 41. Please remember…….Road safety engineers can make a vitalcontribution to road safety in Indonesia.
  42. 42. Putting the road into road safetyLESSON 1: Engineers can improve safety bymaking low cost improvements at blackspots Introduction to road safety engineering
  43. 43. We eliminate blackspots with treatments such as:• Signs• Line markings• Intersection improvements• Street lighting• Barriers and roadside hazard improvements• These can be summarised into 5 actions..... Introduction to road safety engineering
  44. 44.  warn  inform  guide  control  forgiveIntroduction to road safety engineering
  45. 45. Road safety engineers should.... ..... create a road environment which warns, informs, guides and controls all road users, but forgives them when they make a mistake
  46. 46. Road safety engineers should....  warn  inform  guide  control  forgive
  47. 47. Road safety engineers should.... • warn • inform • guide • control • forgive SHOULD ONLY BE USED IF THE BRIDGE IS NARROWER THAN TOO GENERAL THE ROAD
  48. 48. Road safety engineers should… warn inform guide control forgive What is this warning of ? Introduction to road safety engineering
  49. 49. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive TOO GENERAL
  50. 50. LESSON 2: Engineers improve safety by correctly using warning signsGood warning signs must be: - specific (not general) - well located – not too close, not too far, not hidden - sometimes repeated/duplicated - reflective (for night time safety) - well maintained
  51. 51. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive RHS Roundabout
  52. 52. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive Confirmation signage
  53. 53. LESSON 3: Engineers improve safety by providing good, timely informationGood information is: - provided when and where it is needed - able to be read easily - sometimes repeated (especially on high speed roads) - reflective (for night time safety) - well maintained
  54. 54. Road safety engineers should.... Guide post o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive CAM’s, guide posts, edge lines, centre lines
  55. 55. Road safety engineers should.... ?? o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive One CAM only, we need a series of CAM’s. Use plastic signs if these get stolen.
  56. 56. Road safety engineers should…  warn  inform  guide  control  forgive Plastic guide post Introduction to road safety engineering
  57. 57. Road safety engineers should… R/C guide posts  warn  inform X  guide  control  forgive Introduction to road safety engineering
  58. 58. LESSON 4: Engineers improve safety by providing good guidance to road usersGood guidance must be: - continuous through a curve and along a route - consistent across a network (not only at some places, and not others) - standardised where possible - reflective (for night time safety)
  59. 59. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Speed restriction sign
  60. 60. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Traffic signals
  61. 61. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Roundabout
  62. 62. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Railway crossing signals
  63. 63. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Regulatory traffic signs
  64. 64. Road safety engineers should.... ??o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Even this badly maintained sign can be recognised as a Stop sign
  65. 65. LESSON 5: Engineers improve safety by providing correct traffic controlGood traffic control must be: - enforceable by Police (legally compliant) - standardised – all signals the same colour, all signs the same shape/colour - well located – highly visible - well maintained (why are so many traffic signals out of action in Indonesia?)
  66. 66. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Sealed shoulders
  67. 67. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Driveable roadsides
  68. 68. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive X This is NOT forgiving
  69. 69. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive X This is NOT forgiving
  70. 70. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Crash cushions
  71. 71. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive Crash barriers
  72. 72. Road safety engineers should....o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Wire rope safety barriers
  73. 73. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive X Crash barriers – if used they must be correctly installed and maintained
  74. 74. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive X Deep drains are not forgiving – if used they must be covered and maintained
  75. 75. Road safety engineers should.... o warn o inform o guide o control o forgive Slip based lighting columns
  76. 76. Road safety engineers should.... ??o warno informo guideo controlo forgive Sometimes we simply need a new highway!
  77. 77. LESSON 6: Engineers improve safety by providing a forgiving roadA “forgiving” road is one that: - does all that is possible to keep the vehicles on the road - has driveable side slopes, no uncovered drains nearby - removes or relocates roadside hazards - uses forgiving roadside furniture - has crash barrier only where really needed
  78. 78. LESSON 7: Engineers improve safety by installing crash barriers only where really necessaryBarriers should only be the last option – and if used theymust be correctly installed and maintained: - located well off the road - correct height, long enough to shield the hazard - safe terminals (most terminals are not safe in Indonesia) - good reflectors (for night time safety) - well maintained
  79. 79. There will be more on these topics in the remainder of this workshop Introduction to road safety engineering
  80. 80. Road safety engineering – has a big future in Indonesia:I look forward to detailing the blackspotprocess next – are there any questions? Introduction to road safety engineering
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