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  1. 1. MANTHAN TOPIC : SOWING PROSPERITY TEAM DETAILS Gaurav Bhanarkar Akshay Jadhavar Vaibhav Arwari Vijay Mali Vitthal Darade Coping with Inadequate non-firm Services Providing better storage facilities for farmers and other institutional help
  2. 2. Growth in agricultural output over the past three decades has been strong and, importantly, crop production has been able to broadly keep pace with the demands from a growing population (Graph 1). The introduction of high-yielding seeds (such as improved strains of wheat) from the mid 1960s and the increased use of chemical fertilisers epitomised what became known as the ‘green revolution’. Wheat production increased by nearly 150 per cent between the mid 1960s and mid 1970s and the country became self- sufficient in grain production by the end of the 1970s. The increase in agricultural production boosted rural incomes while also causing food prices to fall. This had the effect of reducing rural poverty (World Bank 2004).
  3. 3. There are four goals of agricultural development: (a) achieve maximum yield (b) improvement of small and marginal farmers, lagging regions, women etc.; (c) improve standard of land, labour and maintaining food security; (d) maintain agriculture sustainability by considering environment factors; (e) maintaining fertility of land and prevent soil erosion. The causes for low productivity of Indian agriculture can be divided into 3 broad categories, namely, (1) General factors, (a) Overcrowding in Agriculture: (b) Discouraging Rural Atmosphere (c) Inadequate non-firm Services: (d) Natural Calamities (2) Institutional factors , (a) Size of Holding: (b) Pattern of Land Tenure: (3) Technological factors (a) Poor Technique of Production: (b) Inadequate Irrigational Facilities:
  4. 4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA, CHINA AND ISRAIEL Indian agriculture is labour intensive, mostly subsistence farming, nearly 60% of its population is dependent on farming and most farms are rain fed. On the other hand, Israel having Only 20% of the land area naturally arable , today agriculture represents 2.5% of total GDP and 3.6% of exports. While India’s agricultural sector is growing by about 2.5 per cent; China’s has been steadily growing at between 4 and 5 per cent over the last 15 years , China with lesser cultivable land produces double the food grains, at 415 million tons per year compared with India’s 208 million tons per year. China having outperformed India in agriculture are threefold: (a)technological improvements accruing from research (b)development, investment in rural infrastructure and (c)an increasingly liberalised agricultural policy.
  5. 5. Research, Extension and Technology Fatigue: The National Commission on Farmers indicates that there is a large knowledge gap between the yields in research stations and actual yields in farmers‟ fields. The yield gaps given by the Planning Commission (GOI, 2007 a) range from 5% to 300% depending on the crop and State. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) has been launched in 2007 to increase 20 million tonnes of foodgrains (10 m.t. for rice, 8 m.t. for wheat and 2 m.t. for pulses) during the 11th plan period. It has already shown some results by increasing yields in different regions. There is a need to strengthen this mission to increase productivity.
  6. 6. Cont’d …….. There is a need to shift away from individual crop-oriented research focused essentially on irrigated areas towards research on crops and cropping systems in the dry lands, hills, tribal and other marginal areas .In view of high variability in agro-climatic conditions in such unfavourable areas, research has to become increasingly location-specific with greater participation or interaction with farmers. Private sector participation in agricultural research, extension and marketing is becoming increasingly important especially with the advent of biotechnology and protection being given to intellectual property. However, private sector participation tends to be limited to profitable crops and enterprises undertaken by resource rich farmers in well endowed regions.
  7. 7. Therefore, the public sector research has to increasingly address the problems facing the resource-poor farmers in the less endowed regions. The new agricultural technologies in the horizon are largely biotechnologies. Similarly, there is a need to strengthen extension. The ATMA (Agricultural Technology Management Agency) scheme was launched in 2005 to support state governments‟ efforts to revitalize the extension. This scheme gives an opportunity to improve extension system. The returns to investment on research and extension will be much higher on agricultural growth as compared to other investments. Land Issues: small size of farm is responsible for low profitability of agriculture. On land market, the Report of the Steering Committee recommended the following. “Small farmers should be assisted to buy land through the provision of institutional credit, on a long term basis, at a low rate of interest and by reducing stamp duty. At the same time, they should be enabled to enlarge their operational holdings by liberalizing the land lease market. The two major elements of such a reform are: security of tenure for tenants during the period of contract; and the right of the land owner to resume land after the period of contract is over” (GOI, 2007).
  8. 8. Merits of the proposed solution in comparison to the existing alternative (a) Security of small farmers from zamindaars loan (b) Increase of technology use in agriculture field (c) Provide employebility to chemical and biotech engineers (d) Increase in scope of innovations in agriculturul field (e) Interdisciplinary work of government and private sector increses Basically, we have to ensure land leasing, create conditions including credit, whereby the poor can access land from those who wish to leave agriculture. There are some emerging land issues such as increase in demand for land for non- agricultural purposes including special economic zones, displacement of farmers, tribals and others due to development projects. There is a need for careful land acquisition. Land alienation is a serious problem in tribal areas.
  10. 10. The main objectives of this department will be : To maintain good To keep a check on relationship between Sub committee at district consumers and producers. level and Inspection and research department and Proper planning according check progress. to different crop season in India. Keep a check on corruption at different levels Proper arrangement of funds and other required stuffs To stop partiallity and injustice against farmers CORE COMMITTEE AT STATE LEVEL
  11. 11. This committee will look after for employment of more and more local persons as co workers and volunteers . It will maintain connection between workers and central committee for more progress and efficient help. This will monitor the work of volunteers and work as a leader for co workers . Solve small disputes of farmers . It will provide amenities given by central committee to the different volunteers. The main objective of this department is to do as much as possible research in agricultural field. To solve the problem related to fertility of land of that area. Continuous inspection of land fertility and maintain fertility of land. To plan for modern pesticides and develop bio fertilizers . Regulate the productivity of land and prevent overuse of it. To promote use of eco friendly fertilizers and modern techniques. INSPECTION AND RESEARCH DEPARTMENT SUB COMMITTEE AT DISTRICT LEVEL
  12. 12. The most important work is of volunteers and co workers . They help to maintain healthy relationship between government and producers. They are the one who will directly contact with the farmers. It will help the small farmers to express their feelings . They will communicate producers sufferings to higher level and will look for solution as early as possible. This department will promote employability of engineers and will also assist experienced retired social worker. The engineers will take care of problem of productivity and will try to improve. Their main motive will be to look for small scale technical solution of problems related to farmer by investment of small bucks. The experience persons work will be to give their best mental and inspirational support to producers. Volunteers will try to help small farmer to improve their standard of living by providing proper knowledge about their farming work. DIFFERENT ENGINEERS AND EXPERIENCED PERSON DIFFERENT VOLUNTEERS AND AGENTS
  13. 13. Small farmers can be called as the producers . They are the one who are suffering and require proper attention of government . This department will have some volunteers who will directly go on the site and help farmers regarding their problem. They will also educate them about how to increase their productivity and what is the role of farming in economy. This department member will provide solution directly on the site . They will be the one who will transfer modern techniques knowledge to the producers DIRECT TO SITE DEPARTMENT SMALL FARMERS
  14. 14. Impact of the solution (a) Agricultural productivity will be increased as more land is used for cultivation purpose rather than just kept empty . (b) Which ultimately increase GDP rate (by extra contribution of agricultural contribution like China) (c) Small farmers life will be improved (d) % of waste government land will decrease (e) Ultimately it will increase beauty and reduce pollution Impact of this method can be noted directly by measuring : less cost of crops in market ; reduction of inflation rate ; agricultural productivity of area ; increase in per hectare production of crops; increase in overall productivity of state and country .
  15. 15. SCALABILITY OF SOLUTION This solution needs large scale contribution of every institution from central level to individual level . This method can be applied more efficiently at state level and then complete monitoring to central government can be passed . Monitoring mechanisms A core committee fully dedicated on this method should be developed at central level . This committee will have to monitor all sub areas ie. On district level And there should be a sub committee at district level which will look after the land maintenance and providing help to farmers .
  16. 16. Means to mitigate the identified challenges (a) Proper Subsidies and Investments (b) improvements in flow of farm credit (c) Diversification to Hi-value Agriculture and Marketing (d) there should be some form of contract arrangements in several agricultural crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, chillies, gherkin, baby corn, rose, onions, cotton, wheat, basmati rice, groundnut, flowers, and medicinal plants. (e) there should be improvement in the share of small and marginal farmers; Challenges (a) Workers use at private department should be well educated otherwise it will lead to a big chaos in management . (b) If any of the links get disturbed whole plan will get affected (c) Private and government institutes must do their best in all way (d) Financial problem may get arised , but should be managed (e) Role of central office should be appreciable
  17. 17. Appendix References: (a) Policies for Raising Agricultural Growth and Productivity in India by S. Mahendra Dev (b) International Atomic Energy Agency Information Series (c) COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA, CHINA AND US by Dr.S.Vijay Kumar (d) Indiastat – Revealing India statistically (e) Indian agriculture review: Ghana 2009-2010 outlook (f) My agriculture information bank