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  • 1. VRIDHI
  • 2. 0 10 20 1980-1991 1992-2001 2002-2007 2007-2012 2012-2017* Services Industry Agriculture GROWTH GDP & MAJOR SECTORS (in %) *2012-2017 XII Plan (TARGET-1)  Agriculture and allied sectors contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP of India) while about 65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.  About 50% of India's geographical area is used for agricultural activity  Agriculture in India can be broadly classified into crops, livestock, and agro-forestry. * r.htm Characteristics of agriculture in India and the major problems: Unequal benefit sharing Unfair subsidies Poor storage of produce Improper utilization of resources
  • 3. d. POOR STORAGE OF PRODUCE a. IMPROPER UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES Over-utilization of resources like water and land leads to pressure on the existing resources . With time it leads to decline in produce . Hypothesis: Increasing market needs push farmers to maximize their output per area. Very less is given to the replenishment. A farmer with a large landholding receives more benefits and subsidies from the government than a small land-holding or a landless farm labourer. Hypothesis: Due to undue influences, muscle and money power, the not-so-needful largely receive the benefits that were intended for the poor people. It leads to exploitation of resources on many levels. Profit gained by the retailer does not percolate to the producer in fair proportions. Hypothesis: Lack of incentives and benefits when the profits are not shared equally leads to disinterest among farmers in growing that particular crop and moving on to cultivate cash crops that might fetch them better prices. A large portion of the surplus produce becomes unfit for consumption and goes waste due to improper transport and storage. Hypothesis: There is production but no quenching of demand. The wholesaler (or govt.) buys from producer doesn’t receive benefits since the produce does not reach the consumer. Sums up to debts and feeble investment.
  • 4. USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) and other INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)TOOLS to use geo-spatial and socio-economic data, data from remote sensing and surveys to have a more area-specific sustainable and eco-friendly approach to solve the problems regarding agricultural productivity at hand. WhatisGIS? A computer tool for managing geographic feature location data and data related to those features. Designed for the collection, storage and analysis of objects and phenomena where geographic location is an important characteristic or critical to the analysis. It facilitates storage of data in an easily accessible digital format enables complex analysis and modeling not previously possible. Spatial data clubbed with attribute data enables GIS to be an effective problem solving tool.
  • 5. WHAT TO DO?
  • 6. • The e-Governance and other already existing kiosks in states like Gujarat can be remodeled and used for this purpose. • Government broadband and telecommunication services can be used for all data collection, transfer,processing, analysis and vending purposes. • Bank loans can be taken • Government and NGO aid can be sought to meet the expenses.
  • 7. Financialresourcesrequired Software Cloud computing--- can’t be judged without knowing detailed specifications Buying the software Internet kiosk Fixtures and furniture Variable cost electricity, stationery, maintenance, salary to employees, rent INR 2 LAKHS INR 2 LAKH INR 20 LAKH INR 8 LAKHS INITIALLY  Hardware (Workstations, Data digitizers, GPS data logger, web servers, et cetera)  Software (Application packages and add-ons)  Data, (Attribute and spatial data) and  People (those skilled at using GIS software) OTHER REQUIREMENTS:
  • 8. 1. IMPACT OF THE PROPOSED SOLUTIONS can be felt by conducting surveys after implementation in the areas and the comparing it to the state that existed prior to the implementation. Net profit and yield are the direct parameters that reflect the effects. Indirect factors like physical and mental well being of farmer indicate the effects. 2. SCALABILITY: • Can be applied on a Panchayat level. • Can be scaled to the block level. • Can not be scaled to be applied to larger areas due to financial and implementation-related issues. 3. SUSTAINABILITY: This requires only a major one time investment and can incorporate the use of several already existing resources. This makes this proposed model sustainable. The upgrades that are constantly made are on the existing framework. So, new features can easily be implemented. 4. APPROPRIATE MONITORING MECHANISMS: • Kiosk owners can monitor the kiosks effectively as they have direct incentives attached. • A Project coordinator can be appointed in a region • People appointed by the investing agency • They can keep in check the functioning, staff, up gradation and other standards of the kiosk.
  • 9. • Identification of crops and estimation of area and production of short duration crops grown in fragmented land holdings. • Forecasting of droughts/floods. • Detection of crop stress due to nutrients, pests and diseases and quantification of their effects on crop yield. • Automation of land evaluation procedures for a variety of applications using GIS techniques. • Information on sub-surface soil horizons. • Developing decision support systems for management of biotic and abiotic stresses. • More accurate yield models • Estimation of depth of water in reservoirs and quality assessment of ground water. • Watershed development plan at the micro level. • Use of remote sensing and precision farming technologies in intercropping, multiple cropping etc • Extending the reach of GIT to the rural poor and finding people skilled enough to work with GIT. • Integrate the fragmented land holdings into one . The resources can be bought for the whole unit rather than individually, to minimize cost and other analysis related issues. • Decentralizing the rural government makes the implementation of the proposed model easier. • Develop better forecasting mechanisms • Detailed and extensive study of soil compositions, physical factors, and stress factors on the land • Proper assessment of water resources • Making people aware of the benefits of GIS and ICT tools and encouraging their use
  • 10. REFERENCES • Indian Economic Development, Textbook for class IX, NCERT • • Anderson Scott, GIS Assists Public Health Campaign in Thailand, • ArcUser Online, Health Geography, July - September 2002 • Balaji. D, GIS approach for disaster management through awareness - an Overview, • Davenhall Bill, Building a Community Health Surveillance System, • Gupta A, Information Technology and Natural Disaster Management in India, • Kamble B D, Precision farming in Indian Agricultural Scenario, • Kumar G S (2002), Modeling archaeological collections, GIS dev. June 2002, vol.6, iss. 6, pp. 44-45 • Roy S. R. (2009), Geographical Information System: Providing New Dimensions To Solution Methodologies in Modern Era, Proc., RAIT 2009 conference, ISMU, Dhanbad, pp 193-200 • Sinha J., (2002), Geotechnical study of an engineering project: A Geeomatic approach, Proc., Map India conf. New Delhi, pp 49-55 • Singh S, Sinha J (2001), Application of GPS in geological mapping: A preliminary thought, proc. The Asian GS conference, New Delhi, pp 145-147 •