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  1. 1. Manthan Theme- Towards Cleaner India: Providing clean drinking water and proper sanitation facility to all Presented by: Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Akash Kumar, 11110010 Mahesh Kumar, 11110047 Monish Bhangale, 11110056 Prem Meena, 11110073 Vishal Yadav, 11110116 Initiatives Towards Cleaner India for Safe Drinking Water and Better Sanitation Facilities
  2. 2. • India has 16% of world’s population and only 4% of its fresh water resources • Almost 40% of surface and ground water sources are not available for use due to geological and topographical reasons • Large scale water pollution – safe drinking water crisis • Contamination of water with hazardous pollutants due to poor sanitation • Drinking polluted water leads to health issues like diarrhoea and other water borne diseases in children • Poor sanitation leads to exposure to toxic gases & chemicals and heavy metals in body – damage liver and kidney, cause cancer, decreases blood hemoglobin, skin diseases, damage nervous and reproductive system etc. • In 2020, India will become a water stressed nation • 161 of out of approx. 600 districts in India have been declared drought • Out of 6.3 lakh rural schools, only 44 % have water supply facilities • 66 million Indians in 20 states are at risk due to excess fluoride • 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually - 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone - Economic burden is estimated at $600 million a year • As per World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program report, inadequate sanitation costs India the equivalent of 6.4% of its GDP -Feb 2011, 31% of rural households in India do not have toilets • 1,95,813 habitations in the country are affected by poor sanitation facilities and unhealthy water quality
  3. 3. Stage 1: Spreading awareness about water crisis and poor sanitation facility- concerns & initiatives Convey through Education Workshops in critical zones • Build a platform for organizing workshops in different segments of critical zones • Convey critics of current situation through seminars by social activists and technical experts • Collaborate with social organizations to spread awareness effectively on a large scale • To aware children and young students on a large scale, sufficient information should be conveyed through an academic course as part of their academic curriculum • Propagate efficient water usage practices through community based education programs Social Media coverage • To address young generation about water crisis and poor sanitation facility concerns, use of social media will really help to reach the target market • Online prize winning quizzes and contests will ensure retention and engagement of users Awareness as an individual • To minimize cons of water crisis and poor sanitation facility, it is a responsibility of each and every individual to spread awareness, although as per ones’ knowledge • Be a responsible citizen, and contribute to make a better society Address through Audio Visual tools • Viable information can be circulated through videos, slides and photos • Print materials such as posters and brochures can be effectively used to spread awareness • Displaying case studies of positive role models will certainly help to reach mass
  4. 4. Stage 2: Implement properly organized system of units to handle waste for better sanitation Organized Waste Management • Regular functioning of municipal units to collect waste on large scale • Systematic functioning of ‘waste exchange operational units’ • Proper functioning of recycling units- recycle appropriate components on basis of economic feasibility and optimum efficiency • Implement new low cost eco-friendly ways to dispose non-recyclable waste at safe waste disposal sites • Implement collaboration strategies for convergence of various departments associated with water- water and sanitation programs should not operate largely in isolation from programs in health and education • The government, NGO’s, and the citizenry need to work in close collaboration to make a real difference as when they work in isolation the project lags behind Collection of Waste Recycling Disposal at safe sites Sorting and Distribution It would be remarkable to start tracing the path of Sweden policies ‘to create an efficient and profitable national system to access better sanitation facilities for saving the environment through large-scale recycling’ on a selective scale and prepare to implement same model on a larger scale
  5. 5. Stage 3: Prevent contamination of water for safe drinking water and better sanitation Use of biodegradable products Industrial Uses of Water Power Stations Paper Textiles Beverages Laundries Regular functioning of SWM units • Regular functioning of Solid Waste Management units to reduce chances of water contamination • Large scale actions of SWM system to ensure better and fruitful management of waste • Implement innovative dustbin designs • Implement more Windrow Composting Plants- most successful waste management technology in India • Substitution with new viable biodegradable products like cellulose based packing material and spider silk based fibers will result into declined extent of littering • Selection of plastics by optimizing on basis of ‘Environmental Preference Spectrum’, considering industrial constraints for commercialized production • Implement innovative ways of using plants for multiple purposes and maximize their dyeing potential of classical dyestuffs like indigo, cutch, weld, madder and cochineal New viable techniques and processes • Implement efficiently viable techniques with repeated cycles to filtrate the chemical industries’ effluent in order to minimize extent of water pollution • A better management system to handle effluent in order to minimize the quantity and quality of residual effluent • Use of economically and environmentally viable techniques which would complete water involving processes with significantly less amount of water
  6. 6. Bandalong Litter Traps- To control and remove litter from the waterways • A unique designed gate system to collect maximum floating litter and debris without impeding natural water flow • Complete regard for environment without endangering fish and wildlife • Scope for modified design as per site specifications and requirements • Floating litter traps and boom systems made up of corrosive resistant materials Stage 4.0: Implement new designed products to reduce extent of water pollution for enhancing sanitation • Implement new ways based on more efficient advanced technology to improve water usage efficiency in the production of water-intensive crops such as rice, wheat and sugarcane • Support via special schemes in agriculture to adopt techniques such as rain-water harvesting and watershed management • Implement policies to make rain-water harvesting mandatory in cities with new construction projects • Encourage Indian companies by recognizing their proactive implementation of sustainable water management programs such as ‘Deep Pond System’ for decomposing sewage sludge and solids present in wastewater • Proper functioning of authorized committee to workout policies and plans to ensure fast track implementation of National River Link Project to reduce regional disparities in water availability Stage 4.1 : Steps towards reducing extent of water pollution to avail better sanitation facilities
  7. 7. Stage 5: Strategies to enhance effectiveness of desalination plants- functioning & efficiency • Implement new technology based economically viable plans to execute better functioning of maintenance team for ensuring proper supply of salty water without much of water wastage • Collaboration with private industries to work out a properly organized water supply system for adequately distributing plant outlets’ fresh water to be used in various sectors • Implement energy-conserving desalination process to enhance the efficiency of desalination plants for setting a competitive price to avail fresh water supply • Implement new strategies like establishing desalination units to generate water for the plant’s own need to enhancing the efficiency of water utilization in the industrial sector • Encourage investment through special schemes in recycling and treatment of industrial wastewater through regulations and subsidies for water treatment plants • According to India Water Desalination Plants Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2017, Indian water desalination market size has doubled in last three years • As per report of Central Pollution Control Board, only 31% of total wastewater generated by 23 metropolitan cities is treated • Increasing population, industrialization, emerging economy and demand for fresh water has been driving factors for Indian desalination market Build a separate fast-track committee (reporting to central government) to analyze land requirements for all the proposed desalination projects and eradicate hurdles in execution of site-plan to ensure no unnecessary delays in the work
  8. 8. Stage 6: Outlets to avail currently used domestic water purifying devices, ensuring high quality at optimum cost • Collaboration of government outlets with private sector to ensure smooth availability of profound quality product as per demand constraints • Providing facility on a large scale to set a competitive price • A decent part of profit will account to government collection, which can be used to provide certain facilities and schemes to required ones • Scope for implementing new government schemes including payment in installments • Special schemes for rural farmers- like as payment at the time of crop selling or in exchange with equivalent quantity of suitable crop Reverse Osmosis based System Countertop Filters Water Ionization Filter Water Distiller Ultraviolet Purifying System Gravity based Water Purifier
  9. 9. Stage 7.0: Platform to access new viable technology based low-cost devices to serve safe drinking water WaterisLife Straw Chlorine Dispenser System • The dispenser casing, tank and valve are made from injection/blow-molded HDPE, a plastic suited to long-term storage of sodium hypochlorite • The casing locks to ensure the security of the tank’s contents; it is bolted to a 4” concrete-filled PVC pipe and cemented into the ground near communal water sources • The valve is calibrated to release a 3mL dose of 1.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, enough to treat 20L of clear water for up to 72 hours • Turn the valve to dose the jerricans and then fill the containers with water- chlorine mixes with the water properly within 30 minutes making water safe for drinking Life Straw • Contains PuroTech Disinfecting Resin (PDR) – an extraordinarily effective material that kills bacteria on contact • Textile pre-filters are used to remove particles up to 15 microns • Removes 99.9999% of waterborne bacteria and 99.9% of parasites from the contaminated water • Filters up to 1,000 liters (264 gallons) of water, approx. one and half year of water consumption for one person • Designed for tough outdoor conditions- no batteries or moving parts to wear out • Succeed on EPA standards for water filtration in independent testing • Used around the world under extreme conditions for humanitarian relief
  10. 10. • Series of products as per different use cases for portable water purification market • Ultraviolet light technology is simple but effective, destroying more than 99.9 % of bacteria, viruses and protozoan cysts such as giardia and cryptosporidia • Purifies water safely and effectively, without altering the taste, pH, or other properties of the water, and works without chemicals • Large scale users model will ensure optimum price for availing the products SteriPEN Products Stage 7.1: Platform to access new viable technology based high utility products Lumi process- Inkodye • Simplest and less time method called ‘Lumi Process’ for printing with very less amount of water • Print your clicked pictures with different colors on clothes and fabric sheet • Wide range of scope for Industrial use and commercialization • Large scale production model will support to set an affordable price • Implement new policies for availing such new viable technology based high utility products to mass • Execute export plan model to provide products at Indian outlets on an optimum level, and expand it with the technological and economical growth • Introduce joint venture industries between Indian and foreign technical industries in India to produce products based on new technologies, mainly for Indian mass • Collaboration with foreign research laboratories to set up high level Research & Development units in India for developing new technologies in India itself, consequently reducing reliability on foreign technologies
  11. 11. Model implementation challenges • Ample amount of funds needed for implementing the model on an effective scale • High operating costs for agency-run systems due to high administrative overheads • To ensure proper functioning of proposed ‘Waste Management Network • To build and operate water treatment systems on the principle of full cost recovery • High level of professional inputs to provide technical manpower for system operations and maintenance • Execution of Water Treatment systems at the community level for cost effective drinking water supply • Use of new techno institutional models to manage the system in order to make them self sustaining • Implementation of new policies to restructure all the line agencies for enforcement of pollution control norms effectively and to enable environmental management projects
  12. 12. Appendix References • Avalon Global Research, Water and Waste Water Treatment Opportunity in India • Bandalong International- Bandalong Litter Traps • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India • Confederation of Indian Industry, CII Review of Water Technologies Urban & Industrial Sectors • European Business and Technology Centre, Water and Wastewater in India • India Water Desalination Plants Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2017 • Innovations for Poverty Action- Chlorine Dispenser System • Report of Training Programme on Hazardous Waste Management, CENC, Patna • SteriPEN: UV Portable Water Purifier Systems • The Process - Lumi (Inkodye) • World Vision- Water is life (Education and Public Engagement)