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    Thunder Thunder Document Transcript

    • V Y S Y A C O L L E G E , S A L E M 2013 MANTHAN TOPIC: SOWING PROSPERITY [Boosting agricultural productivity] NAME OF THE TEAM : THUNDER ( HITS FOR BRAIN) NAME OF THE REPORT: NEW INDIAN AGRICULTURE CITIZENS FOR ACCOUNTABLE GOVERNANCE TEAM DETAILS: 1) S SIVA ARAVINTHAN 2) S BALAGURU 3) ICHINGWA SHIKOLI HUMPHREY 4) J JONATHAN GOFORTH 5) S BALAJI COLLEGE: VYSYA COLLEGE “OUR FARMERS DESERVE PRAISE, NOT CONDEMNATION; AND THEIR EFFICIENCY SHOULD BE CAUSE FOR GRATITUDE, NOT SOMETHING FOR WHICH THEY ARE PENALIZED.” M A N T H A N NEW INDIAN AGRICULTURE
    •  HISTORY OF INDIAN AGRICUTLURE (1947):  CHALLANGES FACING AGRICULTURE  LACK OF CAPITAL  LACK OF CREDIT FACILITIES  LEASING SYSTEM  SMUGGLING  TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION  UNFAVOURABLE NATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES  INCREASE IN POPULATION  SINGLE CROPPING  UNDERUTILIZATION OF LAND  INADEQUATE IRRIGATION FACILITES  SMALL AND FRAGMENTED LAND HOLDINGS  DEPLETED SOILS  INADEQUATE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS  EXPENSIVE FARM IMPLEMENTS  POOR AGRICULTURAL MARKETING  INADEQUATE TRANSPORT SYSTEM  REASONS FOR SELECTING THE ABOVE CAUSES  PROPOSED SOLUTION  REDUCING POPULATION PRESSURE  PROTECTION OF LAND HOLDINGS  PROPER USE OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES  SOIL PROTECTION  SAFE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS  PROVISION OF FARM IMPLEMENTS  EXTENSION IN CULTIVATION  INTENSIVE CULTIVATION  MASS SUPPLY OF MODERN INPUTS  USE OF MACHINERY  ESTABLISHMENT OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS  CONTROL OF WATER LOGGING  INCENTIVES TO THE FARMERS  CONSOLIDATION OF LAND  AVAILABILITY OF MARKET FACILITIES  OUR TEAM’S IMPLEMENTATION  INTERNSHIP FOR STUDENTS  VOLUNTEER FUNCTION  IMPLEMENTATION  INTRODUCTION  MARKET  MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTS  MANUFACTURING PROCESS  TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL (per month)  IMPACT OF SOLUTION  CRITERIA TO MEASURE IMPACT OF SOLUTION  SCALABILITY OF SOLUTION  SUSTAINABILITY OF THE SOLUTION  APPROPRIATE MONITORING MECHANISM OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
    • HISTORY OF INDIAN AGRICUTLURE (1947): Over 50 years since its independence, India has made immense progress toward food security. Prior to the mid-1960 India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe drought in 1965 and 1966 convinced India to reform its agricultural policy, and that India could not rely on foreign aid and foreign imports for food security. India adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal of food grain self-sufficiency. This ushered in India Green Revolution. The Indians state of lead India’s Punjab green revolution and earned itself the distinction of being the country's bread basket. A hectare of India wheat farms that produced an average of 0.8 tons in 1948, produced 4.7 tonnes of wheat in 1975 from the same land. With agricultural policy success in wheat, India's Green Revolution technology spread to rice. However, since irrigation infrastructure was very poor, Indian farmer innovated with tube-wells, to harvest ground water. When grains from the new technology reached their limits in the states of initial adoption, the technology spread in the 1970s and 1980s to the states of eastern India. In the 1980, Indian agriculture policy shifted to "evolution of a production pattern in line with the demand pattern" leading to a shift in emphasis to other agricultural commodities like oilseed, fruit and vegetables. Farmers began adopting improved methods and technologies in dairying, fisheries and livestock, and meeting the diversified food needs of India's growing population. India's agricultural economy is undergoing structural changes. Between 1970 and 2011 the GDP share of agriculture has fallen from 43 to 16%. This isn't because of reduced importance of agriculture, or a consequence of agricultural policy. This is largely because of the rapid economic growth in services, industrial output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between 2000-2010. SCOPE OF BROAD PROBLEM: PROBLEM STATEMENT CHALLENGES FACING INDIAN AGRICULTURE Agriculture has increased its contribution of value-added to the economy. However, it has declined in its contribution to GDP. In 1980-1990, it share of GDP fell from 22.9 to 18.7 percent despite a 2 percent annual growth rate. That share declined further to 13.6 percent in 1995. Manufacturing, in contrast, increase its value added by 13.3 per cent a year during 1991-1995, and by 1995 it was contributing 33.1 per cent to GDP. This is not in order since agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India. INTRODUCTION: Agriculture is the worlds most important industry. It Provides us with almost all our food . it also supplies materials for two other basic human needs – clothing and shelter In addition agriculture provides materials used in making many industrial provides such as paints and medicines about half the worlds are employed in agriculture far more than in any other industry.
    • :  LACK OF CAPITAL: Our farmers are poor and they cannot used the latest machines and better seeds. He always remains under debt. So due to lack of capital production remains low.  LACK OF CREDIT FACILITIES: Credit is important for the small and big farmers to improve the production. But in India credit facilities are insufficient to meet the requirements. Second problem is that credit is misused by the farmers.  LEASING SYSTEM: Our leasing system also discourages the farmer. The landlord and the tenant both cannot take interest in the improvement of land. So it affects the production badly.  SMUGGLING: It is estimated that 25% food grains of India is smuggled to Pakistan and Afghanistan. So it creates shortage of food in India.  TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION: Our farmer is uneducated and they use the old methods of cultivation which causes the low production. They are unable to use the modern technology due to non-availability of credit and skill.  UNFAVOURABLE NATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In India our agriculture products also remains low due to the spontaneous unfavourable circumstances.  INCREASE IN POPULATION: In India rate of population growth is faster than the food production. It creates the food shortage problem, and also problem of unemployment.  SINGLE CROPPING: There is low level of cropping intensity in the farm sector. The area under double cropping is limited and production remains low.  UNDERUTILIZATION OF LAND: In India there is 60% cultivable land out of 3.29 million hectares and there is huge waste of natural resources. Due to this our production is low.  INADEQUATE IRRIGATION FACILITES: By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from adequate. So for half of the total area under food crops have been brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the mercy of monsoon rains which are erratic in time and space.  SMALL AND FRAGMENTED LAND HOLDINGS: The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment.  DEPLETED SOILS: Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which has resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility. Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil fertility. CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM
    •  INADEQUATE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS: Storage of food grains is a big problem. Nearly 10 per cent of our harvest goes to waste every year in the absence of proper storage facilities.  EXPENSIVE FARM IMPLEMENTS: Although, some mechanization of farming has taken place in some parts of the country, most of the farmers are poor and do not have enough resources to purchase modern farm implements and tools. This hampers the development of agriculture.  POOR AGRICULTURAL MARKETING: Agriculture marketing is still a huge concern in the rural areas. In the absence of proper marketing facilities, the farmers are dependent on local traders and middlemen for the disposal of their agriculture produce which is sold at throw away price. In small villages, farmers sell their produce to the money lender under socio-economic conditions.  INADEQUATE TRANSPORT SYSTEM: Lack of cheap and efficient means of transportation is one of the major challenge faced by agriculture sector of India. Even at present much of the villages are not well connected by the roads. Availability of the market is most important for the growth of agriculture, but absence of roads takes away market from farmers.. REASONS FOR SELECTING THE ABOVE CAUSES: After conducting a survey to some of the farmers in Salem, TN, the above problems were put across. Click the following to watch part of the survey did by us(team) In TAMIL The survey was taken by us. Kindly refer the youtube url to see the survey. http://youtu.be/KneKV12n4-c http://youtu.be/Dem6uLxYVFk
    • :  REDUCING POPULATION PRESSURE Great awareness should be made to limit the family size because excess population will change agricultural land for housing purposes. Land expansion project is possible on the sea, but confronting to India's Financial and monetary position actions could be made. Such land expansion, will provide more land for cultivation.  PROTECTION OF LAND HOLDINGS We observe that, for the Indian population structure small size land used for cultivation of crops is just not suitable. The Central government along with state governments should take up many more projects into their hands to secure agricultural holdings and its production.  PROPER USE OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES Considering the population and its pattern of consumption, we stand in such a time of "sow the little but yield more". Irrigation systems (major, medium and minor) need to be restored to the satisfaction of users along with simultaneous institutional development for effective transfer of the irrigation management14. Donor driven institutional initiatives obviously cannot sustain for long. Farmer Organizations need to be empowered to assess the irrigation coverage, revise water charges, raise water rate demand and collect receipts. Streamlining of accounting procedure to link cost recovery and O&M funding in the budgeting process is essential. Irrigation department should be legally empowered to identify all water user categories for broadening the revenue base and enforce quantitative measurement of water supply, charging and collection from bulk users to start with, for realizing full cost recovery .Any funding for irrigation development with Central assistance should be linked with mandatory institutional development as above for smooth turning over of the system to the users.  SOIL PROTECTION: Soil fertility is dependant on nature but how we retain it could be natural or artificial based on safe boundaries. Public and private Institutions should make it mandatory to plant more trees at proper intervals to restore the natural fertility for the better future. Again farmers should accept and try to acquire new and efficient material resources with or without the help of the government. " While some have the will, they don't have the drill" farmers need to be aware of the do's and don'ts of farming and the latest technical know- how's too. Now the fertilizers and manures used should be much more effective and used to an even large quantity.  SAFE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS: Proper storage facilities should be made by developing many more scientific warehousing facilities. Colossal wastage if reduced to 2-4% we will have an approximate 6% extra acquisition of harvest. This if gained every year is itself a great gain. PROPOSED SOLUTION INNOVATIVE SOLUTION CONCEPT
    •  PROVISION OF FARM IMPLEMENTS: Increased financial support provided to farmers. Government and private institutions should provide better loans and credit facilities. More scheduled banks that stand alone to provide beneficiaries to farmers should be established.  EXTENTION IN CULTIVATION: The agriculture product can be increased by increasing the cultivable area. IT can be increased by using the barren lands and including the water logging.  INTENSIVE CULTIVATION: It means to cultivate the same areas which are already under cultivation by using better seeds and modern techniques of production. It increases the production.  MASS SUPPLY OF MODERN INPUTS: The productivity can be increased by using the modern inputs like improved seeds and fertilizer. The government should provide the adequate supply of these inputs to the farmer at lower rates.  USE OF MACHINERY: There is a need of modern technology for the improvement of agricultural product. The government of India has also realized the importance of machinery. So agricultural development bank is providing the machinery on low rates.  ESTABLISHMENT OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS: The government should establish the various financial institutions which may provide the credit to the small farmers on low rate of interest. k In India the government has established the specialized credit institutions to provide the loan to the farmers.  CONTROL OF WATER LOGGING: The productivity of agriculture sector can increase by reclaiming the areas affected by water logging. Tube wells should be installed in those areas.  INCENTIVES TO THE FARMERS: The prices of the agriculture product should be at such level that it may encourage the farmers. In India rural development program has been started to improve the economic condition of the rural areas. The government also fixes reasonable prices of wheat, rice, cotton and sugar to encourage the farmers every year.  CONSOLIDATION OF LAND: Small holdings in different areas cannot be cultivated by one owner properly. So it is better to consolidate all the pieces of land at one place.  AVAILABILITY OF MARKET FACILITIES: The government should improve the agricultural market. The rural area should be linked with the urban markets by the roads. The farmers may be able to get the fair return of their product.
    • "INTERNSHIP FOR STUDENTS" To create awareness, importance and enhancement of agricultural production in India, we have introduced a new internship process. It will be undertaken by EX service men, most of them of being higher authorities and loyal between the students and the farmers. The students will be trained by the experienced farmers and they will be supervised by the service men. Based on the student performance and participation they would be certified by the Indian government. VOLUNTEER FUNCTION: Those who get their pensions from the Government. (((( THE TEAM’S PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION STATE HEAD (EX Service men) HEAD MONITOR (EX Service men) DISTRICT HEAD (Retired persons) DIVISIONAL HEAD (Retired persons) NORTH ZONE HEAD (EX Service men) WESTEAST SOUTH
    •  INTRODUCTION: The agricultural implements cover ploughs, threshers, axes, cultivators, seed drills, etc. These implements are used for agriculture work to improve the efficiency and reduce the labour. A large variety of agricultural implements are also used as attachments to tractors. Cultivators and other implements should be manufactured either as per the design available in the market or the designs developed or recommended by agricultural institutions/universities of the region.  MARKET: Our national economy is primarily based on agriculture income. At present agricultural labourers prefer to use modern agricultural implements for both bullocks drawn and for tractor drawn. It is estimated that the demand for these implements will be increasing. Availability of agricultural implements in tribal areas is a major issue. There is scope to set up units in leading commercial centres of tribal areas.  MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTS: S.No Description Quantity Rate Amount 1 Electric welding transformer 1 6500 6500 2 Double ended bench grinder 1 3500 3500 3 Pillar type drilling machine 1 12000 12000 4 Electric blower with 1 HP motor 1 3000 3000 5 Tools and equipment LS 3000 6 Erection and installation charges LS 3000 Total 31000  MANUFACTURING PROCESS: Cultivator is an agricultural implement and a simple tool. It is fabricated from channel angle and flat section of mild steel. The size will depend on the type of land in particular area. The channel, angle and flats are cut to size and welded and fastened where required.  TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL (per month): S.No Description Amount 1 Rent 1500 2 Salaries and Wages 10000 3 Raw Material 49950 4 Utilities 1300 5 Other Expenses 4000 Total 66750 IMPLEMENTATION
    • 1. More rural people need to receive education and the importance of family planning. India should be financially capable to execute the land expansion project. 2. A better understanding should be given to those undertaking joint Hindu family businesses, that they may have an understanding to harvest a particular crop on a large scale basis. 3. Lately, we have about 7-8 irrigation systems. But all of these cannot be implemented on all the types of the Indian land. 4. Every farmer would not be able to afford warehousing facilities due to financial and knowledge constraints. 5. Though loans and credit facilities provided to the farmers, they could misuse the support given by the government. 6. Due to geographical constraints one cannot extend cultivable land everywhere. CHALLENGES INVOLVED IN THE EXECUTION OF THE SOLUTION
    •  CRITERIA TO MEASURE IMPACT OF SOLUTION: 1. Solves the agricultural problem without creating new problems; The above solutions do not create any problems whatsoever. They are well defined to assist in depleting the current agricultural problems. 2. Respects the physical context and community values; India is a cultured society and with that respect the solutions provided have taken into account the traditions of the people and the nation's aesthetic value. 3. Enhances quality of life including public health, safety and welfare; It is very definite that the solutions will enhance the quality of public health, safety and welfare of the people. 4. Makes effective and efficient use of all resources including professional and citizen involvement; The above solutions have made great involvement of using the manpower at different levels of agricultural productivity, i.e., at professional and grassroots level. 5. Satisfies the majority of the stakeholders involved in the process. Most of the stakeholders have analyzed the merits and demerits of the solution and they have been satisfied that the merits outnumber the demerits and hence the viability of the solutions in helping to boost agricultural productivity.  SCALABILITY OF SOLUTION: Administrative, Functional and geographical scalability have been greatly considered in implementation of the above solutions.  SUSTAINABILITY OF THE SOLUTION: 1. Does it reflect community values? YES! 2. Is it environmentally sensitive? YES! 3. Is it safe? YES! 4. Is it feasible (constructible, financially)? YES! 5. Have stakeholders been included in the decision process? YES!  APPROPRIATE MONITORING MECHANISM: A Special Rapporteur with relevant and extensive experience in agricultural issues shall be appointed, if necessary, funded by extra budgetary resources, for three years to monitor the implementation of the Rules. There will also be a panel of experts who will be encouraged by the Special Rapporteur to review, advise and provide feedback and suggestions on the promotion, implementation and monitoring of the Rules. The monitoring mechanism will recognize the economic, social and cultural features existing in individual States. An important element should also be the provision of advisory services and the exchange of experience and information between States. IMPACT OF THE SOLUTION
    • REFERENCE & SECONDARY RESOURCE Sharma, V.P. (2012). Accelerating Agriculture Growth for Inclusive Development. Vikalpa, 37(1). Retrieved from http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/assets/upload/faculty/161638648Vikalapa%20Paper%202011.pdf World Bank. (2012). India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/05/17/india-agriculture-issues-priorities http://youtu.be/KneKV12n4-c http://youtu.be/Dem6uLxYVFk Agricultural Census, Government of India. (2012). All India Report on Agricultural Census 2005- 06. Retrieved from http://agcensus.nic.in/document/ac0506/reports/Chapter-4_2005-06.pdf Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-12-20/news/35933641_1_small-farms- farm-output-farm-lease http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-03-07/news/31132278_1_priority-sector- regional-rural-banks-lending http://www.sadhan.net/Adls/Microfinance/Dhaka%20Starting%20Microfinance%20in%20Indi a.pdf WIKIPEDIA GOOGLE AGARWAL (AN) Indian agriculture: problems. progress and prospects 1980 Vikash Publishing House New Delhi p 556. DESHMUKH (PP) (ed) Informational system for Agricultural science and technology. 1987 Metropolitan : New Delhi P38 . Tnau University web site and services Ashish Kumar Sharma Agricultural Information to the farmers in Madhya pradesh with Special Reference to sagar District: A Study REPORT END