V Y S Y A C O L L E G E , S A L E M
[Boosting agricultural productivity]
NAME OF THE TEAM : THUNDER ( HITS FOR BRAIN)
NAME OF THE REPORT: NEW INDIAN AGRICULTURE
CITIZENS FOR ACCOUNTABLE
1) S SIVA ARAVINTHAN
2) S BALAGURU
3) ICHINGWA SHIKOLI HUMPHREY
4) J JONATHAN GOFORTH
5) S BALAJI
SHOULD BE CAUSE
FOR WHICH THEY
NEW INDIAN AGRICULTURE
HISTORY OF INDIAN AGRICUTLURE (1947):
CHALLANGES FACING AGRICULTURE
LACK OF CAPITAL
LACK OF CREDIT FACILITIES
TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION
UNFAVOURABLE NATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES
INCREASE IN POPULATION
UNDERUTILIZATION OF LAND
INADEQUATE IRRIGATION FACILITES
SMALL AND FRAGMENTED LAND HOLDINGS
INADEQUATE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS
EXPENSIVE FARM IMPLEMENTS
POOR AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
INADEQUATE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
REASONS FOR SELECTING THE ABOVE CAUSES
REDUCING POPULATION PRESSURE
PROTECTION OF LAND HOLDINGS
PROPER USE OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES
SAFE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS
PROVISION OF FARM IMPLEMENTS
EXTENSION IN CULTIVATION
MASS SUPPLY OF MODERN INPUTS
USE OF MACHINERY
ESTABLISHMENT OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
CONTROL OF WATER LOGGING
INCENTIVES TO THE FARMERS
CONSOLIDATION OF LAND
AVAILABILITY OF MARKET FACILITIES
OUR TEAM’S IMPLEMENTATION
INTERNSHIP FOR STUDENTS
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTS
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL (per month)
IMPACT OF SOLUTION
CRITERIA TO MEASURE IMPACT OF SOLUTION
SCALABILITY OF SOLUTION
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE SOLUTION
APPROPRIATE MONITORING MECHANISM
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
HISTORY OF INDIAN AGRICUTLURE (1947):
Over 50 years since its independence, India has made immense progress toward food security. Prior to the
mid-1960 India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe
drought in 1965 and 1966 convinced India to reform its agricultural policy, and that India could not rely on
foreign aid and foreign imports for food security. India adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal
of food grain self-sufficiency. This ushered in India Green Revolution. The Indians state of lead India’s Punjab
green revolution and earned itself the distinction of being the country's bread basket. A hectare of India
wheat farms that produced an average of 0.8 tons in 1948, produced 4.7 tonnes of wheat in 1975 from the
same land. With agricultural policy success in wheat, India's Green Revolution technology spread to rice.
However, since irrigation infrastructure was very poor, Indian farmer innovated with tube-wells, to harvest
ground water. When grains from the new technology reached their limits in the states of initial adoption, the
technology spread in the 1970s and 1980s to the states of eastern India. In the 1980, Indian agriculture policy
shifted to "evolution of a production pattern in line with the demand pattern" leading to a shift in emphasis to
other agricultural commodities like oilseed, fruit and vegetables. Farmers began adopting improved methods
and technologies in dairying, fisheries and livestock, and meeting the diversified food needs of India's growing
population. India's agricultural economy is undergoing structural changes. Between 1970 and 2011 the GDP
share of agriculture has fallen from 43 to 16%. This isn't because of reduced importance of agriculture, or a
consequence of agricultural policy. This is largely because of the rapid economic growth in services, industrial
output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between 2000-2010.
SCOPE OF BROAD PROBLEM:
CHALLENGES FACING INDIAN AGRICULTURE
Agriculture has increased its contribution of value-added to the economy. However, it has declined in
its contribution to GDP. In 1980-1990, it share of GDP fell from 22.9 to 18.7 percent despite a 2 percent
annual growth rate. That share declined further to 13.6 percent in 1995. Manufacturing, in contrast,
increase its value added by 13.3 per cent a year during 1991-1995, and by 1995 it was contributing 33.1
per cent to GDP. This is not in order since agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector
and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.
Agriculture is the worlds most important industry. It Provides us with almost all our
food . it also supplies materials for two other basic human needs – clothing and shelter In
addition agriculture provides materials used in making many industrial provides such as
paints and medicines about half the worlds are employed in agriculture far more than in
any other industry.
LACK OF CAPITAL:
Our farmers are poor and they cannot used the latest machines and better seeds. He always remains
under debt. So due to lack of capital production remains low.
LACK OF CREDIT FACILITIES:
Credit is important for the small and big farmers to improve the production. But in India credit
facilities are insufficient to meet the requirements. Second problem is that credit is misused by the
Our leasing system also discourages the farmer. The landlord and the tenant both cannot take
interest in the improvement of land. So it affects the production badly.
It is estimated that 25% food grains of India is smuggled to Pakistan and Afghanistan. So it
creates shortage of food in India.
TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION:
Our farmer is uneducated and they use the old methods of cultivation which causes the low
production. They are unable to use the modern technology due to non-availability of credit and
UNFAVOURABLE NATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
In India our agriculture products also remains low due to the spontaneous unfavourable
INCREASE IN POPULATION:
In India rate of population growth is faster than the food production. It creates the food shortage
problem, and also problem of unemployment.
There is low level of cropping intensity in the farm sector. The area under double cropping is
limited and production remains low.
UNDERUTILIZATION OF LAND:
In India there is 60% cultivable land out of 3.29 million hectares and there is huge waste of
natural resources. Due to this our production is low.
INADEQUATE IRRIGATION FACILITES:
By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from adequate. So for half of the
total area under food crops have been brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the
mercy of monsoon rains which are erratic in time and space.
SMALL AND FRAGMENTED LAND HOLDINGS:
The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs
has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and
fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social
tension, violence and discontentment.
Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which has resulted in the
depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has
been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further
depleted the soils of the natural fertility. Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil
CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM
INADEQUATE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS:
Storage of food grains is a big problem. Nearly 10 per cent of our harvest goes to waste every
year in the absence of proper storage facilities.
EXPENSIVE FARM IMPLEMENTS:
Although, some mechanization of farming has taken place in some parts of the country, most of
the farmers are poor and do not have enough resources to purchase modern farm implements and
tools. This hampers the development of agriculture.
POOR AGRICULTURAL MARKETING:
Agriculture marketing is still a huge concern in the rural areas. In the absence of proper
marketing facilities, the farmers are dependent on local traders and middlemen for the disposal of
their agriculture produce which is sold at throw away price. In small villages, farmers sell their
produce to the money lender under socio-economic conditions.
INADEQUATE TRANSPORT SYSTEM:
Lack of cheap and efficient means of transportation is one of the major challenge faced by
agriculture sector of India. Even at present much of the villages are not well connected by the roads.
Availability of the market is most important for the growth of agriculture, but absence of roads takes
away market from farmers..
REASONS FOR SELECTING THE ABOVE CAUSES:
After conducting a survey to some of the farmers in Salem, TN, the above problems were put across.
Click the following to watch part of the survey did by us(team) In TAMIL
The survey was taken by us. Kindly refer the youtube url to see the survey.
REDUCING POPULATION PRESSURE
Great awareness should be made to limit the family size because excess population will
change agricultural land for housing purposes. Land expansion project is possible on the sea,
but confronting to India's Financial and monetary position actions could be made. Such land
expansion, will provide more land for cultivation.
PROTECTION OF LAND HOLDINGS
We observe that, for the Indian population structure small size land used for cultivation
of crops is just not suitable. The Central government along with state governments should
take up many more projects into their hands to secure agricultural holdings and its
PROPER USE OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES
Considering the population and its pattern of consumption, we stand in such a time of
"sow the little but yield more". Irrigation systems (major, medium and minor) need to be
restored to the satisfaction of users along with simultaneous institutional development for
effective transfer of the irrigation management14. Donor driven institutional initiatives
obviously cannot sustain for long.
Farmer Organizations need to be empowered to assess the irrigation coverage, revise
water charges, raise water rate demand and collect receipts. Streamlining of accounting
procedure to link cost recovery and O&M funding in the budgeting process is essential.
Irrigation department should be legally empowered to identify all water user categories for
broadening the revenue base and enforce quantitative measurement of water supply,
charging and collection from bulk users to start with, for realizing full cost recovery .Any
funding for irrigation development with Central assistance should be linked with mandatory
institutional development as above for smooth turning over of the system to the users.
Soil fertility is dependant on nature but how we retain it could be natural or artificial
based on safe boundaries. Public and private Institutions should make it mandatory to plant
more trees at proper intervals to restore the natural fertility for the better future. Again
farmers should accept and try to acquire new and efficient material resources with or
without the help of the government. " While some have the will, they don't have the drill"
farmers need to be aware of the do's and don'ts of farming and the latest technical know-
how's too. Now the fertilizers and manures used should be much more effective and used
to an even large quantity.
SAFE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS:
Proper storage facilities should be made by developing many more scientific warehousing
facilities. Colossal wastage if reduced to 2-4% we will have an approximate 6% extra
acquisition of harvest. This if gained every year is itself a great gain.
INNOVATIVE SOLUTION CONCEPT
PROVISION OF FARM IMPLEMENTS:
Increased financial support provided to farmers. Government and private institutions
should provide better loans and credit facilities. More scheduled banks that stand alone to
provide beneficiaries to farmers should be established.
EXTENTION IN CULTIVATION:
The agriculture product can be increased by increasing the cultivable area. IT can be
increased by using the barren lands and including the water logging.
It means to cultivate the same areas which are already under cultivation by using better
seeds and modern techniques of production. It increases the production.
MASS SUPPLY OF MODERN INPUTS:
The productivity can be increased by using the modern inputs like improved seeds and
fertilizer. The government should provide the adequate supply of these inputs to the farmer
at lower rates.
USE OF MACHINERY:
There is a need of modern technology for the improvement of agricultural product. The
government of India has also realized the importance of machinery. So agricultural
development bank is providing the machinery on low rates.
ESTABLISHMENT OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS:
The government should establish the various financial institutions which may provide the
credit to the small farmers on low rate of interest. k In India the government has established
the specialized credit institutions to provide the loan to the farmers.
CONTROL OF WATER LOGGING:
The productivity of agriculture sector can increase by reclaiming the areas affected by
water logging. Tube wells should be installed in those areas.
INCENTIVES TO THE FARMERS:
The prices of the agriculture product should be at such level that it may encourage the
farmers. In India rural development program has been started to improve the economic
condition of the rural areas. The government also fixes reasonable prices of wheat, rice,
cotton and sugar to encourage the farmers every year.
CONSOLIDATION OF LAND:
Small holdings in different areas cannot be cultivated by one owner properly. So it is
better to consolidate all the pieces of land at one place.
AVAILABILITY OF MARKET FACILITIES:
The government should improve the agricultural market. The rural area should be
linked with the urban markets by the roads. The farmers may be able to get the fair
return of their product.
"INTERNSHIP FOR STUDENTS"
To create awareness, importance and enhancement of agricultural production in India, we
have introduced a new internship process. It will be undertaken by EX service men, most of them
of being higher authorities and loyal between the students and the farmers. The students will be
trained by the experienced farmers and they will be supervised by the service men. Based on the
student performance and participation they would be certified by the Indian government.
Those who get their pensions from the Government.
THE TEAM’S PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION
(EX Service men)
(EX Service men)
(EX Service men)
The agricultural implements cover ploughs, threshers, axes, cultivators, seed drills, etc. These
implements are used for agriculture work to improve the efficiency and reduce the labour. A large
variety of agricultural implements are also used as attachments to tractors.
Cultivators and other implements should be manufactured either as per the design available in
the market or the designs developed or recommended by agricultural institutions/universities of the
Our national economy is primarily based on agriculture income. At present agricultural labourers
prefer to use modern agricultural implements for both bullocks drawn and for tractor drawn. It is
estimated that the demand for these implements will be increasing. Availability of agricultural
implements in tribal areas is a major issue. There is scope to set up units in leading commercial
centres of tribal areas.
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTS:
S.No Description Quantity Rate Amount
1 Electric welding transformer 1 6500 6500
2 Double ended bench grinder 1 3500 3500
3 Pillar type drilling machine 1 12000 12000
4 Electric blower with 1 HP
1 3000 3000
5 Tools and equipment LS 3000
6 Erection and installation
Cultivator is an agricultural implement and a simple tool. It is fabricated from channel angle and
flat section of mild steel. The size will depend on the type of land in particular area. The channel,
angle and flats are cut to size and welded and fastened where required.
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL (per month):
S.No Description Amount
1 Rent 1500
2 Salaries and Wages 10000
3 Raw Material 49950
4 Utilities 1300
5 Other Expenses 4000
1. More rural people need to receive education and the importance of family planning. India
should be financially capable to execute the land expansion project.
2. A better understanding should be given to those undertaking joint Hindu family businesses, that
they may have an understanding to harvest a particular crop on a large scale basis.
3. Lately, we have about 7-8 irrigation systems. But all of these cannot be implemented on all the
types of the Indian land.
4. Every farmer would not be able to afford warehousing facilities due to financial and knowledge
5. Though loans and credit facilities provided to the farmers, they could misuse the support given by
6. Due to geographical constraints one cannot extend cultivable land everywhere.
CHALLENGES INVOLVED IN THE EXECUTION OF THE SOLUTION
CRITERIA TO MEASURE IMPACT OF SOLUTION:
1. Solves the agricultural problem without creating new problems;
The above solutions do not create any problems whatsoever. They are well defined to assist in
depleting the current agricultural problems.
2. Respects the physical context and community values;
India is a cultured society and with that respect the solutions provided have taken into account the
traditions of the people and the nation's aesthetic value.
3. Enhances quality of life including public health, safety and welfare;
It is very definite that the solutions will enhance the quality of public health, safety and welfare of
4. Makes effective and efficient use of all resources including professional and citizen involvement;
The above solutions have made great involvement of using the manpower at different levels of
agricultural productivity, i.e., at professional and grassroots level.
5. Satisfies the majority of the stakeholders involved in the process.
Most of the stakeholders have analyzed the merits and demerits of the solution and they have
been satisfied that the merits outnumber the demerits and hence the viability of the solutions in
helping to boost agricultural productivity.
SCALABILITY OF SOLUTION:
Administrative, Functional and geographical scalability have been greatly considered in
implementation of the above solutions.
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE SOLUTION:
1. Does it reflect community values? YES!
2. Is it environmentally sensitive? YES!
3. Is it safe? YES!
4. Is it feasible (constructible, financially)? YES!
5. Have stakeholders been included in the decision process? YES!
APPROPRIATE MONITORING MECHANISM:
A Special Rapporteur with relevant and extensive experience in agricultural issues shall be
appointed, if necessary, funded by extra budgetary resources, for three years to monitor the
implementation of the Rules. There will also be a panel of experts who will be encouraged by the Special
Rapporteur to review, advise and provide feedback and suggestions on the promotion, implementation
and monitoring of the Rules.
The monitoring mechanism will recognize the economic, social and cultural features existing in
individual States. An important element should also be the provision of advisory services and the exchange
of experience and information between States.
IMPACT OF THE SOLUTION
REFERENCE & SECONDARY RESOURCE
Sharma, V.P. (2012). Accelerating Agriculture Growth for Inclusive Development. Vikalpa,
37(1). Retrieved from
World Bank. (2012). India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture. Retrieved from
Agricultural Census, Government of India. (2012). All India Report on Agricultural Census 2005-
06. Retrieved from http://agcensus.nic.in/document/ac0506/reports/Chapter-4_2005-06.pdf
Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty
much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from
AGARWAL (AN) Indian agriculture: problems. progress and prospects 1980 Vikash
Publishing House New Delhi p 556.
DESHMUKH (PP) (ed) Informational system for Agricultural science and
technology. 1987 Metropolitan : New Delhi P38 .
Tnau University web site and services
Ashish Kumar Sharma Agricultural Information to the farmers in Madhya pradesh
with Special Reference to sagar District: A Study