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  2. 2. 0 5 10 15 20 25 1992-94 1999-2000 2004-05 2009-10 rural male rural female urban male urban female India has the largest youth population in the world with around 66 per cent of the total population under the age of 35. According to 2010 population figures, one in five young people in the world is an Indian. The incidence of employment by level of education in India (by UPSS) indicates that illiterates have the lowest rate of unemployment. The labour market participation rate of working age disabled persons is much lower than non- disabled persons – 38.8 per cent compared with 64 per cent. Issues of skill development in unorganised sector include inadequacy of current training programme to meet the requirement of large workforce in the informal sector. The proportion of workers who received vocational training was the highest in the services sector (33 per cent), followed by manufacturing (31 per cent), agriculture (27 per cent), and non-manufacturing and allied activities (9 per cent). But the vast majority of workers received non-formal vocational training.
  3. 3. “PROBLEM-ELIMINATING MANTRAS” In India we pursue the policy of “first comes crumbled, last comes privileged“ ;this approach aims to reduce overall poverty . Diverse jobs : requiring:(1)varied levels of skills(2)varied age group(3)varied fields of interests(4)varied worksite locations ; optimum use of available and willing youth;(retail trade can employ even less-skilled). Optimum utilization of already established institutions(government or private)like schools,colleges,district offices before and after their working hours for imparting skill training;saving funds invested in setting up additional classrooms.Using this concept,skill development training can be initiated in a very less time.
  4. 4.  College-academics-curriculum to be expanded to accommodate subjects imbibing world-of-work topics. 1. Work skills to be disintegrated into theory and practical subjects. 2. Special faculty to be recruited for teaching those subjects.  Upgradation of curriculum.  Enhanced weightage given to practical lab proceedings by both teachers and learners.  Training in industries in subject of interest;encounter with field work or occupational or professional aspect.  Youth skill development institutes to be opened universally.  Review labour market information, population figures,area poverty rates to determine the locations(both rural and urban) of setting institutions.  Eligibility criteria for youth participating : 1. age-group(14-24);must experience at least one barrier to employment, such as deficiency in basic literacy skills. 2. Must not be associated to any other working skill program. 3. Must be low-income individual;Funds can be used to support up to 5 percent of youth who do not meet the income criteria.  Can be schooldropout,homeless,extremism- affected or a person who requires additional assistance to complete an educational program or to obtain and maintain employment. Public-private partnership in youth-skiill development institutes;Incentives for opening private institutions(self-financed by participants);multiply successful institutions. Partnership with service providers and industries to allow access of advanced machinery and equipments to youth along with work environment access(working alongside regular employees). SUGGESTIONS FOR INCLUSIVE PROGRAMS IN COLLEGES YOUTH SKILL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTES
  5. 5. COMPONENTS OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES Institution of skilling must comprise best national and international instructors and administrators, true-beneficiaries. Offices to be spread district-wise providing enrollment of partipating youth and volunteers for different posts in institution; online and mobile enrollment Faculty(guest or regular) comprises:retired executives, professionals, graduate students. Training and scrutinizing trainers.((1)teaching skills(2) knowledge in subject(3)Proficiency in english,computer(we b programming) industrial understanding,retail trade. Skill training initiatives should include in their programs: World-of-work awareness;Job search techniques (resumes, interviews). Survival skills;Positive work habits, attitudes;social and environmental awareness. research work;skills of subject of interest. Training of skills in the courses like engineering,medical,machinery,carpentry,fitting etc. Green jobs ;Training workers moving from declining ‘high carbon’ jobs into growing green sectors (energy-efficient ). Sporting and varied interests of youth;special infrastructure and trainers;informing youth about occupational scope of their interests. Formal training or education to be given to enable students’ precise certification of skills acquired.(certified through AICTC).
  6. 6. “Reasonable accommodations” for disabled workers at training lectures as well as at work-sites. Flexible hours; accessibility of the workplace; “teleworking” opportunities. POLICY UNIVERSALITY “INCLUSIVE TRAINING“ SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT FOR YOUTH
  7. 7. Depending upon the requirement of particular skills for participants and also for industries,the setup should incorporate the training of those skills. Number of workshops and their capacity for a particular area to be determined in proportion to the local area population which is unskilled.Survey should be conducted to know the field of interest of the local youth and accordingly the courses should be implemented. Number of trainers in particular vocational training course should be appointed according to probable youth participation rate of that local area. The recruitment of trainers should be on the bases of experience gained(preferring those working in industries of that area so that the same could be taught to youth). Theoretical teaching should be recorded and uploaded online web so that youth having access to internet may visit it when required ; expanding the number of beneficiaries. Laboratories and trainers should be available to the youth apart from their regular training ; they can be charged nominally for other use. This will add to the revenue of the institute and decrease the number of unskilled youth.
  8. 8. Sporting infrastucture(swimming pools,gymnasium) can be open for public use after working hours. National and International level competitions can be held there(generating revenue). Youth skill development institutes to be opened at individual village and city level.The cost of such small- level institutes will cost minimally.Such institutes could also be utilized by other block-level youth. Establishment cost(land & construction) in different villages and towns may vary. In villages,we can use existing schools,colleges after working hours for 1. Theoretical lessons of all courses. 2. Practical training for courses which require movable and compact equipments. We would need funds for equipments and transportation.In addition to this,we would require workshops to be setup at places available nearby schools for courses like blacksmithy, carpentry, machinery,electronics etc.
  9. 9. OBSTACLES WHILE DEVELOPING SKILLS WAYS TO CREATE AWARENESS AMONG THE YOUTH FOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT Tight controls on firing;risk of making bad personnel decisions becomes more weighty. upgradation of curriculum puts extra pains on teachers accustomed to old syllabus. employers prefer to recruit matured and experienced youth(younger youth remain unemployed). Any misinteraction among youth of diverse age group(in summer employment youth program). Investment at large scale;public-private-partnerrship ;slow velocity of money and other transactions .Time-taking construction. Low rate of adaption of sporting or other fields like music etc(lack of career opportunities).
  10. 10. PROGRESSMETER services,program activities.; recruitment, involvement, and experiences of the employers providing work-site. post-training quality and quantity of jobs . Test of skills gained;their usefulness in employment;precise certification. year-wise survey of improvements in employment for individual age-groups. Survey of additionally required skills;skills proved non-useful;skills developed inadequately. Revision of skill development initiatives in accordance to the survey. suggestions and reviews of people involved(elemental units). ‘active participation’;adapting at program-setup. Participants’ committee ;self-monitors of programs. Funding based on measured performance. 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 ENROLLMENT COMPLETION WORK-READINESS “SAMPLE FORMAT FOR YEAR WISE SURVEY TO BE TAKEN”
  11. 11. References • Towards a Knowledge Society, National Knowledge Commission India, 2008 • Wilfred Malenbaum, Urban Unemployment in India Published by: Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia • 17 Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and small enterprises • Report of the Special group on targeting 10 million opportunities per year, Planning Commission India 2002 • Report of the Task Force on employment opportunities, Planning Commission India, 2001 • Skill Development in India, Vocational Education and Training System , Human Development Unit, World Bank 2006 • Unsettled Settlers: Migrant Workers and Industrial Capitalism in Calcutta • Entrepreneurship in India, National Knowledge Commission 2008 • ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS) • Agarwal, P. 2006.“Higher Education in India: The Need for a Change.”Working Paper No. 179, • ICRIER, New Delhi. • Batra, Geeta, and Andrew Stone. 2004. “Investment Climate, Capabilities and Firm Performance: • Evidence from the World Business Environment Surveys.” Investment Climate • Department,World Bank,Washington, DC. • Bell, Martin, and Keith Pavitt. 1992. “Accumulating Technological Capability in Developing • Countries.” In Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics • 1992.Washington, DC:World Bank. • Dar, A. 2006. “Skill Development in India: The Vocational Education and Training System.” • World Bank,Washington, DC. • Economist. 2006. “Few Hands Make Light Work.” June 3. • Farrell, Diana, Noshir Kaka, and Sascha Sturze. 2005. “Ensuring India’s Offshoring Future.” • McKinsey Quarterly 2005: Fulfilling India’s Promise, online publication.