Team Name : Tech Fidos
Members : Nishant Tomer
Manthan topic : brain gain
“The irreparable idea against migration”
Brain Gain & Methodology
• Brain Drain is defined as the migration of highly qualified
people from their native country to other countries.
• The homecoming of highly qualified & skilled professionals
is called as “Reverse Brain Drain” or “Brain Gain.”
• Methodology & Approach : A four-type approach was
instated for the study, through :
a) Desk Research
b) Contacting Institutes & Industry
c) Contacting Professionals
d) Direct interaction approach with eminent scientists,
academicians and researchers etc.
• Work on brain drain is “of great interest to specialists, but
insufficiently broad in scope for our general-interest audience.”
• First, brain drain has been and continues to be an area of tremendous
policy concern in many countries.
• Second, brain drain takes place in the context of what is probably the
largest distortion in the international global economic system:
barriers on the mobility of labor. Constraints on movement lead to
very large gaps between the incomes that can be earned in different
destinations – gaps which are orders of magnitude larger than one
sees with internal movements.
• Third, the economic literature on brain drain has long been
concerned about the existence and extent of production and fiscal
• Finally, it is also worth reiterating that in may developed countries,
immigrants constitute important shares of the skilled labor.
Returnees working in 7 Continents
Duration o f S t ay Ab road o f R B D/RBG R e turnees in T e chnological Ar e as
Technological Areas of RBD/BG People
• Brain Drain leading to gain has occurred in
four envisaged technological areas :
o Information and Communication
Level of satisfaction
• 82% of respondents expressed that they have taken the right
decision to return back.
• Highest satisfaction level was expressed by ICT professionals
• Lowest satisfaction was expressed by Agricultural professionals
• There was a substantial improvement in academic qualifications
of the respondents.
• Biotechnology area had the major impact. People who left with
post-graduation came back with PhD or post-doctoral research.
• People, who left with PhD, have returned with post-doctoral
• Substantial gain has also been observed in other three areas.
Comparison of job responsibility in India after return
• Technical responsibility is being held by 46.72% returnees
back home whereas only 32.42% sample held it aboard;
• Managerial responsibility is now being held by 39.82%
returnees against 8.08% aboard;
• R&D responsibilities of returnees have depicted a reduction
from 17.06% aboard to 3.07% back home;
• A major shift has been shown from R&D responsibility they
held earlier towards managerial responsibility after coming
Suggestions & Solution
• India needs to understand the pattern of RBG thoroughly
and waves of RBD/RBG professionals may utilize that
knowledge for building of strong India.
• The study suggests ‘Replication of Tamil Nadu Model’ in
other states. In this model, Tamil Nadu has developed
infrastructural facilities at the district level and has not
restricted itself to capital or on/two cities. It has provided
wider choices/locations to RBB/RBG people.
• The study has concluded that a number of changes will
have to be made in policies related to sectors of education,
research and industry.
• Industry needs to be motivated to provide incentives to RBG,
create own facilitation channels and not dependent solely on
• Several issues that were raised require in depth investigations.
The scope of study should be widened to cover more
technological areas. The study needs to cover issues of
entrepreneurship, effect on different industry segments and
research more intensively. This primary survey can provide the
background to undertake a further case-based study. It will help
in articulating specific policy inputs to catalyze the RBG process.
• Economists have been theorizing about drain for almost half a
century. But until recently, there has been little empirical evidence to
support or contradict these theories. The new evidence should
counteract some of the myths and assuage some of the most
common concerns about brain drain.
• First, what is the value of the option to migrate for those who remain
in their home countries ?
• Second, what is the externality to a country of n additional doctor,
taking into account that it is unlikely that the marginal doctor would
be efficiently allocated to the most needy patients if that doctor did
not migrate ?
• Third, what is the effect of high-skilled migration on institutional
development at home ?
• Finally, how much does migration policy actually matter for
determining the level of skilled migration ?
• A. Bhargava, F. Docquier, and Y. Moullan (2010), Modeling the
Effects of Physician Emigration on
• Human Development, based on New Medical Brain Drain
• N. Buga 2011, Les Diasporas comme ressources d’intégration
dans l’économie mondiale, PhD
• Bhagwati, Jagdish and Koichi Hamada (1974). ―The brain
drain, international integration of markets for professionals
and unemployment: a theoretical analysis‖, Journal of
Development Economics 1(1-2): 19-42.