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  1. 1. Arnesh Sharma Computer Engineer MBA, NITIE Mumbai Balaji G Chemical Engineer MBA, NITIE Mumbai Manish Singh Mechanical Engineer MBA, NITIE Mumbai Rajat Thakur Electronics Engineer MBA, NITIE Mumbai Vigneshwaran G Bio-Technologist MBA, NITIE Mumbai Team Pragati - NITIE, Mumbai Sowing Prosperity: Boosting Agricultural productivity
  2. 2. Food & Agriculture : Rising Demand & Problems In Supply Key Take Away Key Take Away • Global Middle Class will grow by 3bn people by the next 20 year • Rising Income in India will drive Food Consumption • Inflation in agriculture commodities serve as inflation hedge • World Population projected to reach 9bn by 2050.Gobal Food production need to be increased by as much as 70% • USA, Indian & China alone comprise of >40 % of the global population and arable land is decreasing in all 3 countries The problems persist as the supply side is not able to match the increasing rate of demand by the Indian population.
  3. 3. Agricultural Productivity : Factors • Population & Income growth • Increasing exports • Favourable demographics • Growing Institutional Credit • Increasing MSPs • Introduction of new Schemes • Genetically modified seeds • Irrigational facilities • Green Revolution in India Productivity Demand Side Factors Supply Side Factors Policy Factors  Size of India’s seed industry was about USD1.6 billion (estimate) in FY10  Strong growth in the use of hybrid seeds due to their high yield and resistance  In FY12, production of certified seeds increased to 2.84 million tonnes from 1.27 million tonnes in FY07  Usage of hybrid seeds has boosted the yield of food grains to 2,059 kg/ hectare in FY12 from 1,023 kg/ hectare in FY81
  4. 4. Our Country India Requires a Clear Strategy to improve Agriculture…. Agricultural Biotechnology Strategy for Sowing Prosperity: Boosting agricultural productivity Genetic Modification in Specific Crop characteristics
  5. 5. Proposed Model for Agricultural Productivity and its Impacts Multi-enterprise Agriculture Model
  6. 6. Screening/ enhancing current high-throughput methods to distinguish between varieties Methodology to assist industry and government regulators in regulatory requirements Designing tools to assess the environmental impact of GM crops Methods for assessing changes to plant composition and metabolism that occur due to genetic modification GM crop reference materials and standards for validation purposes at accredited laboratories Designing faster and cost- effective methods for specific and sensitive detection of one or multiple GM crops Reliable methods for quantification of crops with single or multiple gene inserts Plan -The Pre implementation Phase Fault tree/ Event Tree IAU,IARI, ICGEB etc IBSC,RCGM ,GEAC etc
  7. 7. Four sub units : one each for vegetables, fruits, cereals and Edible oils At least 3 trans-generic Research Centers supporting each sub unit Check and Act- Correct & Monitor Tracking methodologies that could be incorporated into the plant (e.g. a plant DNA ID tag) Regular updating of Regulations and pre planning strategy from the outcome of monitoring Monitoring for each sub unit must be done under the surveillance of 3 Trans- Generic Research Centers Efficiently draw upon, and contribute to, plant genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic databases CTRI,CSMB etc. Do- Implement the Plan
  8. 8. Challenges- Handling the Myths Challenges- Implementation difficulties • Superbugs or weeds • Uncertainty in future • Damage to Biodiversity • Kill certain organisms • Corporate control • Terms of trade • High Cost • Limited Choice Social Political Agricu ltural Environ mental Properly identifying the stakeholders and Strengthening them through consultation System Risk assessment procedures are still in a stage of development Segregation and testing to ensure compliance is a great challenge under Indian conditions Labelling of packaged genetically modified food in absence of proper quantification techniques Monitoring to compensate for deficiencies that will only be rectified through longer term
  9. 9. Mitigation- Ways to counter challenges The GEAC to be revamped. Its members to include a range of scientists from diverse fields, NGOs, Civil Society etc that touch upon agriculture, environment and ecosystems Long-term vision document, to be discussed in a public forum including all stakeholders, before any steps are taken on GM crops. Long-term environmental and ecological studies on the impact of GM crops both on agro ecosystems and natural ecosystems The Regulatory system should have definite and unambiguous penalty provisions to be applied in the case of violations Standardised framework for the monitoring of GM crops and for risk assessment. Independent scientific experts not working on GM crops must monitor field trials of GM crops Put on hold the release of GM crops until its regulatory procedure is demonstrably more competent and transparent Clear cut policy on the protection of Centres of Origin and Diversity Public discussion on the risks and benefits of the proposed crop and the traits that are to be deployed Data obtained from field trials of GM crops must be made available to the public
  10. 10. Increased Crop Productivity Enhanced crop protection Improvements in food processing Improved nutritional value Better flavour Fresher produce Environmental benefits Criteria to measure impact of solution Appropriate Monitoring Mechanism National Biotech Development Strategy Department of Biotechnology Ministry of Environment and forest Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Health and Welfare National Biotech Regulatory Authority Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council
  11. 11. Scalability of the solution Plant Biotechnology Trade and Protection Field testing of Biotech Crops Seed Policy Seed Pricing/Technology Fee Regulatory Framework Food Policy Food labelling Cartagena Protocol and international agreements Trade Policy Marketing Issues Linking agriculture,growth and nutrition Sustainability of the solution
  12. 12. Annexures/ References
  13. 13. Implementation of the Solution
  14. 14. Gene gun
  15. 15. Transformation by Gene gun
  16. 16. Control Flaver Saver
  17. 17. Daffodils Erwinia bacteria Genes Plasmids Agrobacteria Kernel Hull Embryo Provitamin A producing rice embryo 1 2 3 4 Locally important varieties
  18. 18. ß-carotene rich Mustard oil
  19. 19. Impact of the Proposed Solution
  20. 20. Source : MoEF
  21. 21. Model is for 2.0 hectare land with the following enterprises Agriculture crop production on 0.8 ha area Dairy farming on 0.4 ha area for raising fodder, keeping 4 buffaloes and their followers and gobar gas plan Horticulture for raising fruit trees and vegetables on an area of 0.2ha Vegetables on 0.2 ha Floriculture on 0.2 ha Fish farming, bee keeping, and mushroom on an area of 0.2 ha Results So Far Net profit from Rice-wheat rotation was Rs. 39,400 per ha with B:C ratio of 1.70 Vegetable based crop rotations gave maximum profits. Net profit of Rs. 80,000 per ha was obtained with bottle gourd (ghia)-cauliflower rotation with B:C ratio of 1.90 Forage based crop rotations like maize-maizeberseem and sorghum-berseem/oat provided net profit of Rs. 59,000 and Rs.40,000 per ha respectively with B:C ratio of 2.98 and 2.91, respectively. The profitability from fodder production can be further improved with the introduction of livestock. The dung from 4 buffaloes is sufficient to produce gobar gas that can be used for cooking food for 7-8 family members. During a period of three months, sale of milk fetched Rs. 35,000 i.e. daily income of about Rs. 400 only Floriculture (gladiolus and marigold) seemed to be promising enterprise. However, benefits will be governed by processing and marketing facilities Baby corn was also promising cash crop and becomes ready for sale within 60 days. After removing baby corn-cobs, the plant can be used as palatable fodder. There is marketing problem in small towns like Karnal but is in great demand in big towns having bigger hotels and restaurants Bee keeping proved a good enterprise as total revenue generated from honey production from 25 boxes was Rs.40,000, in six months period. This enterprise can be blended with any other farming capsule A profit of Rs. 15,000 was obtained in a year from the sale of fish raised in 0.2 ha fish pond. The dykes of fishpond were planted with fruit trees like banana, guava, amla and karonda. Vegetables like bottle gourd, bitter gourd, lady’s finger and palak etc were planted in the interspaces amongst fruit trees. Vegetables worth Rs 200- 300 were sold weekly. Seasonal flowers like gladiolus, marigold and chrysanthemum can also be raised Gobar gas plant and solar heater are also being blended in the system
  22. 22. Modern Best Practices and How to measure them???
  23. 23. Sustainable Agriculture In simplest terms, sustainable agriculture is the production of food, fiber, or other plant or animal products using farming techniques that protect the environment, public health, human communities, and animal welfare. This form of agriculture enables us to produce healthful food without compromising future generations' ability to do the same. The primary benefits of sustainable agriculture are: • Environmental Preservation – Sustainable farms produce crops and raise animals without relying on toxic chemical pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified seeds, G or practices that degrade soil, water, or other natural resources. By growing a variety of plants and using techniques such as crop rotation, conservation tillage, and pasture-based livestock husbandry G, sustainable farms protect biodiversity and foster the development and maintenance of healthy ecosystems. • Protection of Public Health – Food production should never come at the expense of human health. Since sustainable crop farms avoid hazardous pesticides, they're able to grow fruits and vegetables that are safer for consumers, workers, and surrounding communities. Likewise, sustainable livestock farmers and ranchers raise animals without dangerous practices like use of nontherapeutic antibiotics G or arsenic-based growth promoters. Through careful, responsible management of livestock waste, sustainable farmers also protect humans from exposure to pathogens, toxins, and other hazardous pollutants. • Sustaining Vibrant Communities – A critical component of sustainable agriculture is its ability to remain economically viable, providing farmers, farmworkers, food processors, and others employed in the food system with a livable wage and safe, fair working conditions. Sustainable farms also bolster local and regional economies, creating good jobs and building strong communities. • Upholding Animal Welfare – Sustainable farmers and ranchers treat animals with care and respect, implementing livestock husbandry practices that protect animals' health and wellbeing. By raising livestock on pasture, these farmers enable their animals to move freely, engage in instinctive behaviors, consume a natural diet, and avoid the stress and illness associated with confinement. Industrial Agriculture Unfortunately, most food produced in the US is no longer grown or raised on sustainable farms. During the mid-1900s, US agriculture began to industrialize, becoming increasingly mechanized and reliant upon resource-intensive inputs like synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides. Over time, farms became larger, more specialized, and centralized, creating a process of extreme consolidation that drove many small farms out of business, and ultimately resulted in market control by a handful of powerful corporations. Although industrial agriculture now produces great quantities of food at low prices, it is able to do so only by implementing practices that threaten the environment, human health, rural communities, and animal welfare. • Industrial Crop Production – Today, industrial crops are produced on huge monocrop Gfarms, which rely extensively on chemical pesticides, synthetic fertilizers and genetically modified crop varieties. These practices deplete and degrade soil, reduce biodiversity, G and generate air and water pollutants that degrade the environment and threaten the health of farmworkers, neighbors, and consumers. • Industrial Livestock Production – The majority of meat, eggs, and dairy products are now produced on enormous industrial livestock facilities. Also known as factory farms or CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations G), these facilities confine thousands (and, in some cases, hundreds of thousands) of animals in cramped conditions without access to the outdoors. In addition to compromising animal welfare, factory farms generate a huge amount of waste, which pollutes air, water, and soil, degrading the natural environment and threatening public health. • A Sustainable Food Future – Although industrial agriculture currently dominates the US food system, public awareness of the problems caused by this model has grown rapidly, building extensive support for sustainable agriculture, creating a robust market for sustainable foods, and inspiring formidable demand for agricultural policy and regulatory reform.