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  • 1. MANTHAN TOPIC: STEPPING STONE EDUCATIONAL REFORMS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION SUBMITTED BY: TEAM ABHIMANYU
  • 2. CONTENT 1.TEAM MEMBER DETAILS 2.PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA 3.TEACHING METHODS 4.TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM 5.TEXTBOOK AND SYLLABUS 6.MID DAY MEAL 7.INFRASTRUCTURE 8.INVISIBLE CHALLENGES 9.SUMMARY 10. GRAPHS 11. GALLERY 12. REFERENCES
  • 3. TEAM MEMBER DETAILS TEAM CO-ORDINATOR:  Mr. Vivek Kumar Singh B.TECH, 2nd year Dept. of Civil Engineering Bhadrak Institute of engineering and technology OTHER MEMBERS: 1. Mr. Gaurav Kumar B.TECH, 2nd year Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Bhadrak Institute of engineering and technology 2. Mr. Mayank Shekhar B.TECH, 2nd year Dept. of Civil Engineering Bhadrak Institute of engineering and technology 3. Mr. Gaurav Kumar B.TECH, 2nd year Dept. of Civil Engineering Bhadrak Institute of engineering and technology 4. Mr. Rahul Kumar Ram B.TECH, 2nd year Dept. of Electrical Engineering Bhadrak Institute of engineering and technology
  • 4. PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA “An education which does not teach us to discriminate between good and bad to assimilate the one and eschew the other in a misnomer” - By Mahatma Gandhi Education is the key of success and the primary education is an initial step, which propels us towards success. Primary education is the basic knowledge given to children through whom they act, respond and communicate in a manner, which suits their personality, and accepted by the society. Primary education plays an important role for the overall development of a child. Primary education has a great scope and application in India, as India is one of the largest and densely populated countries. The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education up to the age of 14 years. RIGHT TO EDUCATION is an Indian legislation enacted by the parliament of India on 4th August 2009, which describes the modality of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian constitution. India becomes one of the 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force 1st April 2010.
  • 5. To facilitate the primary education in India the Indian government has banned child labour to keep the children away from unsafe and hazardous working conditions .But, both free educations and the prohibition of child labour can’t be entertained simultaneously due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80 % of all reorganised schools at the elementary stage or level are government run schools, which are the largest provider of education in India. According to annual status of education report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6 to 14 years were enrolled in schools .This is the 4th annual survey to report allotment above 96%. 83 % of all rural 15 to 16 year olds were enrolled in school. To deliver a quantity education in India government has taken certain steps. The district education revitalization program (DEPR) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the exiting primary education system. The central government and the remaining 15% funded 85% of DEPR by the state government. UNICEF and the other International programs also supported the DEPR. Under DEPR 1, 60,000 new schools were opened including 84,000 alternative education schools, which provided education to approximately 3.5 million children. Apart from this, government has lunched various schematic and programme interventions to enhance primary education. These programs include operation blackboard, Shikshakarmi project, Lok
  • 6. Jumbish programme, Mahila samakhya , district education programme etc. In order to universalise elementary education, the Indian government has presently launched Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) having slogan ”Sabh padhe Sabh badhe”.SSA includes agendas like opening the new schools and alternate schooling facilities, constriction of school and additional provision for teachers ,periodic teachers training and academic resource supports ,text books and support for learning achievement. The main aim of this program is to provide quality education among the children with a motto of equality and non-discrimination among them. Apart from this, the government has also implemented schemes like poshak yojna, mid-day meal yojna, scholarships yojna etc. To enhance the education system in India, SC & ST are provided many educational programmes. Special reservation is provided for the SC & ST in India like 15% reservation in kendriya vidyalaya for S.C & 7.5% for ST. Instead, for providing such an effort, the government of India fails to provide the quality education among the children. The economist reports that half of the 10 years old rural children could not read at a basic level, over 60% were unable to do division and half dropped out by the age of 14 years. Because of poor quality of public educations, 27% of India children get education through private schools. According to fortress and team research, the enrolment rate in pre schools is merely 18%, there is a 48% drop out rate in
  • 7. elementary education. One study found at 25% of public sectors teachers were absent during the survey. Who were paid to teach? Only one in nearly 3,000 public schools head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. A study on teachers by ‘Kremer’ found that only about half where teaching during unannounced visits to a nationally representative sample of government primary school in India. The reservation system also played a major role in this concern. Many untrained teachers get jobs as primary teachers and the trained ones remain aside. It plays a major drawback in providing quality education. Ultimately, corruptions have a great impact on the education system. It destroys the whole education system just like cancer that kills a person gradually. It badly effects all the government programmes and schemes. Children do not get the good quality and quantity of food under mid-day meal yojna. The required amount of money of poshak yojna is not given to the children. Even they do not get the required amount of books, copies, other study materials. Hence, to eliminate all these problem parents of children must take proper initiative in this concern. Since primary education for determination of future of their children, they must take their responsibility the quality of primary education.
  • 8. TEACHING METHODS  CLASS SCHEDULE According to Dr. Zakir Hussain “ sitting for long hours in the classrooms, receiving lessons in complete passivity in a manner, which is most un- child like conformity, this system kills the natural order of the child once had and transforms him into a listless non-reaching entity”  Class hours should be reduce to four hrs in which each class will be of 40 minutes only.  There should be a routine system for each class so that there should be equal time for all subjects but it should not be lengthy.  Different teachers should teach different subjects.  There should be a game and library period.  There should be yoga classes regularly.  There should be art education classes.  There should maximum four classes including one extra-curricular class.  Teaching method should be easy; examples should be given frequently to develop curiosity among children.
  • 9.  Do not give extra homework and also take exams rarely until they are well into their teen.  TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING  In order to give direction to primary education in a right, effective and efficient way the teaching should be practical.  Teachers should give practical examples related to the topics.  Such examples should include their day-to-day life activities and the environmental issues occurring around them.  The practical examples not only improve their memorising skills but also their interest in concerned topics.  With such examples, they can analyse the given situation in practical way.
  • 10.  COMPUTER EDUCATION  Today is the world of computer.  Computer education is one of the vital parts of primary education in private schools.  In order to compete private primary education system the computer education is necessary in govt. Primary schools.  It is a big shame for us that in the age of computer we have only 7.59% primary schools providing computer education.  The govt. should provide computer education to the students from primary level because it has wide application in every field.  Even the kids should allow playing games on computers. This will increase their thinking ability.  SMART CLASSES  The audio-visual program should be launched at primary level.  Concept of e-teaching and e-learning should be introduced.
  • 11.  This will increase their learning capability and the interest in learning.  EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES  BAL SABHA SHOULD BE ORGANISED REGULARLY.  Educational / Motivational videos should be shown along with videos of freedom fighters and the rich culture of India should be shown in BAL SABHA.  Skill development/Personality development programme should be launched. Govt. should launch program for communicative English to enhance communication skills.
  • 12. TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM  B.ED AND TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM According to NCERT- “B.Ed program is to short and focuses on rote memorisation rather than teaching for understanding”. There is a lack of enough skilled trainers and preparation to develop skills to teach the students. Over 99% of 7.95 lakh teachers who appeared in latest Central Teacher Eligibility Test, failed to clear the exam. Is not a shame for us?  Training program for those teachers who are teaching in schools should be of short period and more focuses on proper content.  The syllabus or the training material of teacher training program should be update at regular intervals to provide the updated training.  These programmes should be making more effective.  The number of seats in teacher training institutions should be increase to fulfil the need of trained teachers.
  • 13.  A committee should be organise to look after these teacher training programmes all over to maintain the unity and equal application and implementation of such trainings throughout the world.  PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES  Along with teacher’s training programmes there should be a professional development program organised for teachers once in a week in their school campus.  There should be mutual understanding between teachers and the students. The teachers should be student friendly.  Teachers should present weekly feedback report regarding the teaching problems to the principal of their school and discuss the related problems among themselves to get their adequate solution.  In this meeting, The Gram Samiti of the school will also take participation and the whole report should
  • 14. be send to the higher authority to take major actions school wise.  There should be a grading system for teachers. The grading system will be based on their teaching method, their behaviours with students and overall performance in the class.  The good teachers should be selected according to their performance and they should be rewarded on district, states and national level.  In this program major actions can be taken by teachers, principal and Gram Samiti.  Computer education should be made compulsory for all teachers.  RECRUITMENT OF TEACHERS  The one of the largest educational problem that we are facing is the scarcity of skilled and trained teachers all over the nation and the condition is worst in some states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand etc.  Only trained teachers should be appointed.
  • 15.  The recruitment board of different states should regularly invite applications for recruitment of teachers.  All the trained teachers should have equal pay scale throughout the nation to give equal status to all. Teachers should be given higher status. Finland has the world’s best primary education system where the teachers are given the status same as lawyers and doctors but in India their status is even less than clerks. Teachers are the builders of the nation and this way we are showing our respect to them!  All the recruitment process should be clean and corruption free process so that good teachers can be appoint.  Another fact is our reservation system which not directly but indirectly spoiling our education system.  Due to reservation, system seats are reserve for different casts and classes. During recruitment process if the total number of seat is more than the total number of candidates (trained) untrained teachers of the same class fill the other remaining seats. This is not good for our education system.  After that next is cut-off list, the cut-off list for different classes are different due to which we are not getting well and able teachers.
  • 16.  There should be a single merit list for the recruitment for teachers. It is a big question that “how could a teacher who has less mark than others are also able to teach the same thing in same way or have the same ability”. We are not commenting the current reservation system of recruitment, but by making a single merit list we can provide well-qualified and talented teachers. This is a fact.  All those trained teachers who are on contract basis should be regular.  The government should appoint special computer teachers in the schools.  HOW TO TRAINED TEACHERS Teachers should be trained properly because they are the whole and sole responsible for the creation of the good and efficient nation.  They should be trained repeatedly.  Their training content or the syllabus should be updated frequently according to the needs.  Proper E-training should be given to the teachers.
  • 17.  Training centre should be organised at Panchayat level instead of Block level. It should be organised in Panchayat Bhawan, Community hall or even in school premises. So that the extra cost implemented on this system can be reduced.  In order to facilitate training programme, retired teachers may be hired.  Prior training may be given to the retired teachers and further they may be requested to provide such trainings to the newly appointed and unskilled primary teachers.  In order to enhance the teacher training programmes, the government may take the help of various N.G.Os  Apart from this, the government should provide direct & extra fund in teacher training programmes.
  • 18. TEXTBOOK AND SYLLABUS  As govt. is providing free textbook under SSA scheme but its condition is worst.  MORAL EDUCATION should be added to the syllabus.  Compulsory yoga classes should also be organised.  A new expert’s team should be made to design new and student-teacher friendly syllabus. In addition, teachers should be consulted for this purpose.  Books should be colourful, attractive, correctly printed.  There should be colourful pictures, which are subject connected. Examples should be surroundings oriented.  English must be a compulsory subject.  Government should provide a common syllabus for primary education in their respective states.  All the primary school strictly follows the prescribed syllabus.  Providing free books to all is not enough. It is much necessary to revise and make the best syllabus in comparison with syllabus of private schools.
  • 19.  The syllabus and the textbook should be updated regularly as per need.  Without a better syllabus and textbooks, it is not possible to have a better education. Mid-day-meal  Teachers should not handle the MID DAY MEAL scheme.  It should be managed by NGOs or MATA SAMATI or Self Help Group or it should be a group of persons selected by guardians/parents.  They should be given all financial rights.  The headmasters should be made the in charge of Quality control.  Government agencies should be more functional and monitor it regularly.  Government should take care that the agencies who are involved should get their payments other financial facilities on time.  Quality and quantity of the food should be monitored time to time.  Those responsible for any lapse in duty should be dismissed with immediate effect.
  • 20. infrastructure • There has been some progress in infrastructural development in schools but there is much to be done. • There is a lack of classrooms in most of primary schools. Average number of classroom in primary schools is 3.3 in the year 2011-12. There should be classrooms for every standard in the school. • Only 40.95% of the schools have kitchen shed. There should be proper kitchen shed provided with pure drinking water and other facilities. • There should be a common room in every school so that bal sabha or any other cultural program can be organised in it. • Only 56.10% of schools have playground. The condition of playground is also not better in primary schools. Playground should be well maintained. • The school should have boundary walls. • The sanitation system in the primary schools are not properly developed with 78.10% schools having boys toilet and 65.87% schools having girls toilet out of which most are dysfunctional.
  • 21. • Attractive and student friendly campus to motivate student to make school their second home. • Inspiring words and pictures of great persons should be painted on walls. INVISIBLE CHALLENGES  INCOHERENT EDUCATIONAL PATTERN  Apart from these, we have many demerits in our educational system. It should be noticed that even after spending thousands crore on primary educations the development can be seen only in infrastructure sector but the standard of education has seen no upliftment of serious evaluation. According to ASER-2012 Report,  31.4% of standard III children cannot read words in their own language.  70.1% of standard III children cannot solve a 2-digit subtraction problem.  51.8% of standard V children cannot read a standard II level text.  72.55% of standard V children cannot do a simple division problem.
  • 22. The student students who are in class V have not the fundamental skills of reading and writing. What they are gaining after going to school for continue five years? This leads to high dropout rates as parents see that there is no benefit in such studies and their child can make few bucks if he were working.  PROBLEM FACED BY TEACHERS Due to this problem when a teacher teaches a fifth standard book, trying to cover the material and the activities that the book lays out, but the question is that whom should he/she teach? Should he/she focus on that half of portion of the class who have some basic skills or to those who are not even of standard II or standard III? Let him/she focuses on to those who have some fundamental skills, because it will be easier to teach them then what should he/she do
  • 23. with other half class? This is a big problem faced by almost every primary teacher.  SOLUTION Our schools just focus on completing the curriculum and other activities rather than to provide extra help to those who are not moving ahead. To overcome this problem,  The children should be encouraged to come school regularly and the problem persists then their parents should be consulted.  Student should be divided into various groups based on their current knowledge and should be given further education.  Teachers should be well trained to use effective methods to teach each of groups.  As each child progressed then he/she should move to the next group.  Clear goals, strong training and systematic assessment help to ensure the program delivered results.
  • 24.  DECENTRALISATION OF PROGRAM  All programs let it be educational or financial should have suggestion and recommendations from local teachers and authorities. The planning should not be done at the national level only, but at least up to district level, administration should be taken into account.  LACK OF PROPER SITTING FACILITIES  Most schools lack the most basic facility that is sitting arrangements. Many schools don’t have proper chairs and desks and student have to sit on the floor. This should be tackled.
  • 25.  BOOKS ARE NOT DEVELOPED IN TIME  Most of the books are not made available to the students in time.  Their print quality is also not good neither is their page quality.  All students don’t get the books due to shortage of books.
  • 26. SUMMARY Based on our survey, we found that the present condition of primary education is not up to the mark. Well it shows a high Gross Enrolment Ratio of 93-95% for the past three years. But still there are many lags in this. The dropout rate from schools is quite high and many states fail to provide basic amenities like electricity ( All India Average 36.3%), Student teacher ratio as high as 1:49 in state like Bihar $ Uttar Pradesh(the ideal ratio being 1:25) and other infrastructural problems like lack of sanitation, seating facilities, playgrounds etc. In addition to that, some states are excessively much backward with the no of educationally backward wards being in more than half in states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh &Jharkhand. Invisible challenges like lack of government empathy, teacher training and centralization of scheme making makes the matter complicated. Furthermore,
  • 27. the diversion of teachers into other government duties has a serious impact on Primary Education in India. Overall, there is a serious need for revamping of system .we can take example from Finland, which has an exemplary Educative policy, which paramount among all other Educational systems. They have the best teachers with master’s degree and status equivalent to doctors and engineers. Many of revolutionary techniques of Finland can be incorporated into the Indian system. Modification of syllabus, decentralization of policy making, quality teacher training, skill development schemes, better parent-teacher, teacher-student interaction, computer education and proper development of infrastructure are to name a few amongst other reforms which are the need of hour. Better government support and funding, both central, state, a very vital in this regard and up to an extent, the moral involvement of parents too is necessary. Then only we can achieve 100% literacy rate and banish illiteracy from our country.
  • 28. DISE 2011-12 REPORT Graph- 1 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25 3.3 Avg. No. Of teachers/school Avg. No. Of classroom/school 2010-11 2011-12
  • 29.  PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOL HAVING THESE FACILITIES
  • 30. GRAPH-2  PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOL HAVING THESE FACILITIES 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Drinking Water Facility Kitchen-shed Playground Computer Facility 2010-11 2011-12
  • 31. GRAPH-3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Toilet (Boys) Toilet (Girls) Toilet (Boys) Well Functioning Toilet (Girls) Well Functioning 2011-12
  • 32. FIG. 1- WORST CONDITION OF A CLASSROOM IN GOVT. PRIMARY SCHOOL FIG.2- COMPUTER LAB IN A PRIVATE SCHOOL IN INDIA
  • 33. FIG.3- CHILDREN HAVING MID DAY MEAL FIG.4- CHILDREN LEARNING UNDER TREE
  • 34. FIG.5- A WELL MAINTAINED CLASSROOM
  • 35.  REFERENCES  Elementary education in India progress towards UEE- National university of Educational Planning and Administration.(DISE-2011-12)  ASER-2012 REPORT, NGO PRATHAM  Wikipedia www.timesofindia.com.  Picture courtesy Google images

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