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  1. 1. Team name: TalentSharers College: Goa Institute of Management Providing clean drinking water & proper sanitation facility to all Team members Ashima Birmani |Gagan Khare Hardik Sojitra | Rahul Gupta | Subhasis Das Towards Cleaner India
  2. 2. Parameter India United Nations’ Guidelines Student-to-toilet compartment ratio 134.4 : 1 25:1 for girls, 50:1 for boys Average no. of toilets per school 2.1 Water supply in urban areas (hours/day) 3.3 hours Situational analysis: Challenges and Opportunities (1/2) References: [a], [b], [c], [d], [e]
  3. 3. Situational analysis: Challenges and Opportunities (2/2) Sanitation 1. Non-segregation of waste water from utilities and toilets, results in mixing of water and inability to treat entire water for re-use 2. Disposal of sewage directly into the rivers 3. Improper garbage disposal 1. Look at waste water from toilets and utilities as opportunity than a burden 2.Requirements for irrigation and flushing purposes can be fulfilled by treating waste water from toilets and reusing 3. Separate waste water at house/school/any premises level: Utilities vs. toilets 4. Segregation of human, animal excreta from water at community drain level – excreta to be used as manure after decomposition Drinking water 1. Wastage of drinking water during transportation 2. Unavailability of sufficient water, which can be treated and used for drinking 3. Water leakage during storage Drinking water 1. Treated waste water from utilities is usable for drinking 2. Rain water harvesting to increase ground water level 3. Utilizing rain water falling in land Challenges Opportunities Sanitation
  4. 4. India at global level: Access to sanitation Source: References [f]
  5. 5. India at global level: Scarcity of water Source: References [g]
  6. 6. Solution: An overview Sewage treatment plant 1. Decentralize: Area level (one per 50 sq. kms) Centralize: Zone/city level 2. Public Pvt. Partnership BOLT – Build, Operate, Lease, Transfer Allow local private players to build sewage treatment plants, run it as a business, transfer to government 3. Offer them benefits like lesser interest rates on loans, business opportunities Rain water harvesting 1. Incentivize rain water harvesting scheme for residential area 2. AADHAR card linked monthly monetary payment to the household 3. Increase in ground water level 4. Stored water to be used for utilities 5. Financial inclusion Public toilet hubs and portable toilet units 1. BOT - Build, Operate, Transfer Allow private companies / individuals to invest and operate 2. Usability: Rural and congested urban areas Potable drinking water 1. Water purification plants Community level: Small distillation units City / village level: Pipelines to individual households 2. Subsidized solar water disinfectors Source: References [h], [i], [j], [k]
  7. 7. Sewage treatment plants: A new dimension •Decentralize sewage treatment plant using PPP model •Adopt of suitable state-of-the-art technology to convert the wastewater into potable drinking water •As a result, reducing the negative impact of releasing untreated sewage into the environment (river) •Setup of at least one plant covering approximately 60 sq.km of area with coverage of a population of minimum 2 lakhs •Approx. capacity of the sewage treatment plant is 44.5 MLD Identification •PPP Mechanism bounded by contract by Government and concessionaire •Land should be provided by the Government on lease and cost of power is borne by concessionaire •Use biogas generated during treatment of sewage to meet part of its power requirements •No role of government on consumption and reuse of potable quality recovered water •Responsibility of quality and standards of services with subsequent independent checks will lie with the concessionaire Implementation •Debt equity ratio of 70:30, which is commonly used for infrastructure projects in India •Operation and maintenance for 30 years in PPP mode with a debt equity ratio of 70:30 is both financially and economically viable •All operating and maintenance costs are to be increased annually by 3% •Price escalation of recycled water at the rate of 3% per annum may be assumed by the concessionaire •High returns from the project can be gathered after the end of 30 years where IRR is minimum 15% and NPV is positive Continuation
  8. 8. Rain water harvesting: Incentivize Identification Area: Rural and urban Type: Residential, individual households Aim: Incentivize households to install rain water harvesting system Implementation The scheme plans to incentivize every household with a monthly incentive. Cost of installing rainwater harvesting system for 200 residents = Rs. 25, 000 Implied cost for a family of 4 = 25,000/200 = 125Rs. Average cost for a unit for single house = Rs. 3000 to Rs. 5000 Suggested incentive = 100 Rs. per month Payback period = 3 to 5 years Use bank account linked to AADHAR card for transactions Continuation Future scope: The model can, then, be extended to: 1. Commercial and institutional entities 2. Society / community level project undertaking of installing rain water harvesting system 3. Incentivizing for saving the water Source: References [l]
  9. 9. Identification •Segmentation of cities and villages according to population density •Find current availability of public toilets •Find the locations where people go for defecation •Identify local businesses, NGOs, corporate houses to make them invest under CSR activities / PPP models •Identify contractors to build/maintain toilets Implementation •Setup portable toilet hubs according to pre- determined ratio •Setup under PPP model / ask NGO / corporate body to sponsor the same •Choose contractor who will be responsible for toilet hygiene & water facility •Setup cost under BOT model: INR 2 lakh/toilet [m] •Contract allocation as per bidding system Continuation •Surprise check by sarpanch/municipal commissioner •Penalties to be levied on contractor in case of irregularities •Offer outer wall for advertisements to bring in the revenues to operate it business model and achieve breakeven as soon as possible •Add more toilets in subsequent years, in nearby area to increase the reach Public toilet hubs & portable toilet units Source: References [m]
  10. 10. Identification •Sources for water plant can be rain water , harvested water , artificial canals, dams etc. •Requirement of minimum level of pure water to maximum no. of people •Identify local communities to setup small distillation units •Identify contractors to build/maintain water treatment plant Implementation •Check dam concept for villages •Setup under PPP with water purifier companies •Extensive distribution of pure water covering individual households •Use of glass beds for purifying water •Setup cost starts with minimum range of 40 lakhs •Distribution of subsidized solar water disinfectors Continuation • Setup of (Reverse osmosis) RO plant for high purity of water. • Surprise check by government authorities to maintain quality standards • Increases resource capacity of water • Issue of continuous supply of potable drinking water will need to be addressed Potable drinking water: Fresh perspective
  11. 11. Road ahead: Anticipated challenges & issues Institutional challenges Lack of govt. regulation Non-robust framework Lack of initiation Lack of role clarity Technical issues Lack of availability of technology Outdated infrastructu re Low penetration level of sewage channels Lack of knowledge Financial issues Budget constraints High maintenan ce cost Improper utilization of resources Changing global environment
  12. 12. Appendix 1. Toilets Total schools in India (27 states) = 6,12,131 + 98,054 = 7,10,185 Total schools without toilet = 35773 + 10,581 = 46,354 % of total schools without toilets = 6.53% 2. Water facility in school toilets Total toilets in schools = 1252844 + 245892 = 1498736 No. of school toilets without water facilities = 64255 + 8911 = 73166 % of school toilets without water facilities = 4.9% 3. Toilets per school Total schools in India (27 states) = 6,12,131 + 98,054 = 7,10,185 Total toilets in schools = 1252844 + 245892 = 1498736 Average no. of toilets per school = 2.1 4. Student-to-toilet compartment ratio Total enrolment in schools (excluding enrolments in class XI, XII attached to degree colleges) = 140404561 + 61052501 = 201457062 Total toilets in schools = 1252844 + 245892 = 1498736 Student-to-toilet compartment ratio = 201457062 / 1498736 = 134.4 References: [a], [b], [c], [d], [e]
  13. 13. References a. School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (2012) http://www.unicef.org/oPt/UNICEF_-_English_Report_Final.pdf b. Seventh All India School Education Survey (2002) http://www.ncert.nic.in/programmes/education_survey/pdfs/Enrolment_in_school.pdf c. http://tsc.nic.in/BLS2012/Report/Rpt_AbstractReport.aspx d. India: Water Supply and Sanitation – UNICEF Study (2002) http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/wbp/global-water-crisis/606#_ftn8 e. http://www.ebtc.eu/pdf/111031_SNA_Snapshot_Water-and-waste-water-in-India.pdf f. WHO and UNICEF: Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target, 2006 http://mattpaish.wordpress.com/2012/01/ g. http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2012/03/14/are-we-running-out-of-water/ h. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/SchemConstructedWetlandSewage.jpg i. http://www.clker.com/cliparts/B/g/c/g/o/l/man-woman-toilet-sign-md.png j. https://extension.usu.edu/waterquality/images/uploads/Homeowner/water%20testing/drinking %20glass%20of%20water.jpg k. l. Harvesting and Harnessing Rainwater - Roshni Udyavar http://www.enviro- arch.com/article_harvesting_harnessing.html m. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-06-14/hubli/39975825_1_public-toilets-hdmc- hubli-dharwad-municipal-corporation
  14. 14. Thank you