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  • 1. Group Members: RIA DAS PAYEL SINHA KRITESH ARORA RAJASHREE RAMASWAMY ANSHUMAAN SHEEL BHADRA Team Name: Synapse
  • 2. INDEX Page No. INTRODUCTION 1 QUICK GLANCE IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR &MEDIA COVERAGE OF NER 2 NATIONAL SECURITY AND LOCAL INSURGENCY PREVENTING INVESTMENT & TRADE 3 SECURITY CONCERNS DUE TO LACK OF ECONOMIC GROWTH 4 THE WAY OUT 5 CONCERNING GENRES AROUND SUGGESSTED MODEL IMPLEMENTATION 6 DIGITILIZATION 7 - 8 PROMISING POTENTIAL 9 CONCLUSION 10
  • 3. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 •The eight North Eastern states occupy 8% of India’s geographical area but contribute only 2.3% to its GDP. Plagued by poor connectivity with the rest of the country, the rail network in the region represents 3.7% of the national rail network.Though the North East shares land borders with five countries, exports from the region form only 0.004% of India’s exports. The following graph shows the GSDP at Current Prices in NER, INR in crore As on (01-08-2013) Reports for Mizoram have not yet been updated. State Area in Sq. Km. Population (Person) Sex Ratio (females '000 males) Literacy (%) Arunachal Pradesh 83743 1383727 938 65.38 Assam 78438 31205576 958 72.19 Manipur 22327 2570390 992 79.21 Meghalaya 22429 2966889 989 74.43 Mizoram 21081 1097206 976 91.33 Nagaland 16579 1978502 931 79.55 Sikkim 7096 610577 890 81.42 Tripura 10486 3673917 960 87.22 State wise Area, Population, Growth Rate, Density, Sex Ratio and Literacy Rate in NE Region according to census 2011 (Source: census2011.co.in) • The North East India comprises of eight contiguous states of highly undulating hilly terrains, covering 263,179 sq km which is about 8% of the total geographical area of the country. The region is one of the landlocked regions of South Asia. About 4500 km i.e. 98% of its border is with five different countries of South Asia–Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. No other region of the Indian union share common border with so many different countries connecting with the heartland through the tenuous 22 km Siliguri. •The region is the home of extraordinarily diverse mosaic of ethnic groups having distinctive social, cultural and economic identity, more akin to their South Asia neighbors than main land India. The total population of the region is about 38 million, 3.8 per cent of the country’s total population. Pg. 1
  • 4. "A nation is not defined by its borders or the boundaries of its land mass Rather, a nation is defined by adverse people who have been unified by a cause and a value system and who are committed to a vision for the type of society they wish to live in and give to the future generations to come.” ― Fela Durotoye
  • 5. • According to the 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007), the government sanctioned Rs 1690.26cr. To build 36 roads 1905.60 km. long but even today they are incomplete. • Also the Northeast having heavy rainfall (avg. 2000 mm annually) results in landslides which are common thus requiring repair and maintenance of roads but this is seldom done leaving them broken and potholed. Construction of roadways • Only Guwahati and Agartala airports supported night landing. In the 9th Five Year Plan (1997-2001), provision was made for 6 airports in A.P.:- Itanagar, Pashighat, Zero, Tezu, Along, Daporizo, and at Rupsi in Assam. • They were to be enabled receiving of airbus and heavy cargo aircraft. But because of uneven terrain and lack of space to build long runways, these airports are not yet functional. Air connectivity • It is economical and viable for transporting large loads, integrates far flung areas, is cost-effective for goods in the borders and enhances development. • But, the Northeast Frontier Railway through Dimapur (Nagaland) terminating at Dibrugarh (Assam) is the only line linking Northeast with the rest of India. It has now been extended to Agartala (Tripura) but further extension networking the rest of the Northeast region remains uncertain. Railways • During 5th and 6th plans (1974-1979 & 1980-1985) most bridges were made of timber. Later, in 9th Plan, government initiated conversion of timber bridges into reinforced concrete (RCC) bridges. Since 2001-2002, converting 40 bridges is over, while 77 bridges are still under construction. • Most RCC bridges are worn out by heavy rain and low-quality material hence most borders are connected only by timber, bamboo and cane bridges. Bridges Transport system in Northeast is not only inadequate but also outdated. The rear areas and the forward positions are yet to be connected through proper transport networks or else military infrastructure development projects costing Rs. 9,243 cr, approved by the Cabinet Committee on Security for Eastern Army Command, are unlikely to be able to help India counter China’s build up. And as far as media coverage is concerned media reportage of the region is very selective. Even dailies did not cover states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim at all in the entire study period. 0 50 100 150 200 250 STATE-WISE STORIES PER NEWSPAPER- MAY 2012 & JANUARY 2013 STATES/ NEWSPAPERS The Times of India Hindustan Times The Indian Express The Hindu Total MAY 2012 JAN 2013 MAY 2012 JAN 2013 MAY 2012 J AN 2013 MAY 2012 JAN 2013 MAY 2012 JAN 2013 Arunachal Pradesh - - 5 1 1 - 1 - 7 1 Assam 10 3 22 26 26 7 15 4 73 40 Manipur 1 3 2 13 3 1 3 5 9 22 Meghalaya 1 1 1 1 2 - - 3 3 Mizoram - - - - 1 1 - - 1 1 Nagaland - - - - 3 - - - 3 - Sikkim - - 1 - 1 - - - 2 - Tripura - - 5 4 - - - 1 5 4 Total 12 6 36 45 36 11 19 10 103 72 Media Coverage 2012-2013 Pg. 2
  • 6. Anti-state movement, National Liberation movements, insurgencies, extremism, unjustifiable terrorism, freedom fights or National Liberations are the various names by which North-east Armed conflicts are referred to for several decades. Cultural, religious, racial, linguistic differences Cultural elitism and emphasis on composite culture as in article 351 of Indian Constitution, despite tough variations. Incorporating strands from all of nation’s diverse cultures rather than the recognition of multiplicity of cultures corresponding to different nationalities or nascent nationality formations. India’s response to Identity Politics and armed forces The use of armed forces in North East and national media’s response to assertions, which are perceived as threatening India’s integrity are shaped by the same nationalist ideology. Thus a cultural ideological basis to nation’s militarism, making the phenomenon pervasive and resilient. Counter insurgency. The Indian government has passed acts both at centre & state levels to tackle insurgencies.The acts ensured special powers to the armed forces not available under the constitution so that they can deal with these exceptional situations. Acts Passed: Disturbed Areas Act (1955) Armed Forces Special Powers Act(1958) Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (1967) Preventive Detention Act Maintenance of Internal security Act The Terrorist & Disruptive Activities Prevention Act(1985) The Public Safety Act Absence of economy growth nourishes conservative secular domains Decreasing per-capita income amongst Indian states, low land –person ratio, poor interaction with the rest India. despite high literacy rates, unemployment and underemployment, poor management and utilization of plentiful human, ecological, natural resources. Insurgency funding from employees, common masses and government. And frequent extortions. 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 Tourism number in 2010 The following clearly depicts the population of tourists both domestic & foreign that have visited in the NER.There is a wide difference between every states, despite holding a very good tourism potential.The frequent insurgencies and complete unrest, the place is losing its tourism industry at a steep rate. Pg. 3
  • 7. Figures confirming dwindling security & economy High risk of trade and commerce due to insurgencies and unrest •Losses by blowing up oil & gas pipelines, refineries , facilities in energy sector by insurgents. •Several crores of Rs losses due to extortions at the gates of Bashirhat-Srirampur state borders. •Strikes cause loss of 4,479lacs Rs per day. •Loss of 1225cr Rs in the year 1997 alone. Insurgency funding from local and state actors •Collection from locals, ensuring their strong mass base and support. •Support from foreign agencies help in prolonging these conflicts. • Rise in Extortion on highways kidnaps for ransoms. •Insurgency affected areas(Assam), loans worth Rs 86.5cr to ULFA were sanctioned by banks. •Government contractors pay up to 15% to the underground. •Dependence of central government funds, often the money that is given to the state govts is accessed by or diverted to insurgents, and there is no follow up by the CAG e.g. Manipur C.M. I. Singh donated Rs 1.5 cr to separatist groups. •UNLF of Manipur publicly stated that they collected more than 300 million Rs from contract supply system. Political & government instability Strikes, closure & unrest Terrorism & insurgency Natural hazards Crime Corruption bribery & corporate frauds Graph: Percentage(%) Risk Ranking in eastern region- 2013 % t a g e Insurgent violence civilians 8660 Security forces 2221 Militants 7000 Total 17881 DEATH DUE TO VIOLENCE NUMBER •Militarization of human rights • Violent deaths • 998 deaths through extra judicial killings in 2009 • the missing i.e. unlawful abduction • the assam human rights commission for missing persons gets 6500 complains most of which are still pending • other methods include crack downs •Deaths in insurgent violence in the north east region(1994-2010) : civillians 8660; security forces 2221; millitants 7000 Total 17881 Violation by security forces Deaths in insurgent violence in the north east region(1994-2010) : Pg. 4
  • 8. “We all one to help one another human beings are like that, we want to live by each others’happiness not by each others’ miseries. We don’t want to hate and despise one another. In this world there is room for everyone and the good earth is rich and can provide for everyone the way of life can be free and beautiful but we have lost the way greed has poisoned men’s soul, has barricated our own with hate, has goosestepped us into misery and bloodshed” Charlie Chaplin----------(the Great Dictator)
  • 9. The Human rights violation committee could investigate Human rights abuses committed in the entire North East region, which covers both the insurgents and the armed forces. The Reparation & Rehabilitation committee will be charged with restoring victim’s dignity & formulating proposals to assist with rehabilitation The Amnesty Committee will consider applications from individuals who would apply for amnesty. . Security Issues State Approach Humane Approach Economics of Security Increases of defense budget and military expenditure. Minimized defense expenditure and increased social sector spending. Arena of Security State and inter-state.With multilateral and international organization With public discourse and in public forums. Impact of security Policies Increasing authoritarian policies; violation of human rights ; censorship etc. Increasing democratization; decentralization; public intervention on foreign policy and security. Methods of Security Power of force and state machinery like military. Power of mass mobilization; civil use of debate and justice Goals of Security Safe guard state interests, territory and sovereignty. Urge for Democratization, social justice, human rights Comparative analysis Practices of conflict resolution & literature around it have shown that it is important to engage with armed groups in order to protect local populations & to remove socio-economic conditions that have led to alienation. A holistic solution lies in a strong political social, economic & psychological measure. One such measure is Truth & Reconciliation. TRC is a court like restorative body, first assembled in South Africa after the abolition of the apartheid. The model being proposed here is based on similar lines. To avoid lopsided justice, no side will be exempt from appearing before the commission. Each and every community would have its own representative in the such a scheme, which we call ‘Sangradhan’ The work of Sangradhan could be accomplished into three different committees: Pg. 5
  • 10. Implementation Challenges Mitigations •Armed forces will be opposed to this idea. •There always remains a probability of Sangradhan to become a politicized forum. • Confidence of gap during the initiation with the local population. • Low media coverage from North East. Large sections of media usually exception from the govt. one, print without proper analysis. • Armed insurgents might pose a threat of arms. •A lot of CBM will have to be done to bring them on board conditions for amnesty shall be explained & their grievances shall have to be addressed, because they are the major stake holders. • It has to be ensured that Sangradhan does not become a politicized forum, that the members of Sangradhan are not under political pressure & should not be part of any political movement.Thus complete security should be ensured. • Confidence building measure will have to be initiated to win the trust of civilians, by ensuring immediate drop of all draconian measures and laws like AFSPA, so that the people are willing to come on board. • Inclusion of media during the whole process. For the Sangradhan only those media houses that have record in unbiased judicious reporting, should be given broadcast rights for telecast hearing. Insurgent movements willing to take part in Sangradhan, should be laying down their arms, prosecution. •Legitimacy would ensure winning back degenerated insurgencies & local people. • Draconian measures has to be withdrawn, as it is a symbol of militarism & of rights abuse with impurity. • Stakeholders would comprise of armed forces, civilians and insurgents as per eligibility criterion. Committee decision is supposed to be final. •Different areas would need separate panels. • On passage of judgment by Sangradhan, the other two committees would set to work. • Empowerment of committees with adequate force for delivery of justice. • Accused and accusers would be tried according to civilian laws. •The Government shall need to provide adequate compensation fro the affected areas. • Once amnesty is granted accused shall be freed from prosecution in any court of law in India, pertaining to the heard petition. •No criminal record •Should be involved in peace process • Members from armed forces, members of insurgency, police services, bureaucracy, polity, social workers, spiritual leaders, tribal chiefs, jurists & other stalwarts of the society. As the insurgency movements pose a serious roadblock in the various developmental sectors. As the serious inhibition would be curbed by following Sangradhan footprints, it is more likely to have a good shoot in the concerned areas like transport. As ample budget and finance are projected for the development of these areas, which gets leached into constant political and social unrest. It is indeed essential to remove this blockage uncorking the developmental & revenue flow. Hence not only transportation, would facilitate healthy communication.Thereby such peace environment installation would help flexible trade and commerce within and outside the boundaries.This would even stand to be the remedy of low media coverage of the sunrise states. Developmental sectors by Sangradhan:Eligibility criteria Pg. 6
  • 11. There are areas on the earth, globally distributed where for various reasons communication and mutual understanding is required but people cant or don’t want to go Recruitment of business leaders To align enablers like logistics players & call centers in India with strategies of e-Commerce in NER as all key stakeholders are engaging in innovation to provide a rich experience to their customers. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n & W O R K I N G M O D E L •Launch of internet in India via dialup •Launch of online job portals with weekly government magazines and newspaper notifications where the primary employers and job seekers interact •Launch of online B2B portals •Launch of online matrimonial portals •Advent of online ‘Naukri’ and ‘Shaadi’. •Launch of online travel agents (OTAs) •Promoting use of social networking sites (SNS) as a marketing tool begins or the advent of social commerce and their active usage by organizations to reach out to customers in the rest of India. •Online classifieds displaying concerns pertaining to physical delivery, logistics and taxation issues. •Group buying and online retail Advantage over existing system Product flow: from suppliers to consumers, Information flow: order transmission by value chain, Monetary flow: payment from consumers Demerits of the model Low average broadband speed and high failure rate of online payment transactions How to overcome these demerits Estimated Budget I M P L E M A N T I O N & W O R K I N G M O D E L Approach towards the doctor Doctors worldwide are liable to help sick people in the remotest parts of the north-east region who otherwise cant access them.The interested doctors will be appointed according to the specified rules I M P L E M A N T I O N • Digitalized healthcare applications are available through which physicians with a degree from non governmental institutes can also apply for part-time government job and provide online consultancy to the patients. •Visit from the enrolled doctors in a particular areas would be mandatory monthly & during emergency as per requisite. •Government should maintain a free healthcare database universally accessible for information on health issues and their specialists availability.. • Government should collaborate with the WHO and pharmaceutical companies to provide medicines to patients. • Immediate short term relief should be provided by nearby drugstores set-up by the government. • these stores should also be facilitated to provide large quantity medicines to remote areas. Advantage over existing system Doctors cant tend to patients in remote areas due to unfavorable terrain and insurgencies but through online consultancy system patients can consult doctors Demerits of the model This system cant provide immediate hospitalization in emergencies and it can only provide doctor’s advice. How to overcome these demerits Shortcomings can be mitigated if government provides portable hospitals. Specialists can be transported in helicopters making it easier to access remote areas and also cheaper in present context. Estimated Budget PC, tablets and smart phones should be made more accessible to the public. Increase security of online transactions & promote online ticketing. Direct funding or micro-loans can be given depending on the startup. doctors salary + potable medication unit+E- services=70,000 per unit. Pg. 7
  • 12. Recruitment of teachers • Eligibility as per government norms • Differently abled people, women and retired people would be given special consideration I M P L E M A N T I O N & W O R K I N G M O D E L • Each teacher would be assigned a group of 15-20 students and the classes would be scheduled accordingly through internet applications. • The classes should be minimum of 8 hrs excluding any extra or catch up lessons with proper coordination between the respective subject teachers and the students. • Fortnightly doubt sessions to be held in the physical presence of the teacher at an assigned classroom and teachers and students both will be regularly monitored. •The government will possess a portal for anyone who wishes to access the session recordings. •Visual aids to be used while teaching with interactive models. • Syllabus and exams would be according to the state board and their language should also be included in their course. • Poverty inflicted children must be given special care and guidance. • The teachers would be paid according to their performance. Advantage over existing system • A reliable rapid system which bridges gaps between the north-east and the rest of India. •Exposure to this new way of learning thus boosting their creativity and intellect Demerits of the model The model is relatively costly, electricity and internet service dependent, computers are not accessible to all students, challenging geography. How to overcome these demerits Providing computers is mandatory for the government but it should be enforced more properly and IT-ITES should provide broadband. Challenged people should be provided with transportation. Estimated Budget I M P L E M A N T I O N & W O R K I N G M O D E L Estimated Budget Bollywood stars, sports stars, television stars, politicians, authors, culture heads, media, film and music directors, prominent army personnel. Recruitment of eminent personalities • A significant media and internet coverage would be expected if eminent and respectable personalities could visit the north east region or could include people from the north eat region in their genre thus ensuring a cultural integration which would be propagated all over India. •Film, music and documentary directors should be facilitated to digitally capture the beautiful sceneries abundant in the north-east region thus promoting the area’s aesthetic value. • More north eastern actors should be induced in the main film industry to remove disjointness and to make them feel as a part of India. • Promoting media coverage and internet dissemination of the indigenous fests and displays of cultural diversity in NER • Media coverage and internet broadcast of the insurgencies and a peek into borders to spread awareness in the rest of India so that it can extend its helping hand. • More movies should be made depicting the north eastern culture and should be shown in a positive light unlike the movies made earlier so that people become less intimidated. Advantage over existing system A positive, detailed and widespread outlook is maintained to increase communication and awareness in both northeast and the rest of India. Demerits of the model Many people are scared to go there because of their hostility and directors find it easier to shoot outside because they have to pay heavy sops. How to overcome these demerits The government has to give transportation and provision for sop less shooting and misconception between both the regions can be solved Sangradhan. Small loans with very meager amount of interest should be given to new startup companies.{loans of 2.5lacs.to startups.}.Mostly it will be a self financed model that will create revenue by advertisements. An estimated budget including the teachers + computers + connectivity + other accessories will be around 75000per unit. Pg. 8
  • 13. North Eastern region of our nation is enriched with biological, natural, mineral, cultural bounties, which is why it supports a good opportunity for a flourishing tourism industry, oil and mining industries, food & pharmaceutical industry. The cultural rich heritage is so untouched, that it has a good potential of explicitly selling the fruits of traditional practices like food, thangka paintings, handlooms, jewelleries. North East India is characterized by a diverse population of people with different ethnic background, bear their own methods of fermenting food materials for the purpose of preservation and taste enhancement and they have been carrying these from time immemorial like gundruk, sinki, soidon, goyang, etc. Readily available microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida specialis, Lactic Acid Bacteria &Bacillus specialis. Have been found to be abundant of common occurrence in these products. These products also serve as a source of economy to many of the rural people, who prepares them at home and market locally. Formulation of new techniques to increase their shelf life would help in the commercialization of these products. Following similar lines the place can manifest itself as a promising tourist spot for healthy environment and food paradise for many food lovers There is a good scope for incorporating newer drugs in different formulations by adding locally available drugs. Incorporation of herbs like Berginia ciliate, Cordiceps sinensis, Hippophae species used by the local healers in various formulations is the site of attraction in this field. In rural areas of North Eastern Region, people can have the scope for various changes in their socio-economic status by adopting different activities of medicinal plants, particularly large scale cultivation of locally available or suitable medicinal plants in wasteland areas. More institutes and centres for Indian medecine should be mushroomed in NER, due to ready avaibility of medicinal herbs and ambient healthy natural conditions, thereby luring and serving Indian medecine seekers all across the globe. Mine , Oil and chemical Industry The diverse lithologic and tectonic ensemble calls for integrated geoscientific studies to identify and outline target areas pertaining to mineral resource evaluation, mitigation of natural hazards, environmental issues and water resources development projects. NER comprises of Precambrian to Recent age. It is manifested by spectacular Himalayan Mountain Belt in the north; Shillong Massif Plateau in the south and mighty Brahmaputra forming the extensive Assam plain in between and Indo-Myanmar Range in the east. Various metallic & nonmetallic minerals have been explored by Ministry of Mines Handloom & jewelleries: NIFT has identified 18 such crafts, including the Naga shawl, bamboo and cane and bell-metal products, among others, to be filed under the GI Act In recent five years, new fashion technologies have arrived bringing the culture of beads jewellery a mark in many tribal traditions in vogue. Similarly, cheap but exotic jewellery from NER can also be brought to limelight. Naga shawls & bihu costumes are one of the most commonly known culture symbols depicting entire NER. Hence there should be encouragement to bring other traditional symbols from the rest of NER like Manipuri, Naga, Tsungkotepsu , Lotha, Rongsu Shawl Mishmi shawls, Wancho bags, Shambo cap, Namchok erarings, Lyak necklace, Gyar bracelet. Gordin Ramsay, Scottish chef, restaurateur and television personality has proved the amazing market cap potential of North Eastern culinary. •NISCAIR-CSIR, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK), International Food Research Journal are one of the several journals that have published significant works on food and pharmaceutical bounties, due to its rich biodiversity, thus can be aptly upscaled in a proper biotechnological approach for industrial production. •Hence DBT & TBI and other microfinancing –NGO agencies should provide a strong support for commercialization of the pharmacological and food products. Pg. 9
  • 14. India will have to confront and pacify armed insurgency movements in order to protect local populations of both the north east region and the rest of India and the government will have to apply different business and strategic interests to remove current socio-economic conditions that have led to alienation. An engagement like the Sangradhan (Truth and Reconciliation) enhances the chances of a settlement process, whereas it’s negligence will strengthen the hardliners. There is thus the need to think creatively to construct an environment for this engagement. The Indian government will have to address the issues of alienation and injustice before it can initiate any confidence building measure to appease people of the north-east but people will have to wait till the Sangradhan takes effect and once Sangradhan proves effective the government will have to initiate several other steps that include: •Local self government •Constitutional recognition to language and culture •Economic and financial reforms which include educating people about banking services and micro financing •Sharing benefits with local populace •Withdrawal of rules like AFSPA •Accountability of leaders Another set of approach to connect the north east to the rest of India includes promoting digitalization of the entire north east region by boosting their internet facility to overcome the challenge of their rugged terrain. Promoting online trade and commerce, online health services, online education, online travel, hotel reservations and online cultural dissemination would not only help improve awareness and relations with the north east region but will also increase their GDP thus increase the income of the people brightening their economy. Transportation reforms by the government are also a must taking intranational and international trade into account by constructing stable bridges across the region and helipads for helicopter landings. The media coverage of the stock markets, cultural festivals, wildlife, insurgencies and crimes, should be made adequate and individual for each state included in the “Sunrise States”. This will help people to get a clearer picture of the current affairs. Film makers and directors should make more use of the aesthetic values embedded in the north east region and they should be supported by the government. Tourism in the north east India is an important source of income and should be enhanced in various fields which include • Cultural tourism • Religious tourism • Wildlife tourism • Aesthetic tourism • Technological tourism •Food Tourism •Medical Tourism These can be further achieved by planning online holiday packages and hotel bookings. Another important tool to heighten their popularity is by publicizing their traditional and historical treasures and targeting their cottage industries to commence their commerce. Only when we take all these things into account and implement them properly shall the north east see an era of development and peace. Pg. 10
  • 15. Books • Maoists and other armed conflicts by Chenoy - D.D Basu • Constitution of India • NCERT class 7-10 (Social Studies) • Directive principles of state policy (Article 36-50)  Online resources • Directorate of Economics & Statistics of respective State Governments and CSO. • India’s North-East Diversifying Growth Opportunities (PWC 2013) • Rebirth of e-Commerce in India • ICT enabled development and digital divide : An Indian perspective • Model e-villages in north east India: an ICT project for development in remote tribal areas • Regional Research institute for Ayurveda (CCRAS) • NISCAIR • India Risk Survey 2013 • Korea Offering Opportunities •Textiles & Costumes (.ppt) • India’s North-East Diversifying Growth Opportunities (PWC 2013) • http://mines.nic.in/index.aspx?level=1&lid=25&lang=1 (Ministry of Mines) • http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/JMAP/article/view/4382 (Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) • Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) • http://www.icar.org.in/csicar/assam.htm Indian Council for Agricultural Research • http://databank.nedfi.com/content/north-east-india • http://censusindia.gov.in/

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