Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Sowing Prosperity : Boosting agricultural productivity SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION: Solution to boost productivity in agriculture sector Team Details Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow •Anurag Bhaskar •Aditya Shankar Pandey •Chandan Maheshwari •Fahd Malik •Smriti 1
  2. 2. It is strange that food- the most fundamental requirement of human beings, which also forms the bulk of our agriculture produce- is largely considered an unrewarding sector in the nation. 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 Sector-wise GDP share Sector- wise GDP share •3 out of every 4 Indian rural dwellers are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. •8 out of every 10 Below Poverty Line(BPL) families in India reside in villages. The Share of rural economy in India Agriculture 55% Industry & Manufacturing 21% Services 24% Growing enough food is important because food output has to match the growing population. 2
  3. 3. Low Productivity of Indian Agriculture •The area of cultivated land per cultivator has declined from 0.43 hectare in 1901 to 0.23 hectare in 1981 despite an expansion of area under cultivation. HYPOTHESIS- Agricultural sector has become overcrowded by high population and this has adversely affected the agricultural productivity. • The co-operatives and other institutional agencies have not been able to eliminate the village money lenders. Storage facilities for farmers are not still available to preserve their agricultural product for a better price. HYPOTHESIS- Shortage of finance, marketing and storage facilities are also responsible for agricultural backwardness in India. •If monsoon becomes favorable, we have a good crop. HYPOTHESIS- Indian agriculture is dependent on rainfall. •Indian agriculture is a gamble in monsoon due to non availability of irrigation facilities. In spite of several measures, irrigation has not substantially increased in India. •The technique of production adopted by Indian farmers is old, outdated and inefficient. The tradition-bound poor farmers have not yet been able to adopt the modern methods to get the best yield from their land. The seeds they use are of poor quality and the age- old, traditional wooden plough still exists in Indian agriculture. The farmers do not enjoy the benefits of agricultural research and development programmes. They consider agriculture as a way of life rather than a business proposition. Therefore, production remains at a low level. •The small size of holdings in India is an impediment in the way of progressive agriculture. The average size of holdings in India is less than 2 hectares. In case of very small firms, it is difficult to introduce new technology. Further, due to fragmentation of holdings a great deal of labour and energy is destroyed in cultivation. •The agrarian structure in India is not conducive for a progressive agriculture. The tendril relationships were such that the big landlords used to have a considerable influence on their respective areas. The actuarial cultivator had known incentive for improvement and more production. Though the zamindari system has been abolished, absentee landlordism still prevails; heavy rents are still extracted and there is no security of tenancy. Under these circumstances, it is unwise to expect any remarkable increase in agricultural productivity due to the apathetic attitude of the tillers of the land. 3 The first Green Revolution has yet to reach large parts of the country - especially dry land areas, where poverty incidence and farming risk tend to be highest.
  4. 4. India’s heart resides in its villages, and just like a doctor whose work begins with the diagnosis of the heartbeat, the planning and execution of any policy for the nation of a billion, has to begin with the learning derived from its 600,000 villages. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam 4 Main points of the Proposed Model •Soil characterization •Matching the seeds •Fertilizer management (organic farming) •Water Management •Drip irrigation: having water consumption •Training •Cultivation •Food processing •Marketing India now has to embark on the second Green Revolution. Input Side (Higher Production) •Research into high- yielding varieties seeds •Access to credit •Transfer of farm technology •Matching into local conditions Infrastructure(Better Access & Storage) •Quality Power Supply •Physical & Electronic Connectivity for efficient Transport Markets(Better Returns) •Processing & value addition •Additional applications for traditional crops Sustainability •Water management- both demand & supply •Organic cultivation •Use of less land, less soil, less pesticides Input Side (Higher Production) Infrastructure (Better Access & Storage) Market (Better Returns) Ecology (Sustainability) Focal Areas in our model
  5. 5. 5 1st Green Revolution 2nd Green Revolution •Seed •Fertilizers •Water Management •Training Farmers •Cultivation management •Harvest and post- harvest •Output= 200 Million ton grain •Soil Characterization •Matching the seeds •Fertilizer management ( organic farming) •Water management •Halving water consumption •Training •Post-harvesting •Food processing •Marketing •Target Output= 400 Million tons Grain COMPARING THE TWO GREEN REVOLUTIONS •The 2nd Green Revolution focuses on matching soil to seed, and product to market. •Other characteristics include- better use of resources, diversifying products, changing mindsets of farmers. •In the ‘60s and ‘70s the priority was to resolve food shortages, and environmental issues were poorly understood. Today we have a clearer understanding of how to monitor, control – even reverse – land and water degradation. The important technologies required for Second Green Revolution include: Soil Matching- Modern sensors will be used to examine the soil and find out its deficiencies and excesses. Excessive salts will be neutralized by biological treatment and deficiencies will be rectified by adding supplements. Water technologies- Technologies like drip irrigation, using microelectronic circuits to control irrigation, will be increased. Crop rotation & better seeds- Multiple cropping and judicious crop rotation will help in protecting the soil. High yielding and hybrid seeds available nowadays ,will be used to give new and varied types of genetically improved seeds. Fertilizers & pesticides- Biotechnology will be used in creating organic fertilizers. Biological control of pests will be done. Agriculture technology would assist the Indian farmers so that they need to hire fewer workers, as there will be growth in the services and industrial sector and people will move to these sectors to earn more money. IN BRIEF- •Grass root level technology transfer to the under privileged farming community. •Conservation agriculture through land management, integrated nutrient management, comprehensive pest and disease management, water resource management including in situ conservation. •Farm friendly cost effective tools and machineries development, introduction and usage. •Crop rotation including marketable alternate crops. •Monitoring pesticide residue levels in agro foods for compliance to food safety norms. •Facilitation of bank credit • Market tie-up. •Facilitation of agriculture support systems.
  6. 6. 6 Steps required- First of all, the Parliament of India should pass a unanimous resolution that India will adopt 2nd green revolution in the coming years. Investment. Greater investment is essential. The government’s role would be to facilitate such investment, and also to provide oversight to ensure fairness and transparency. Research centers and universities must work with agribusiness to develop products for specific markets. We also need greater integration between agriculture and industry, e.g. establishing food processing plants near production areas, linking farmers directly to buyers, reducing the role of middlemen ― in short, creating an efficient value chain. Policies. The country must move from consumption subsidies to capital subsidies to encourage farmers to invest in new technologies and equipment. Subsidies on water, electricity and fertilizer were crucial to the Green Revolution, but led to severe environmental consequences. These subsidies must be phased out, and replaced with targeted subsidies to encourage the adoption of new technologies that use resources more efficiently. 2nd GREEN REVOLUTION Policies Research integration Investment We need to create a single chain linking every step from inputs and farm equipment to production to food processing and retail. We also need to link research and extension into this chain. This will require integration at multiple levels. Research integration. The emphasis must shift from commodity-oriented or disciplinary research to multidisciplinary, farming-systems-based programs. We need not only new varieties and crop management methods but also innovations for crop planning, warehousing and food processing. Researchers must not only resolve current problems, but also anticipate and forestall future ones such as the impacts of climate change on dry land agriculture.
  7. 7. 7 Implementing the plan •VILLAGE AWARENESS MEETINGS (To be initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India) •DEMONSTRATION FARMS to be started •COMPREHENSIVE SOIL TESTING •LAND PREPARATION The division will engaged in agriculture technology transfer initiatives. As a first step, street corner meetings will be conducted at village level to create awareness about the present status of agriculture in their respective locations, the problems faced by farmers, technological interventions available and the need to apply those technologies. The meetings would be participatory. The village awareness meetings will be used to identify lead farmers for technology adoption. 100 farmers from each village will be shortlisted first. Once the lead farmers are shortlisted, Demonstration Farms will established in farmers’ fields to showcase the benefits of technology adoption The soil from the farms of lead farmers will tested comprehensively for all the 12 essential nutrients apart from other fertility determining parameters. It includes testing for pH, Electrical Conductivity, Organic Matter %, CEC, % Base Saturation, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Zinc, Manganese, Iron Copper, Boron and Sodium. Based on the test results, the scientific experts will make integrated nutrient prescriptions including organic, bio and inorganic inputs specific to the crop chosen by farmers. General prescriptions for the suitability of soil to crop based on the test results will also made. Land preparation forms an important part of our model. Deep tilling using chisel plough up to 1 ½ - 2 ft depth is advocated. Flat bed as well as raised bed cultivation is advised based on crop choice and topography of the land. Special purpose tools like direct seeder, seed cum fertilizer drill, tropiculture, Rice Transplanter will also be extended to the farmers Establishment and promotion of following would be done to implement the idea of second green revolution.
  8. 8. 8 The farmers are trained and their capacity is built to adopt the modern technologies. Training in the form of classroom interactions, field visits etc are extended to the farmers for better implementation of technologies Apart from establishing the demonstration farms, NAF offers field extension services to such farms with periodic monitoring for inter-cultivation and pest management strategies. Mid course actions are suggested and hand holding services are offered to the farmers The farmers are advised to follow water saving irrigation methods like alternate wetting and drying, raised bed / broad bed irrigation, skip furrow irrigation depending upon the crop chosen. Creation Awareness Usage Feedback and measurable impact Planning •TRAINING •FARM TECHNICAL ADVICE •IMPROVED IRRIGATION METHODS •FARMERS’ CLUBS To promote technology adoption, the farmers will be organized to form Farmers Clubs in each village. These Clubs will be supported by NABARD. The farmers clubs will help disseminating knowledge and technology to more farmers in short period of time as they are organized.
  9. 9. 9 Funding strategy Substitution of Irrelevant Items from Annual Budget Allocation towards Agriculture Funds are being allocated to many areas in the agricultural sector that are not relevant anymore. The Budget should be adjusted to implement the newer, much-relevant changes proposed. Pooling of Funds from Farmers’ Resources Farmers that become members of the farmers’ clubs would be asked to pool their resources so that economies of scale regarding seeds, machines, training and research for newer ways of improving food quality and quantity can be availed of. This idea needs to be marketed by the govt. so as to inform the farmers that this policy is for their own benefit. Agricultural Bonds The government would issue in the market agricultural bonds at a suitable interest for private persons, which will be an investment for them. This would achieve the three-fold objective of 1. Agricultural sector will be commercialized. 2. Private funds will be raised without pressure on government to do the same. 3. The right of the tiller over the land and resources will not be lost. Collectivization of Farm Resources and Equipment Apart from pooling of funds, heavy machinery, fertilizers, seeds and research fee would be shared by farmers and would be community property and initiative, without control exercised by the government. Thus, incentive of ownership to farmers will not be compromised and still, the goal of having co-ordination in the sector would be achieved.
  10. 10. 10 If cultivation of land is continued without conservation of soil fertility and replacement of large local varieties of plants with one or two varieties, then there will be a disastrous effect, so we must have a ‘Evergreen Revolution’ in terms of increasing productivity without perpetuating any associated ecological harm IMPACT AND REACH • Access to input markets and quality input • Improving the yield and reducing the risks • Confluence of technology & agriculture • Access to incentives for better farming practices • Securities against weather anomalies Production •Storage & transport chians •Aggregation facilities •Technological matching and sustainability Processing • Establishing higher value proposition for better returns • Management of waste products and their economic utilization Marketing Reach- 600,00 villages of India More than 300 million Below Poverty Line (BPL) people to be affected Sustainable development in the agriculture sector to be achieved
  11. 11. 11 Challenges and Mitigation Factors Concept Risks •Second Green Revolution may take a long time to show its effect. •Use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides would not stop at one go. •Farmers might not adopt technology for farming. •The Government should provide incentives to farmers that they should continue practicing second green revolution till successful results are obtained. •Use of chemical fertilizers will be slowly reduced along with adoption of organic farming. •Farmers will be given education about technological farming through village camps and on spot solutions will be given by experts. Mitigating factors Implementation challenges •Indigenous pest control methods are not fool proof. •Purchasing of seeds by farmers will not be easy. •Assessment of water consumption would be difficult. •The government can look into the method used by Amway Corporation in controlling pests. •Seed conservation and manure production: Collection of fruit, vegetable & other organic waste from each household thereby segregating organic and non- organic waste. •Appointment of district agriculture committees headed by BDO level state employees.
  12. 12. 12 Appendix References •Economic Survey of India, 2010-11, Statistical Appendix •Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, ed. Solomon H. Katz, Vol.2 (Gale Cengage, 2003) •‘India: Reducing Poverty in India: Options for More Effective Public services’, documents of the World Bank, 1998. •Data from Sikkim Organic Mission, available at •B.R. Shah, ‘ Gujarat Agriculture: Prospects and Problems’, in Dholakia (ed.), Frontiers of Agricultural Development in Gujarat. •‘Agricultural Policy Reform in Brazil’. OECD Policy Brief. October 2005 •‘Agricultural Policy Reform in China’. OECD Policy Brief. October 2005
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.